Method of detoxication of rocket propellant in soil and water media

FIELD: war materiel and chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of sorbent-catalyst whose base is made from cereals husk with oxidizing agents in form of metallurgical sludge in solution of ortho-phosphoric acid applied over husk.

EFFECT: enhanced ecological situation; enhanced efficiency of detoxicant of soils and water media contaminated with spilled heptyl.

2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and can be used in emergency situations, related to the Straits of rocket fuel: unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) and products of its transformation (NDMA (NDMA), tetramethylpyrazine (TMT), as well as treatment of soil in places separating speed boosters. The invention can be applied also in detoxification aquatic environments: lakes, pools and other water bodies.

UDMH and products of its transformation are highly toxic and stable compounds (the Handbook of toxicology and hygienic standards (EQS) of potentially hazardous substances (development of the Institute of Biophysics and its affiliates), M, ed. AT, 1999, 272 S.).

UDMH belongs to the 1st class of hazard, the maximum allowable concentration ( MAC ) for ponds is 0.02 mg/l, the remote control for soil - 0.1 mg/kg NDMA is more toxic compound. MPC for ponds is 0.01 mg/l in food - 0.003 mg/kg UDMH freezes when -57°C and boils at +216°C. Usually fully UDMH evaporates in the interval 209-346 K.

Decomposition of UDMH proceeds at 908 To:

In the case of decomposition of UDMH oxygen leads to the formation of more stable compounds - imine:

External factors such as ultraviolet radiation, salts of heavy metals or metals catalyze the reaction of oxidation of UDMH oxygen to methane, nitrogen and water (Urry W.H., Olsen, A.I., Bensen E.M., Autooxidation of 1,1-dimetylhydrazine, U.S.Nevel Ordnace, Test Station, TP3903, China Lake, California, 1965, p. 38).

Salts of copper (reagent Fehling's reagents is a mixture of the chlorides of copper and ammonium or silver) is used for qualitative determination of UDMH. Quantitative determination of UDMH is carried out by oxidizing them with salt HgSO4or CuSO4.

In the presence of traces of copper ions and other heavy metals UDMH interacts with bleach:

Atmospheric oxygen slowly oxidizes hydrazine and its derivatives are already at low temperatures. When hit UDMH on the developed surface oxidation is accelerated and can occur inflammation (W.E. Schmidt, Hydrazine and its derivatives, preparation, properties, application, J. Wiley and sons, N. Y., 1984, p.1059.):

Various methods of detoxification UDMH and products of its transformation in soil and water environments. Most of these ways is at the early stage of research development and the creation of a reliable and relatively cheap technology is an important task.

The most common method is detoxification with the help of active chlorine generated when diluted with water, bleach and molecular chlorine. Detoxification UDMH and so the products of its transformation in the other group of methods is performed with the use of atomic oxygen, obtained by the decomposition of ozone, peroxides of sodium, calcium and hydrogen. As oxidizers can be used nitric acid.

The main disadvantage of the above methods is the use of expensive and highly reactive compounds that cause the need for disposal of their surplus and their corrosion ability.

Closest to the claimed method is the use of peat sorbent-catalyst (TJC) (Report MSU No. 17/1-00 from 1.06.2000, About the research work in the framework of OCD. "The creation of a system of ecological security of the area separating the parts of rockets and launchers and environmental monitoring of the cosmodrome "Baikonur".). According to the developed technology for detoxification of the proposed mixing peat impregnated with a solution of orthophosphoric acid, waste management charge, which is accumulated in the production of welding electrodes.

For the preparation of the sorbent-catalyst is used peat standards GOST 13672-76 or THE 0391-005-02-983389-95. Waste mixture for coating metal welding electrodes brands TML are particles less than 0.5 mm, This multicomponent mixture contains 33-36% marble, 22-34% fluorspar, 9-13% of sodium silicate, 0.5% cement 1% soda ash, and the rest - ferrites (titanium, manganese, vanadium, molybdenum, n is Obi) and/or metals chromium, manganese, titanium in the form of pure powdered product or oxides.

Upon receipt of the sorbent-catalyst use water technical, phosphoric acid technical GOST 10678-76, sulfuric acid technical GOST 2184-77, oxalic acid GOST 22180-76.

Sorbent-catalyst is prepared by mixing phosphoric acid and a mixture of peat and waste mixture for 30-40 minutes Received sorbent-catalyst has the following composition: peat - 150 kg, the charge is 1.5 kg, the acid solution is 53 kg Consumption of sorbent at making it in the ploughed plots soil is 10.3 kg/m2. The average thickness of the layer of sorbent - 3 see

However, the use of sorbent-catalyst based on peat and the charge in the process of detoxification of the soil revealed a number. the disadvantages. First, this drug has mixed activity against UDMH and products of its transformation. Its action is confined mostly to the accumulation (absorption) in the mass of these toxicants. When changing ambient conditions (ambient temperature, excess moisture, solar radiation, and many others) the absorption process is reversible, which leads, according to the analysis results, to increase the concentration of the components of rocket fuel in a number of selected soil samples.

The oxidizing effect of the reagents on UDMH to molecules is REGO nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide occurs along with the formation of the products of its transformation, in particular NDMA (Ioffe I.V., Kuznetsov M.A., Board A.A. Chemistry of organic derivatives of hydrazine. L.: Chemistry , 1979, 224 S.).

This sorbent-catalyst can be used only for detoxification of the soil. On UDMH and its derivatives in wash and other aquatic environments TJC has no effect. Moreover, in connection with the modernization and creation of waste-free technology for the production of electrodes, the charge ceases to be waste and is used in the process.

Proposed as a replacement of the charge mixture of individual transition metal salts, per 1 ton of sorbent (kg): FeCl3· 6H2O - 8,3; KMnO4to 0.3; MnSO4· 5H2O - 0,2; CuSO4· 7H2O - 0,15; Cr(NO3)3·6N2About to 0.15; (NH4)4Mo2O6- 0,1, mark "analytical grade", which is dissolved in water and added to the sorbent in the form of a 15-20% solution has a high cost. Some of these salts are inaccessible. When applying these salts on the sorbent and subsequent drying allocated hydrogen chloride, which has toxic properties.

The proposed sorbent-catalyst as the base is a mixture of husks of cereals (rice and/or wheat) after threshing, the grain is soaked in an aqueous solution of orthophosphoric acid, the grinding electrolysis slime, formed after the refining of copper on copper-smelting plant.

The slurry has the following composition (THE 1733-001-00194688-95), % wt.: Cu - 5,02, Bi - 0,589, Mo - 0,750, WO3- 0,265, R - Is 0.135, SiO2,- 4,56, S - 28,33, Mn - 0,065, As - 1-2, Sn - 0,013, TiO2- 0,03, CaO - 6,15, MgO - 0,362, Fe2O3- 33,32, Pb - 0,613, Zn - 2,68.

Au - 25-32 g/tAg - 107-130 g/tIn - 37 g/t
Cd - 215 g/tSe - 65-130 g/tThose 80-200 g/so

The main objective when developing a new sorbent-catalyst, is the creation of a universal catalytic system, which would allow increasing the degree of detoxification UDMH and products of its transformation in various natural environments - soil and water. The catalyst for widespread use can be obtained from cheap, available raw materials, representing waste from agricultural and industrial production. The production of such a catalyst can be made by a simple process flow that does not require significant capital expenditures. Along with these factors, the catalyst should have a high activity, i.e. the ability of the high speed to reduce the concentration of UDMH and products of its transformation to the maximum allowable level. The products of transformation should be an ecologically b is safe connection and not just absorbed (accumulated) on the surface of the sorbent-catalyst.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the proposed method of detoxification of rocket fuel in soil and water environments comprises introducing sorbent-catalyst, wherein the soil or the aquatic environment is treated with a sorbent-catalyst, based on the husk of cereals, which caused suspension of finely milled slurry electrolysis production of copper in an aqueous solution of orthophosphoric acid, taken in the ratio of 5-25 wt.%. sorbent-catalyst on the contaminated soil and the aquatic environment.

To assess the validity of the proposed sorbent-catalyst in a dedicated area contaminated UDMH, area 1×1 m2tests conducted on the effects of sorbent-catalyst of the following composition: 10% slurry electrolysis production, 89% husk of cereals (rice), and 1% phosphoric acid. Sludge electrolytic production of pre-crushed to about 0.1-0.3 mm

Summary of the invention the action of the sorbent-catalyst on soil and water containing UDMH, reflected in the examples below.

1 kg of the powder slurry was thoroughly mixed with 8.9 kg air-dry husk. Then 0.1 kg of orthophosphoric acid dissolved in 1 l of water and the resulting solution was moistened mixture of husk and going and. From the skilled plot, contaminated UDMH, pre, a sample was taken for analysis, and the plot was covered with a layer of the prepared sorbent-catalyst thickness of about 3 cm, mixed with soil and after 24 hours a sample was taken for analysis. Further sampling was performed 1 time per week for one month.

In experiments on detoxification of aqueous solutions in two flasks with a capacity of 2 liters was placed in 1 l of river water and was made by 5,24 and 2.26 mg/l UDMH. To each flask was added 50 grams of the finished sorbent-catalyst.

Table 1 presents the results for the detoxification of contaminated soil UDMH, using sorbent-catalyst on the basis of the husk and sludge and prototype (based on peat and waste production of electrodes).

Table 2 shows the results for the detoxification of aqueous solutions contaminated with UDMH, using sorbent-catalyst on the basis of cereal (rice) husk. In solution 1 liter made 50 g rice sorbent-catalyst containing electrolytic sludge copper production and phosphoric acid. It should be noted that the content of NDMA in water solutions No. 1 (5,24 mg/l) and # 2 (of 2.26 mg/l) increases slightly. So, if on the 5th day NDMA content was 0.5 and 0.09 mg/l, on the 14th day of sampling, these figures amounted to 0.62 and 0.34 mg/l, respectively.

Table 1

Comparative results for the detoxification of contaminated soil UDMH using sorbent-catalyst on the basis of cereal (rice) husk and peat (prototype) in time
The day of the samplingConcentration, mg/kgChanging the initial concentrations of UDMH and NDMA respect to the source, % wt
UDMHNDMAUDMHNDMAUDMHNDMAUDMHNDMA
The inventive sorbent-catalystThe placeholderThe inventive sorbent-catalystThe placeholder
0x1,30,981,7n/a100100100-
10,340,620,9n/a7437 47-
5(3)xx0,160,183,4n/a8882saturation-
10(7)0,1250,02n/an/a90,498--
11(22)0,11-0,150,9920-93
140,09--0950--
xPresents initial concentration of UDMH and NDMA to make sorbent-catalyst
xxDay of sampling analysis for sorbent-catalyst based on peat and waste production of electrodes

Table 2

The results for the detoxification of aqueous solutions contaminated with UDMH, using sorbent-catalyst on the basis of cereal (rice) husk in time
The day of the samplingSolution No. 1 with the original concentration of UDMH of 5.24 mg/lSolution No. 2 with the original concentration of UDMH and 2.26 mg/lChanges in the concentration of UDMH in relation to the original, wt.%
analysisSolution 1Solution 2
1.4,221,7119,524,3
2.3,681,4629,835,4
53,141,0840,152,2
72,420,9453,858,4
81,830,7364,767,7
102,010,5261,677,0
131,420,4372,980,9
141,220,3176,786,3

The method of detoxification of rocket fuel in soil and water environments, including the speaker making sorbent-catalyst, characterized in that the soil or the aquatic environment is treated with a sorbent-catalyst, based on the husk of cereals, which caused finely milled slurry slurry electrolysis production of copper in an aqueous solution of orthophosphoric acid, taken in the ratio of 5-25 wt.% sorbent-catalyst on the contaminated soil and the aquatic environment.



 

Same patents:

Filtration device // 2262976

FIELD: water filtration.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in liquid filters, mainly, jug-type filters for cleaning drinking water. Proposed filtration device consists of housing filled with filtering material and provided with at least one outlet hole in base, cover with holes to let in water and let out air, and at least one locking device arranged between housing and cover. Said locking is furnished with at least one valve.

EFFECT: improved reliability and service characteristics of device.

15 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: methods of sewage purification.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a method of sewage purification. Before feeding of the sewage into a prepit it is passing through a placed in the crossway direction lattice for trapping the floating refuse and through a located in the prepit floating bon made from the oil products sorbing material and having an arch-shaped form. After a gating the water through a section with the highest water greenery the water passes through a mobile filter with a sorbent loading to provide a possibility of sorption during a non-vegetable season of biogenous matters and heavy metals. The depth of the prepit is exceeding the average depth of the water reservoir for settling of the large suspended matters and drift. The technical effect is an increased efficiency of purification due to a possibility to conduct it in extreme conditions (flooding of great volumes of oil products and other contaminants at accidents on roads and bridges), and also in spring-winter conditions (non-vegetative period).

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased efficiency of purification conducted in usual and in extreme conditions.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: methods of sewage purification.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a method of sewage purification. Before feeding of the sewage into a prepit it is passing through a placed in the crossway direction lattice for trapping the floating refuse and through a located in the prepit floating bon made from the oil products sorbing material and having an arch-shaped form. After a gating the water through a section with the highest water greenery the water passes through a mobile filter with a sorbent loading to provide a possibility of sorption during a non-vegetable season of biogenous matters and heavy metals. The depth of the prepit is exceeding the average depth of the water reservoir for settling of the large suspended matters and drift. The technical effect is an increased efficiency of purification due to a possibility to conduct it in extreme conditions (flooding of great volumes of oil products and other contaminants at accidents on roads and bridges), and also in spring-winter conditions (non-vegetative period).

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased efficiency of purification conducted in usual and in extreme conditions.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of active control of parameters of a liquid treatment electrochemical process.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to an electrolytic treatment of a liquid, for example water, with ions of a metal, mainly silver. The offered method of active control is based on the choice of the original timing and the current of a liquid treatment in compliance with Faraday's laws. After beginning of the treatment process conduct a measurement of the speed of the change of voltage on the electrodes which acts as a complex index mirroring the change of electrical conductance of the liquid between the electrodes at its treatment with ions of a metal. The indicated index depends on parameters of the treated water and is proportional to productivity of the electrolyzer by a mass of the dissolved metal per a unit of time. Depending on the value and the sign of the voltage change speed conduct a correction of the current of the electrolyzer and-or the time of treatment and seek a stability of the produced concentration of ions of silver in the water. The technical result is simplification of the process of the active control at the expense of exclusion of multiple sensors as well as operations of the regular gauging and maintenance of the ions selective sensor under condition of maintenance of stability of the achieved level of concentration of a metal ions in the liquid.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the process of the active control, stability of the achieved level of concentration of a metal ions in the liquid.

FIELD: methods of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the processes of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw with a recycling of the waste condensation moisture and may be used at production of a steam of a dilution from the waste water condensate. Conduct a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw. The polluted condensate expose to 3-stage physical and chemical treatment. Purification of the condensate from dispersible impurities is conducted by their settling with the help of mineral coagulants on the basis of hydrolyzed salts of iron and aluminum in a combination with additives of flocculants and alkali. Then the condensation moisture is exposed to adsorption purification from of light hydrocarbons using a direct steam. Conduct afterpurification from the dissolved hydrocarbons by filtrating through active coals. At the stage of production of the steam a steam generator boiler water is added with dozed phosphates with concentration of 0.2-2 mg/l and carry out blowing of the water within the limits of 2-5 %. The technical result of the invention is decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: methods of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the processes of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw with a recycling of the waste condensation moisture and may be used at production of a steam of a dilution from the waste water condensate. Conduct a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw. The polluted condensate expose to 3-stage physical and chemical treatment. Purification of the condensate from dispersible impurities is conducted by their settling with the help of mineral coagulants on the basis of hydrolyzed salts of iron and aluminum in a combination with additives of flocculants and alkali. Then the condensation moisture is exposed to adsorption purification from of light hydrocarbons using a direct steam. Conduct afterpurification from the dissolved hydrocarbons by filtrating through active coals. At the stage of production of the steam a steam generator boiler water is added with dozed phosphates with concentration of 0.2-2 mg/l and carry out blowing of the water within the limits of 2-5 %. The technical result of the invention is decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: methods of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the processes of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw with a recycling of the waste condensation moisture and may be used at production of a steam of a dilution from the waste water condensate. Conduct a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw. The polluted condensate expose to 3-stage physical and chemical treatment. Purification of the condensate from dispersible impurities is conducted by their settling with the help of mineral coagulants on the basis of hydrolyzed salts of iron and aluminum in a combination with additives of flocculants and alkali. Then the condensation moisture is exposed to adsorption purification from of light hydrocarbons using a direct steam. Conduct afterpurification from the dissolved hydrocarbons by filtrating through active coals. At the stage of production of the steam a steam generator boiler water is added with dozed phosphates with concentration of 0.2-2 mg/l and carry out blowing of the water within the limits of 2-5 %. The technical result of the invention is decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: methods of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the processes of a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw with a recycling of the waste condensation moisture and may be used at production of a steam of a dilution from the waste water condensate. Conduct a pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw. The polluted condensate expose to 3-stage physical and chemical treatment. Purification of the condensate from dispersible impurities is conducted by their settling with the help of mineral coagulants on the basis of hydrolyzed salts of iron and aluminum in a combination with additives of flocculants and alkali. Then the condensation moisture is exposed to adsorption purification from of light hydrocarbons using a direct steam. Conduct afterpurification from the dissolved hydrocarbons by filtrating through active coals. At the stage of production of the steam a steam generator boiler water is added with dozed phosphates with concentration of 0.2-2 mg/l and carry out blowing of the water within the limits of 2-5 %. The technical result of the invention is decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures decreased material inputs, increased efficiency of water purification, averting of a coking up of the equipment.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: environment protection, particularly to remove oil spills during oil production, transportation and storage.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging operative booms formed as cotton or synthetic textile mats and filled with cleaning composition on water surface. The cleaning composition includes alumosilicates, organic substances and fertilizers taken in the following percentage: alumosilcates - 2-2.5, organic substances - 55-96, fertilizers - 2-20. Water aeration and/or bottom precipitation flotation is performed during cleaning process. The contaminated booms are self-cleaned by placing thereof on polluted ground.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of water cleaning, increased ecological safety.

1 ex

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a plant for reusing oil-containing wastes obtained from washing of oil storage tanks to produce secondary fuel. Plant has caisson for stratification of pollutants, waste-supply pumps, conduits with shutoff gate valves to discharge finished product, cleaning solution, and sludge. Plant is further provided with second caisson for purifying spent oil and heated third caisson to prepare stratifying solution, which caisson has bubbling pump, and, connected to both caissons, ejector mixer for mixing stratification agent with water and valve gate positioned between caissons. Bubbling pump is connected to first and second caissons through conduits with shutoff gate valves and first and second caissons are connected through shutoff gate valves to third caisson and to mixer for mixing purified mazut with purified motor oil, which mixer is provided with outlet tube for finished product.

EFFECT: achieved high quality of cleaning tanks by repetitive use of cleaning solution and leading to production of secondary fuel.

1 dwg

FIELD: decontamination of technological spillage of liquids containing highly toxic component of rocket propellant-1,1 dimethyl hydrozine.

SUBSTANCE: layer of schungite material is poured on floor or site where spillage is expected to occur. Used as schungite material is material obtained from schungite rock of III kind at mass content of carbon of 25-35% and dispersity of 0.5-5.0 mm; schungite material is poured in layer of 10-25 cm.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of decontamination; facilitated procedure.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental pollution control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.

EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.

16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing into soil contaminated with oil or oil products ameliorant, such as complex of aluminosilicate mineral and nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer; plowing soil to depth of at least 25-30 cm.

EFFECT: reduced soil recultivation time and decreased consumption nitrogen-phosphate additives.

2 ex

The invention relates to the production of uglechaninov and Tortuguero drugs, flocculants, coagulants, ameliorants, soil conditioners, fertilizers, and gumina-mineral substances with surface-active ion, chelating, complexing, and biologically active properties and can be used in environmental engineering

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection, in particular to the purification of natural and man-made materials, and most can be effectively used when cleaning clay soils containing radioactive and toxic substances

The invention relates to the environment, specifically to the treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum substances, and can be used for restoration of soil fertility in agriculture and for soil where the most probable pollution associated with the extraction, production, transportation and storage of petroleum products in order to increase ecological safety

The invention relates to the production of artificial mineral mixtures intended for disposal and lithification sludge, especially liquid and viscoplastic drill cuttings and waste drilling fluids, various oil-contaminated objects, in particular of the soil, etc

The invention relates to the field of decontamination of chemical warfare agents, namely to develop a method of decontamination of soils contaminated with adamsite and products of its transformation

The invention relates to the purification of natural and man-made materials contaminated with radioactive and toxic substances

The invention relates to environmental protection, public utilities, and in particular to methods of wastewater treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) and can be used mainly in the warm period (spring-summer-autumn) when the air temperature is not below 0o

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides porous material with adsorption power about 20-30% based on the dry weight of adsorbent, which has 47-52 wt % of composite structure consisting of silicon and carbon containing about 12-20% carbon, about 5-7% hydroxyl, and 1-2% oxygen. Material is prepared by mixing clayey compounds having different grain size distributions, impregnating resulting mixture with acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture to form gel, and mixing the latter with additional products followed by drying and compaction. Invention also provides apparatuses to implement the method as well as to use thus obtained material for processing of gaseous medium used in storage of food products.

EFFECT: enabled chemical conversion of volatile organics into nontoxic gas.

28 cl, 6 dwg

Up!