Method for treating boundary psychic disorders and states of addiction
FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy.
SUBSTANCE: one should analyze anamnesis, perform rational psychotherapy and curative psychotherapeutic impact in patient's active state. Moreover, one should diagnose individual disadaptive cognitive-behavioral style of patient's psychological reactions to negative factors, with the help of which the patient process these negative factors, and, also, accompanying mimics and pantomimics. At the first stage of curative psychotherapeutic impact one should develop adaptive patient's integrative reactions to negative factors being contrast against disadaptive and being ahead by time of appearance with the help of a card, in the left side of which there is a text containing information on detected disadaptive cognitive-behavioral style, and in its right-hand part - text that contains opposite information about adaptive cognitive-behavioral style. Moreover, left-hand part should be deleted, patient should repeat it impressively, in one's mind, by imaging negative images along with mimics and pantomimics of disgust, and right-hand part should be spoken expressively loudly by strengthening it with positive images and combining it with adequate pronounced mimics and pantomimics. After learning the text one should cut the left-hand part of the card ff and throw and keep the right-hand part. At the second stage one should neutralize disadaptive cognitive-behavioral style with physical exercises, manipulations and pharmacological preparations that lead to negative feelings. At the third stage it is necessary to prepare a patient to apply developed adaptive integrative reactions under conditions of modeling the contact with negative factors with the help of successively performed visualization and role trainings. Therapy course consists of 7-10 seances of 1-2 h duration.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
The invention relates to medicine, namely to psychotherapy. Diseases of the 20th century moved into the age of 21, not only by changing its composition and the proportion among the different types centuries pathology of mankind, but DOPOLNITEL new diseases. Competence and the point of application of psychotherapy cover the entire range of these noogenic disorders and can be aimed at treatment and prevention. However, the Arsenal of such effects is still insufficient and requires further reinforced and strengthened.
There is a method of treatment of neurosis and border States (EN 2089231, CL IPC And 61 M 21/00, 1996), including individual and/or group psychotherapy, at the preliminary stage, which carried out the data collection and assessment of history, exploring the dynamics of somatic suffering, at the first stage of the session with regard to the diagnostic data and the etiology of the disorder by the method of rational psychotherapy perform sedative and distracting effect on the second stage, carried out a detailed psychotherapeutic effect, first in the waking state, and then in a state of hypnotic trance carry out a reasoned suggestion, including the clarification and activating suggestion of using course-reflex Podkrepa the Oia, at the third stage, create psychotherapeutic depot, and at the preliminary stage further define the dominant cerebral hemisphere of the patient and at stages of treatment in patients with left dominant hemisphere rational psychotherapy, suggestion, and the suggestion is carried out using slovenomakedonski aspect communications, and in patients with dominant right hemisphere - by perceptual-visual images, while at the final stage of the session in patients with left dominant hemisphere basic formulas suggestion reflex is associated with a deep sigh, and in patients with dominant right hemisphere - with a touch to his left shoulder and additionally at the conclusion of the patient with the right dominant hemisphere from a state of hypnotic trance they show a screen, painted green, with verbal suggestions help to present on-screen image of the ring after 5 minutes show the real picture of the ring on the screen, with each subsequent treatment session, the diameter of the ring is reduced and at the last session demonstrate the point. When conducting group psychotherapy group is formed so that it included patients with identical dominant hemisphere.
The disadvantage of this method is a one-sided approach that relies on it is fiziologicheskii principles of hemispheric asymmetry and theory of conditioned reflexes, which is only one of the fundamentals of human behavior and their role in the organization mainly simple behavioral acts. The method is not effective enough, because the occurrence of disorders for which treatment is intended due to problems at personal level, which hardly corrigida proposed methods.
Also known is a method of treatment of diseases caused by psychological dependence (application No. 97106416/14, CL IPC And 61 M 21/00, And 61 H 39/08, 1997), including the formation of the patient's state of tension which is created through advertising, conducting treatment, consisting of three parts, the first part of which methods of rational psychotherapy eliminate anosognosia, provide the patient a sense of unacceptability of that state in which it is located, and explain the possibility of exit from this state, the second part of the session, the patient is introduced into a light trance state and provide suggestive therapeutic effect, in the third part of the session form the desired emotional state by acupuncture in the background with words, music and visual images, continuing suggestive influence, inhibit pathogenic psychological factor, switch the patient's attention and reinforce the feeling that compensate for missing omponent psychoemotional sphere. Psychotherapeutic information the first part of the session include staged a performance lasting at least 60 minutes, a mandatory element of which are two lines of dark and light, dark line contains information relating to all manifestations of the disease and painful behavior, and the bright line interprets the necessary actions and recommendations for improvement, dark storyline implement on a background of red and/or blue and/or resembling moonlight lights and music minor and/or awesome content with a low voice, great reverb, sound effects provide a low voice, slowly, with awesome tone and light storyline implement on a background of white and/or pale pink lights, and/or uplifting music, sound effects operate in an emotionally warm style, the second part of the session, which lasts for at least 15 minutes, psychotherapeutic information the first part of the session is present in the form of a peremptory suggestion on the background of relaxing music, and the third part to be held not later than 34 minutes, after the end of the second part of the treatment, immediately after insertion of the needles, the patient wears headphones, through which he produces all auditory information for at least 20 min focus the patient's attention on the sensations under needles, suggesting that the b is the larger focus on these sensations, the stronger therapeutic effect, while verbal suggestion arrange musical compositions that were used in the first and second parts of the treatment session.
However, the method has several disadvantages that limit its use: it has no therapeutic effects on a deep Foundation of psychological dependence, labor intensive and requires material equipment - illuminated installation and additional knowledge psychotherapist acupuncture.
As the closest analogue of the adopted method for the treatment of borderline mental disorders and States dependencies using conditioned reflex therapy (Fedorov A.P. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. Saint-Petersburg.: "Peter", 2002, p.11-163), which includes an analysis of the history and rational psychotherapy. Its basis is theory of the conditioned reflex Pavlov explaining behavior as a result of "teaching and learning". In line with this, carry out the actual psychotherapeutic influence through positive reinforcement appropriate, consistent with the purposes of the treatment of behavior is adaptive or free manifestations dependencies using "tokens" - a pleasant for humans effects, praise, gifts, awards, etc. through negative reinforcement with unpleasant effects, grausig role disguised or explicit punishment, for example, using the criticism, ignore the allowable discharge electric current, etc. stimulate rejection of unwanted, inappropriate behavior against non-adaptable or associated with one or another form of addiction.
The disadvantages of this method are: the mechanism of approach and effects, a simplified, one-sided understanding of the fundamentals of human behavior as the amount of conditioned reflexes, a small representation of the cognitive-rational influences. In this regard, the patient is aware of the causes and nature of his illness. The method has a long duration of treatment, it is not possible to obtain a stable therapeutic effect.
The objective of the invention is to provide a highly efficient method for the treatment of borderline disorders and conditions of dependence, with more functionality and versatility to deliver in the short term more stable therapeutic effect.
The essence of the invention is that in the treatment of borderline mental disorders and addiction, including anamnesis, rational psychotherapy and psychotherapeutic treatment effect in the waking state of the patient, diagnose individual maladaptive cognitive-behavioral style psychological is eacci patient on negative factors, identifying the characteristics of formulations of a patient of his problem, its interpretation, concept, Association, terms and images through which he verbal processes and represents these negative factors, as well as accompanying facial expressions and pantomimic, at the first stage of medical psychotherapy patient form adaptive integrative response to negative factors, contrasting against against non-adaptable and ahead of their time of occurrence with the card, in the left part of which is placed a text containing information about the detected against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style, in the form of a formulation of the problem, its concepts, terms, associations and images, and in the right part of the text containing other information about adaptive cognitive-behavioral style, and the left part of the strike out, giving, thus, the dominant nature of the information located on the right side of the card, consistently working with text on the left and right parts; the left part of the patient pronounces impressive, himself, presenting negative images, accompanying their facial expressions and pantomimical disgust, and the right part speaks expressive aloud, reinforcing positive images and combining them with adequate expressive facial expressions and pantomimical, after after having learned the of text the left side of the card is cut off and discarded, symbolically demonstrating refusal against non-adaptable style, and the right to retain and carry, at the second stage completely neutralized against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style, making it negative reinforcement exercise, manipulation and pharmacological drugs that cause negative feelings, in the third stage, prepare the patient to use the generated adaptive integrative reactions under conditions simulating contact with the negative factors using pursued consistently visualization and role-play training, in the fourth stage undergo the effect of dynamic monitoring, and conducting the necessary correction of deviations from the adaptive cognitive-behavioral style, the treatment includes 7-10 sessions lasting 1-2 hours.
The use of the invention allows to obtain the following technical result.
The method is highly effective. The result is stable. The occurrence of a positive effect in the reduction of manifestations of borderline mental disorders and dependence observed in all patients at the first session, he steadily growing and is complemented by a positive change in their lives. Strong and stable therapeutic effect of dostigaetsja short time - for 7-10 days.
The method has a wide range of indications, including neurotic disorders, personality disorders and behavior, affective disorders, psychosomatic disorders, condition based food (anorexia nervosa and bulimia), substance abuse (alcoholism, drug addiction, substance abuse, tabagism), psychological dependence relative to individuals, as well as bad habits, and any other related disorders psychogenic factors.
Another use of this method is the psychological prevention of borderline mental disorders and addiction, the development of mentally healthy persons adaptive abilities, immunity to stressful influences, is inevitable in the life of every person.
Obtained in the treatment process skills aimed at application in real conditions, including imperceptibly, without interrupting the main activity or communication, especially in situations of immediate influence of negative factors that trigger abnormal behavior.
Contraindications to the use of this method are the only acute psychotic state and dementia.
Fashion has no age restrictions, available for most people as patients with borderline mental resstr isthmi, and almost healthy.
It is implemented in the form of sessions and psychological training includes special assignments, which performs the patient, and can be used alone or in combined therapy, with good compatibility with any other types of psychotherapy, psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy.
The method is harmless, no side effects, cost, requires little or no cost and can be used in medical and psychological institutions of any type.
The technical result is achieved due to the combination of cognitive psychotherapy impacts on deep conceptual bases of behavior with wide parallel coverage verbal-logical and psychosensory areas involving mechanisms somatopsychic (bodily and mental) interaction. In the treatment process through training and positive reinforcement achieve fixation of the patient's psychological reactions to integrate at all levels of mental organization adaptive pre reactions when confronted with stressful factors and other influences that provoke manifestations of the disease. While the manifestations against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style, which is the basis of borderline mental destroy the TV and conditions according reinforce negative reaching neutralize them. This allows to achieve sustainable rebuilding and replacing negative behaviors with positive, adaptive, precluding the development of this pathology.
The method is as follows.
After the establishment of adequate psychological contact with the patient, analyze the history and characteristics of a person, diagnosed associated with disease of the individual maladaptive cognitive-behavioral style psychological reactions of the patient to the negative factors, as well as accompanying facial expressions and pantomimic. The cognitive element of this style is a specific characteristic of this patient's way of understanding, interpreting, presenting a topical problems, traumatic and other significant for the development of disease factors, and underlying this understanding of the concept. The behavioral element includes deriving from these cognitive prerequisites for the installation (models, stereotypes, habitual behaviors, emotional response). The normal person uses adaptive cognitive-behavioral style, helping to overcome stress, borderline mental pathology and events dependencies arise when using maladaptive styles.
During diagnostic work on the found underlying cognitive-behavioral style is the deepest (depth, "nuclear") concept, less conscious, but at the same time influencing human behavior are based on the concept of surface, dependent, perceived a greater degree.
Studying individual terminology relating to the specific use of words and language related to the subjective name of the problem and description of its content.
Identify verbal and image associations are associated with words that are relevant to the patient's problems. Cover as much as possible the verbal semantic material and for each stimulus word get several associated with words and images.
Specify which images and what sensory systems uses the patient when thinking about stressful factors and the disease.
Assess non-verbal - mimic and pantomimic expression, characteristic of the patient.
Based on the data of the anamnesis and clinical psychological diagnosis in the process of rational psychotherapy patient explain the mechanisms of the development of the disease and the characteristics of the proposed method of treatment.
Then make a coherent therapeutic therapeutic effect in the waking state of the patient.
At the first stage to ensure timely inclusion of all elements of the Ada is effective cognitive-behavioral style when confronted in the future with negative factors, provoking undesirable behavior, the patient form the adaptive integrative reactions to them, a contrast to the original, against non-adaptable and ahead of their time of occurrence. Trained, timely inclusion of such adaptive installation, creates the basis for successful management of emotions and behavior, supersedes previous pathological behaviors characteristic against non-adaptable style.
Leading integrative adaptive reactions are complex (integration), combining cognitive-verbal (cognitive-verbal, verbal-logical) and nonverbal (psychosensory, sensory-shaped, vividly-shaped, clearly-effective, mimico-pantomimic) levels of organization behavior. Both levels are subjected to correction, against non-adaptable stereotype replace adaptive.
Correction cognitive-verbal part includes the training of cognitive oppositions. With his help, to fix in memory the patient's interpretation of the concept, problematic terminology and Association, which is the opposite, contrast, polar, positive with respect to the original negative, previously identified.
The sequence of interpretations to the associations chosen for the formation of the patient's belief in the validity and acceptance is emoti new, contrasting concepts and language, and then and associations, which in this case are digested more efficiently.
Contrasting interpretation is a new, adaptive, which excludes any abnormal reactions, look at relevant to the patient's problems, the opposite of the original, maladaptive look. It is a more adequate interpretation of stressful events, for adoption with the patient individually required number of sessions rational psychotherapy and suggestion.
When this explain and suggest that the psychological reaction to external influences entirely depends on how he interprets, presents itself these impacts, based on their own conceptions (beliefs) and life experience: the negative interpretation entails a negative reaction, positive-positive.
The patient explain and suggest that beliefs and interpretations of man have their own, specific to the individual terminology names and the wording of the verbalization of the content of different topics, including the problem, which also have a significant psychological impact. To change the psychological response to an impact, you need to change the interpretation of the subject of this action, e is the base (concept, installation) and the accompanying terminology.
For example, negative interpretive and co-terminological material:
"This is so humiliating, so horrible that I was offended" replace contrasting statement: "Let me lift up. Well, that has insulted me - I deeply know this person and is poised to become better, to master the techniques of impact on themselves and on others." Or instead of "Unbearable that her husband had left me accept This relief, the happiness that her husband was gone - there was a certainty. To live in limbo "state", without a solid base, abject fraud and neglect is much heavier. I can now freer to straighten your shoulders and build a complete family. If you want to."
For the most effective impact identified "deep", "nuclear" concepts that underlie inappropriate, maladaptive interpretations oppose the other, contrasting against them. It must also be meaningful, deep, fundamental concepts, enabling the formation of a number coming from them, adequate, adapting interpretations.
Thus, the "nuclear" sociopolitical concept: "Life is terrible, people are dangerous, I'm weak and defective" replace contrasting juxtaposition - "Life is not so terrible, people are not so dangerous, but I'm not so weak and inferior to prattis is all. When my surgestions I can avoid any troubles, but to be honest, special trouble before and was not. I, like everyone else, need not be ideal. Why scare yourself that hasn't happened and may not happen ever? So you can get to the point of absurdity. To communicate still have. I will learn from this useful and enjoyable".
Or in contrast to the "deep" hysterical: "I am so good, that everyone should see and love me" counter - "I, like everyone else, not perfection, love other proportional me what I do for others, and the normal human nature does not oblige even in this case, these others to love me. True good is that which is done not for the sake of redemption.
Positive interpretations and conceptions combine new, identical towards them by recasting the title and content of the problem, which is polar, a contrast to the original traumatic terminological variants. The adoption of the new wording of the title, the name of his problem, situation, yourself or other people, according to its new, positive sense causes a contrast reaction, instead of the negative - positive. For example, the name "cast", pereformuliruem in "free", "threw off the chains of family p is bscva", "divorce" substitute "liberation" or "reorganization", etc. After the change of the wording of the former is not in use.
Taking into account the individual acceptability of the use of paradoxical ways of interpretation and terminology related to stressful factors. So, one of the patients with anxiety psychogenic depression and panic attacks, rape survivors in the Elevator instead of the previous, negative variants of interpretation and terminology of this Psychotrauma, causing the corresponding set of negative emotional reactions, used positive, paradoxical variant, which had a good desensitizing, emotionally positive effect: "Not so long ago one old man, worked with me love in the Elevator, and I, silly, scared, although I could have fun."
Contrast changing the title of the problems or alias can also be paradoxical in nature. For example, one of the patients with claustrophobia in the form of an obsessive fear of elevators was successfully used the name "lifchik" instead of the Elevator. In other cases, "Antarctic", "cystitis" and "urethritis" successfully changed infarction cystitis and urethritis, which formed the anxiety hypochondriac fixation in different patients, and terrible husband-rowdy and alcoholic Basil, earning the nickname "the Grunt Vasuda", began to call m Nisou anxiety and depression at his exhausted wife, that allowed her to more effectively influence its behavior.
Associative part of the training contrasting oppositions performed on the basis of previously identified in the diagnostic phase of associations arising from the presentation of words from the field of pathogenic up. For this build associative contraplex - sets of words opposite in meaning, the words-stimuli from a number of pathogens.
To improve the efficiency of contrasting associations and extend healing associative influence their further exacerbating secondary Association with additional words, concepts and images bearing the desired emotional effect. This is carried out according to the following scheme: pathogenic associative stimulus - initial accent Association of secondary Association (or a sequence of associations).
After this preliminary work on the definition and adoption of new, contrasting interpretations, concepts, restatements and associations are transferred to commit to memory.
For successful fixation of cognitive oppositions use the use of compact flash cards, divided into 2 halves. Such cards may be one or more depending on the number of problematic topics. In the left part of the card, using appropriate terminology, record p is ronically, maladaptive variants of oppositions, on the right for a demonstration of domination - a contrast to him, adaptive (for left-handers use the return value).
The text of each option has the following structure: Formulation of a patient of his problems - Interpretation - Concept - Terms - Association - Images - Mimicry and pantomime.
Initial options and think or read impressive, myself, contrasting their options verbalized, speak out loud, expressive, in order to fix them more clearly, when this change accordingly zvukorezhise features - use the intonation and the degree of volume that most adequately reflect the contrasting sound of oppositions. The card (s) constantly carry for learning medical material and training to use it when faced with stressful situations or when thinking about them.
The left part of the strike out, giving, thus, the dominant nature of the information located on the right side of the card, consistently working with the text left and right sides of the card, while the left part of the patient pronounces impressive, himself, presenting negative images, accompanying their facial expressions and pantomimical disgust, and the right part speak the expressive aloud, reinforcing positive images and combining them with adequate expressive facial expressions and pantomimical.
After the stage of learning the text of the patient from time to time (from 10 to 20 times per day, depending on the depth of the disease) at a set time or suddenly have pathogenic stimuli: call words, ask questions, discuss topics that are relevant to its problems. On the basis of emerging answers assess the stability of the fixation contrasting associations, interpretations and restatements, achieve good effect playback contrasting oppositions. These presentation during the session by therapist and at home - the relatives of patients who received appropriate instructions or the patient himself.
As the enhancement of positive cognitive oppositions to them attach psychosensory contrasts. They represent the opposition within those or other sensor systems, which are mostly developed in a patient and/or more likely to engage in negative experiences.
Visual contrasts are series of consecutive shifts of the image, reflecting the disease, a contrast to him, showing non-pathological model of behavior. First, at the stage of development of technics, they are from the part from the cognitive oppositions. Then, when the two contrasting options will be played successfully, the negative image are together with negative cognitive material, and positive, respectively, with the positive.
If the images are related to the correct "picture" of your own reactions, you use distanceaway variant rendering view their copies or parts of themselves, (e.g., hands, stretching over a glass of alcohol, cigarette, or sweet and coming next to his own face). This allows you from the beginning to alienate, to keep this behavior from the subjective "I" of the patient. For opposite purposes associated visualization - vision "as in life", allowing to integrate the individual with a more appropriate behavior.
If the patient developed reactions of disgust, nausea or vomiting, with his consent, use everyonoe reinforcement visualizations of the disease. So, when alcoholism inspire aversionline reaction at a visual representation of the ugly sides of alcoholic excesses and picture degradation, in hysteria or explosively - against presentation of the relevant hysterical or violent attacks.
Contrasting images of the present series, the necessary number of times, the criterion of success is the emotional state of the patient is - the emergence reactions, contributing to getting rid of the disease. A change of images produced at different speeds, but better not linger long on the fixed figure of conduct, while on the image selected for fixation, attention is held longer, which allows more to learn exactly a positive image.
For this purpose the images are fixed behaviors are weakening parameters (brightness, color, size, distance and the like), and images of preferences, on the contrary, with the reinforcement of these parameters. Also effective paradoxical additions and modifications negative image. Thus, a negative acting people can be represented in a diving suit, dress ballerina or some physiognomic additions. Accordingly, in a paradoxical way, you can present your copy in traumatic situations in contact with negative objects. For example, if the phobia metro, the patient can visualize yourself there, in boots and with balloons.
On a similar scheme provide therapeutic effects within the auditory system, however, instead of visual images use hearing. Negative, pathogenic images replace contrasting them with positive images, weakening their effect. Those and the other is their images can be as memories, and new designs. In addition to content, contrasting changes of auditory images can affect the volume, the rate of introducing the paradoxical elements, a kind of "arrangement" negative verbalistic (traumatic statements): the layering of musical background, the transformation of speech into singing, listening to negative backwards. All of this plays as impressive, myself and expressive, aloud. Can be written arias, miniopera and miniotaite, in which, with the participation of other individuals play a traumatic story, losing by such a contrast paradoxical opposition to its negative charge. The impacts of this level includes the appointment at any time or within any situations of silent mode.
In the presence of "interest" in the disease process and good psychotherapeutic possibilities of the olfactory system uses contrast reproduction of the relevant odors. Often they perform the load adequate support, positive or negative background for manipulation within other systems and levels.
Auditory and olfactory contrast opposition as the development, followed by visual gradually added to the cognitive oppositions.
Next to this complex (int who graces) cognitive and psychosensory oppositions for the formation of the stereotype of the leading integrative adaptive responses, occurs earlier (ahead)than against non-adaptable reaction and produces a profound psychotherapeutic effect, add a contrasting positive and negative telesnoorientirovannie - mimic and pantomimic components. They also record on the card for more accurate memorization and reproduction. When this negative variants of cognitive and psychosensory builds accompanied by non-verbal expression reactions of disgust and rejection in order to increase the tendency to pathological forms of behavior, and opposite them positive ways of oppositions combined with non-verbal expression of positive emotions for fixing behaviours corresponding to the norm.
When will be possible to play the whole stereotype of the leading integrative adaptive responses, positive contrast black and white, left, a negative portion of the card is cut off and discarded is indirectly inspires symbolically demonstrates the full release, final rejection against non-adaptable behaviour.
Right, the positive part and retain indefinitely carry, demonstrating the adoption of adaptive cognitive-behavioral style.
In the second stage, which begins after mastering the manipulation of the first stage, finally n is italist against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style through its negative reinforcement exercise, manipulation and pharmacological drugs that cause negative feelings. These impacts have imitation in the form of pseudoconcave, placebased. Thus, the increase telescopically level psychiatric help.
The true purpose of these physical exercises, pseudocapsule (placebotreated) and placebotreated - formation of the conditioned reflex, the vast abnormal, negative behavior, hidden compulsion to refuse him, creating conditions burdening disease, depriving her of the benefit. The patient subconsciously prefers to refuse the deduction of symptoms to avoid these "medical appointments". It is important that he had no idea about their true identity.
The patient is prescribed to take individually accessible uncomfortable postures - asanas from the system of yoga, exercise, hold a General or local muscle tension for a certain period of time, "extensions"different ways "twine", hand in the air behind him, holding heavy objects, dumbbells in hands, etc. as long as possible After their fixation accept most comfortable position and realize the contrast of pleasant sensations. This allows a deeper understanding of the degree of hardship such Zan the events.
In addition, give an instruction to carry out acupressure, thus choose the point of pain sensitivity, for example, Hae-GU, Kozelkov ears. To "massage" with the coverage of these sensitive points attract the relatives of the patient, especially when working with the children's contingent.
Additionally, the patient should receive nicotinic acid (tablets of 0.05, one-time doses for children up to 0,025-0,05 g, for adults to 0.15 to 0.5 g, daily dose for children is up to 0.15 g, adult - up to 1 year) or ksantinola nicotinate for dissolution in the oral cavity (tablets of 0.15, in single doses for children - 0,03-0,05 g, for adults, 0.15 g, daily dose for children is up to 0.15 g, for adults to 0.9 g) with individual frequency (from one to several times a day in dosages that creates discomfort.
Taking into account patient preferences, can be used point rubbing the ointment "Finalgon containing nicotinic acid and an extract of pepper, in the field, not in contact with mucous. The ointment is applied pointwise, for "interested" parts of the body - for example, on the hands or fingers, if you want to block manual stereotypes in ticks or pathological dependence on the forehead, if it is desirable that the patient "more thought" etc. Similarly apply a solution of ammonia to smell or rubbing region the particular forehead, temples and separate parts of the hand.
All of these exercises, pharmacological tools, effects and tasks used at low rates of recovery, is used at each recurrence of the symptoms of the disease. The patient is touted as "neurophysiological", "somatopsychic", "pharmacological ("biogenic stimulators", "amino acids", "nootropics") or acupressure tools, incentive biological protection and self-regulation, saving the nervous system from the damaging effects of stress". Children are told that this medication and exercise, "repellent" sadness, fear, coaching character etc.
With the same purpose at this stage the patient himself or his relatives conduct the verification, "the weighing of symptoms" or "test revealing the truth". Originally provide suggestive training is offered to compare the validity and depth of unpleasant feelings and sensations, typical for this patient, with other, mainly physical experiences and sensations. As such, using the above-described "acupressure" impact or intense compression of skin folds, for example, in the back of the forearm. The patient explained that for a deeper understanding of the extent of disturbing symptoms every time when they appear to be with the independently or with the help of relatives like "test". The result usually is a gradual fading of the initial symptoms, which are neutralized in a "weighing of the symptoms."
In the third stage using visualization and role-play training, prepare the patient to use the acquired skills in modeling contact with the negative factors that provoke stereotype against non-adaptable behavior. To do this consistently spend two types of trainings and achieve timeliness enable integrated advanced adaptive responses.
First, visualization training, improve the application of learned skills to create adaptive reactions in the visual representation of the negative factors associated with the disease in this patient.
Second, role training, which will take over after the success of the first, spend close to life modelling, cast problematic situations in which they practise learned exercises. In role-based training involve staff, other patients or relatives of the patient.
The criterion for the success of both trainings is the degree of the steady removal of negative emotions. In the presence of positive results obtained skills used later in the actual contact with stressful factors.
On the fourth stage undergo the effect of dynamic monitoring, and conducting the necessary correction of deviations from the adaptive cognitive-behavioral style. To increase the level of sustainability achieved in the course of treatment success, taking into account individual needs provide support sessions.
Treatment of borderline mental disorders and pathological dependence is carried out in the form of daily or every 2-3 days, individually, in a group or with family involvement. The duration and number of sessions an individual, on average, from 7 to 10 psychotherapy sessions with a duration of 1-2 hours.
Treatment of borderline mental disorders and addiction, including anamnesis, rational psychotherapy and psychotherapeutic treatment effect in the waking state of the patient, wherein the diagnosed individual against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style psychological reactions of the patient to the negative factors, revealing the peculiarities of the language in the patient of his problem, its interpretation, concept, Association, terms and images through which he recycles these negative factors, as well as accompanying facial expressions and pantomimic, at the first stage of medical psychotherapy patient form adaptive integrative response to negative factors, contrasting against against non-adaptable and leading them to postpone the occurrence with the card, in the left part of which is placed a text containing information about the detected against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style, in the form of a formulation of the problem, its concepts, terms, associations and images, and in the right part of the text containing other information about adaptive cognitive-behavioral style, consistently working with text on the left and right parts; the left part they are discrediting the patient pronounces her impressive, himself, presenting negative images, accompanying their facial expressions and pantomimical disgust, and the right part speak expressive aloud, reinforcing positive images and combining them with adequate expressive facial expressions and pantomimical, after learning of text left part of the card is cut off and discarded, and the right to retain and carry, at the second stage completely neutralized against non-adaptable cognitive-behavioral style, making it negative reinforcement exercise, manipulation and pharmacological drugs that cause negative feelings, in the third stage, prepare the patient to use the generated adaptive integrative reactions under conditions simulating contact with the negative factors using pursued consistently visualization and role-play training, treatment includes 7-10 CEA the owls, duration 1-2 hours, for the obtained effects are dynamic observation and taking into account individual needs provide support sessions.
FIELD: medicine, anesthesiology, resuscitation.
SUBSTANCE: after introducing depolarizing myorelaxants, before the stage of intubation one should introduce additional quantity of brietal, its dosage being 0.45 mg/kg. The present innovation enables to provide stabilization of hemodynamic parameters.
EFFECT: decreased risk of introduced narcosis.
13 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves selecting signals showing patient consciousness level and following evoked auditory potentials as responses to repeating acoustic stimuli, applying autoregression model with exogenous input signal and calculating AAI index showing anesthesia depth next to it.
EFFECT: quick tracing of unconscious to conscious state and vice versa; high accuracy of measurements.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: medicine; therapy of neurosis, psycho-emotional disorder, hypertension and cardiopathy of different etiology.
SUBSTANCE: method of correction of psycho-physical condition of patient during sleep is based upon simultaneous influence of light and sound signals during period of sleep when patient has dreams. Light signal pulses are used with frequencies within 0,5-3,5 Hz. Intensity of influence of sound signals is chosen in such a way not to interrupt physiological dream. Light and sound signal influence is carried out during time interval being equal to full cycle of change in dream phases. Effective working range of sound signals is chosen within 1000-4000Hz frequency range. As sound signals, different music melodies can be used. Device has timer, pulse light signal source to generate pulses at frequencies within 0,5-3,5 Hz, sound signal reproduction unit, decoder for conversing sound signals from digital form to analog on and light and sound signal control unit made for controlling level of sound signals and form of their amplitude modulation as well as for setting time intervals for generation of light and sound signals at different modes of influence. Device can additional have sound signal store unit made in form of re-recording removable digital unit. Light and sound signal control unit can be made for selection sound signals followed by fixing during period of influence. Sound signals reproduction unit loudspeaker can have effective frequency range of 1000-4000 Hz. Red color light signal source can be used as a light signal source.
EFFECT: widened store of aids and means for correction of psycho-physical condition of patient.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, physiotherapy.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage, one should affect with magnetic field upon vertebral reflexogenic areas - volar surfaces - located at colored plates as straps. At the second stage, one should affect with magnetic field upon the area of vertebral column that helps to improve psychoemotional state in patients.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, narcology.
SUBSTANCE: the present method deals with forming negative conditioned reflex to alcohol due to hypnosis, impact onto reflexogenic areas and coding. Moreover, all the stages of therapy should be carried out individually by applying nondirective psychotherapy at every stage by making samples for disgust or neutral attitude to alcohol. At the first stage of therapy, one should perform individual psychotherapy directed for positive formulation of positive therapeutic result by a patient. Then comes a seance of nondirective psychotherapy and placebo-procedure to detect alcoholic dosages. At the second stage, one should perform individual psychotherapy directed for revealing the perspectives of new behavior, again it is necessary to carry out the seance of nondirective psychotherapy. At the third stage, one should conduct the seance of individual psychotherapy to detect new feelings in a patient followed by the seance of nondirective psychotherapy. At the fourth stage, after carrying out the seance of nondirective psychotherapy one should teach a patient to apply autogenic training directed for maintenance of desired state: a patient has the task to use alcohol at the dosage indicated by a patient at the first stage of therapy. Next day, at the fifth stage of therapy, one should control patient's feeling followed by the séance of nondirective psychotherapy, coding the dosed alcohol intake at the dosage indicated by a patient at the first stage of therapy, due to hypnotic impact by applying an aggressive phonogram with possibility to remove the code by a patient himself/herself. Simultaneously, it is necessary to affect cerebral reflexogenic areas with impulse current and closed eyes with light impact, and, also, the impact with odor. Then comes the task for a patient to drink alcohol in the dosage indicated at the first stage of therapy for 2-4 mo and perform maintenance therapeutic seance and that of autogenic training. Moreover, reflexogenic impact should be performed for the following cerebral points: Bai-khuey, Bai-shen', Chen-lin, Nao-kun, Pan-lyan'-tsuan'. Code removal should be fulfilled due to an inert safe substance as a capsule or a tablet of strange shape and color. Seance of maintenance therapy and autogenic training should be carried out with the help of laser disc or audiocassette labeled with the same odor applied earlier during patient's coding.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy.
SUBSTANCE: while analyzing patient's anamnesis and psychological peculiarities it is necessary to diagnose individual disadaptating cognitive-behavioral style by detecting peculiarities of its concepts, tendencies and associations to conduct rational psychotherapy. One should form the motivation to alternative behavior and hypnotherapy, moreover, to exclude possible resistance the procedure of hypnotizing should be suggested for a patients as exercises on creativity development. Moreover, at the first stage of hypnotherapy, a patient should be put into the stage of hypnotic trance due to tasks imitating creative self-studying and causing cognitive exhaustion and provoking the process of auto-suggestion of hypnotic phenomena. Out of them, the phenomena corresponding to the deepest stage of hypnotic trance should be induced with suggestion of support disappearance due to suggestion to imagine the light flow coming from beneath and replacing this support followed by visualization of more distanced images. At the second stage, one should perform hypnosuggestion of adaptive cognitive-behavioral style, for deepened curative impact it is useful to imitate the contact with patient's subconscious "ego" part by applying contact technique with touching patient's head with a hand and, due to earlier obtained diagnostic information. One should speak on behalf of subconsciousness on complete understanding the causes of present problems, agreement to refuse from disadaptating concepts and tendencies. Then one should finally fix adaptive cognitive-behavioral style by suggesting the patient to accept it completely. At the third stage one should perform dehypnotizing and fix curative information with patient's subconsciousness by causing amnesia of a seance. Therapy course includes 7-10 individual seances at duration of 1-2 h followed by dynamic survey. If necessary, one should fix the effect obtained due to maintenance seances. The method enables to overcome patient's latent resistance to the process of hypnotic induction to teach a patient to apply auto-hypnosis, meditation or deep relaxation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises gaseous and/or colored insertions formed by additives, in particular potassium bicarbonate and/or rare-earth metal oxides.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of prevention and correction of psychogenic diseases.
SUBSTANCE: method involves specifying disease stage, determining suggestibility degree, programming on abstinence from alcohol consumption for a 6-12 months long period the patient determines on the own free will. Treatment is administered with bipolar electric asymmetric current pulses of 3-5 mA being applied on the background of relaxing melody later on in reanimation room. Assurance in overcoming difficulties of life and becoming free of alcohol addiction is suggested on this background. Placebo is concurrently intravenously administered as drop infusion imitating coding preparation as alcohol receptor blocker. Suggestive accentuation is concentrated on possible complications caused by alcohol consumption after introducing the preparation. The aversion against alcohol is invoked by making drop infusion of medicament mixture causing fever sensation and myorelaxation. The patient swallows 2-3 gulps of alcohol and the provoked responses are associated to them with a cause-effect relation like alcohol-bad health state and fixed with intramuscular placebo injection simulating oil code preparation.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment; prolonged remission period.
FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy, amending and medicinal psychology, in particular, treatment of neuroses and posttraumatic stress disturbances.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introductory stage including collection of data and analysis of anamnesis, social development and bringing-up conditions, children and parents relations, emotional response to stress of burned children; finding out trauma nature and start training lessons with child; establishing confidential relations and contact with child; providing diagnosis of psychological, physical and intellectual development of child; determining child's extent of readiness and form of participation in training, purpose of training; preparing playing zone with fire safe conditions; constructing and modeling together with child articles imitating match box and matches; measuring pulse rate; basic stage involving doing exercises using two construction-modeling articles simulating match box and matches by modeling controlled actions, namely,: taking match box from table by one hand, opening match box by other hand, withdrawing match from box and closing match box; turning match box so that its side surface is oriented upward; abruptly, with application of pressure, moving match against side surface of match box away from yourself; holding match in horizontal position for 10 s after ignition of match with gradual bringing of match holding time to 30 s; extinguishing fire; informing about function and designation of article while pointing out positive and negative features of "fire"; discussing feelings connected therewith and watching child's state by controlling his breath; creating "fairy" atmosphere of candle ignited by specialist upon receiving child's consent for switching and presence of negative stimulus-fire of candle during training; final stage involves confidence-conciliation agreement between specialist, parent and child and discussing observation of its terms; extinguishing candle fire; controlling child's pulse rate; providing similar manipulations by bringing burning match to candle fixed in holder; teaching safe blowing-in of flame at safe distance or by closing with cap; bringing burning match to piece of paper lying on tray and extinguishing flame by water; teaching more complicated actions to bring fire handling skills to automatic extent; controlling level of acquired knowledge in fire handling and approving child's actions by granting "diplomas" for successful results.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in forming stress-overcoming behavior, reduced traumatism and provision for recovering of motor function.
SUBSTANCE: method involves concurrently acting upon patient auditory system with acoustic signal produced by a musical composition selected on basis of patient health state and electric signals of the same musical composition acting upon patient skin. The electric signals amplitude-modulated with depth of 15-85%, act upon the patient via adhesive skin electrodes during 15-40 min. Hearing-add device is subjected to acoustic signals amplitude-modulated with depth of 15% and higher. Amplitude-modulation frequency is selected within the limits of 1.2-9.8 Hz. Modulation is carried out with frequency corresponding to patient disease frequency and action power is chosen on basis of subjective patient sensations. Device has unit for performing musical composition, the first and the second power amplifier, matching unit, adhesive electrodes and electroacoustic converter as well as electrostimulation modulator, acoustic modulator, the first and the second modulation depth regulator, the first and the second power control unit. Musical signal reproduction output unit is connected to the first inputs of electrostimulation modulator and acoustic modulator, which second inputs are connected to input of introduced controllable modulation frequency oscillator and modulation depth regulators are connected to their third inputs. Electrostimulation modulator output is connected to adhesive electrodes via the first power amplifier and matching unit. Sound modulator is connected to the electroacoustic converter via the second power amplifier. The first and the second power regulator are connected to the second inputs of the first and the second power amplifier. Unit for recording sessions is additionally introduced for replicating therapeutic sessions, its first input being connected to the electrostimulation modulator and the second one to the sound modulator output.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, psychiatry, psychotherapy.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with carrying out dietotherapy and psychotherapeutic impact in the course of group seances. Moreover, the main psychotherapeutic impact should be performed during two seances per 8 h each, each due to marathon technique under asthenization conditions, biorythmical misfunctioning and behavioral stereotypes. Motivation should be elaborated for patient's healthy nutrition along with self-confidence and belief into success. Program for losing body weight should be developed to visualize and concretize therapy. Diary for nutritive behavior should be written, psychological protection should be performed in case of affected dietary situation. After the main seances one should carry out psychotherapeutic impact during one seance of 3 h duration in 1 or 3 mo. During seances the results obtained should be fixed by discussing and excluding situations provoking obesity relapse. The method enables to prolong duration and stability of remission.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with the ways to treat alcoholism, narcomania, tobacco smoking, obesity, sexual disorders, gambling-mania and others. Videopicture contains either one or two additional exposures, the 25th and 26th, correspondingly, each of them contains verbal information of either prohibiting or encouraging character and depictive information that corresponds to the character of verbal information. Moreover, at first, it is necessary to show the 25th exposure only, then - the 25th and the 26th exposures together, then again - the 25th exposure only. Duration of seance for videopicture watching should last for about 20-40 min. The method enables to perform less severe impact upon a patient.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
FIELD: medicine, in particular, narcology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using computer as apparatus for displaying on monitor screen of brain colored images reflecting at least two states of brain: before coding by separating portions colored with yellow, green and blue colors and tints thereof reflecting increasing extent of brain affection, and after coding by separating big portion of bright-red color on the background of portions colored with yellow, green and blue colors and tints thereof, respectively; explaining to patient that portion of bright-red color is his dominant code resulted from treatment; before coding procedure, applying and fixing on patient's forehead electrodes simulating elimination of brain potentials; in the course of coding, exposing patient to light flashes with switched-off common illumination and to continuous acoustic signals generated by means of acoustic synthesizer; during coding procedure, exposing patient to light flashes issued from, for example, stroboscope, said light flashes being emitted at frequency of 1-3 Hz; providing immediate suggestion by means of microphone and telephone headsets electrically connected to microphone and secured on patient's head. Method allows preliminary treatment procedure to be avoided.
EFFECT: increased therapeutic effect.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out physiological examination with electroencephalogram recorded. Cognitive evoked potential method is additionally applied as neuropsychological examination for detecting hard and latent organic brain lesions causing central nervous system pathological disorders. An additional psychophysiological examination is carried out with vision analyzer test, visuomotor response test being applied for obtaining estimations of selection, discrimination, noise immunity and muscle endurance index, movement coordination, response to moving object and integral estimation of attention and ability for perceiving significant information, motor analyzer rapid response production estimation, estimation of nature of cardiovascular system response to given psychoemotional loading estimation. The examination is sequentially carried out as primary control when hiring personnel, as intermediate control in following a training course and emergency training. Psychological testing is of multi-purpose nature. To achieve it, a set reliable tests and methods of prognostic and substantial validity are applied, including intellect and project-building tests and standardized self-reports. When making decisions concerning professional validity based on test and examination results, risk group is selected from operation personnel.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of occupational skill assessment.
FIELD: medicine, human weight correction.
SUBSTANCE: while elaborating self-realization formula a dietologist should develop weight correction mode for a patient during certain period of time without health deterioration. A psychotherapist should detect several targets for weight correction followed by psychotherapeutic seance by applying neurolinguistic programming. For this purpose, a patient should provide picturesque and detailed description of desirable function. Moreover, a psychotherapist detects positive, emotional and autonomic manifestations to form conditionally reflector relationship due to tactile contact. Under supervision of a psychotherapist due to suggestion technique a patient should imagine "a part of personality" responsible for weight correction. Then his psychotherapist has communication with mentioned "part of personality", arouses patient's attention to desirable result and fixes elaborated conditioned reflex. Then a psychotherapist illustrates communication with physical feelings that correspond to either negative or positive answer and their appearance in "a part of personality". At establishing tactile contact a psychotherapist suggests to choose new ways of behavior directed onto weight correction, obtains agreement from "a part of personality" to take care of this very function, which a psychotherapist should monitor by physiological manifestations and fix with conditioned tactile contact. A patient suggests new ways of alimentary behavior, analyze them and choose not less than 3 really achievable ones and "a part of personality" is responsible for automatic implementation of these new ways of alimentary behavior in patient's next life and at achieving positive answer from "a part of personality" sйance of psychotherapy should be finished by returning a patients into awakening state. Moreover, one should prescribe a diet at decreased caloricity of 800-900 kcal during the 1st mo, then - 1200 kcal for another month with subsequent achieving its value to correspond to normal body requirements. Psychotherapy lasts for 3-4 seances in 3-5 d at repeated maintenance therapy in a month, 1 seance. The method enables to achieve stable weight decrease during preset period of time for prolonged terms.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of weight correction.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, anesthesiology, intensive therapy, surgery.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation is suggested to correct anesthetic therapy in postoperational period. One should apply a modified visual-analog scale of pain on which patient should mark independently his (her) pain feelings by fixing them on vertical sections of the above-mentioned scale of pain every 2 h during the day, then doctor should plot an algogram of daily fluctuations of patient's pain feelings to analyze them for estimating the strength of pain feelings and adequacy of analgetic therapy conducted; and by taking into account the data obtained to conduct correction anesthetic program next day. The present innovation enables to adequately evaluate patient's pain feelings in postoperational period for subsequent performing adequate preventive analgetic therapy of pain syndrome, that, in its turn, enables to prevent pathological postoperational syndromocomplex.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of correction.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, cardiology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation includes hypolipidemic diet. Additionally, in the state of meditation one should induce the feeling of thermal disposition in intestinal area due to autosuggestion spirally starting from dextral ileal area and performing about 3-5 circles clockwise, only by narrowing the radius of movement towards navel's area, then about 3-5 circles clockwise by widening the radius of movement against initial circumference. Then one should similarly work with feelings of colic pains and cold. Moreover, autosuggestive impact should be carried out twice daily for 30-40 d, and then - once daily every other day to maintain cholesterol level at normal value. The method enables to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients despite cholesterol level.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicinal cosmetology.
SUBSTANCE: at first, one should perform target psychological tuning up for the work with a certain patient. Then, at the fist stage it is necessary to remove articular blocks, relax muscular-ligamentous apparatus of body joints with light swingings of patient's head and limbs. Moreover, one should apply long smoothing movements for limbs. The first stage should be finished with respiratory exercises. Then comes relaxing massage of jugular area and hands, plastic impact upon facial fasciae and muscles, massage of biologically active points and linear facial massage. Then one should do the complex of strengthening exercises for the neck and face. At the same time, one should concentrate patient's attention upon coming feelings in jugular and facial areas. Complex of strengthening exercises for the face and the neck should be performed every day. The present innovation enables to maintain daily tonicity of facial myofascial layer well.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: medicine, thoracic surgery, anesthesiology.
SUBSTANCE: as non-narcotic medicinal preparation one should apply heparin to be introduced intratracheally at the dosage of 300-500 IU/kg, moreover, heparin should be introduced during the first 30 min after the operation is over. The present innovation enables to create prolonged anesthetizing effect in combination with prophylaxis of postoperational thrombohemorrhagic complications due to heparin capacity to be kept in the body due to its accumulation by mast cells at blockade of their fermentative activity followed by its gradual release into the blood.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 cl, 1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves doing complex of physical training exercises on the background of medical rehabilitation treatment. First, dominant hemisphere is determined. Next, exercises are done expanding in turn over higher and higher levels of the nervous system beginning from homolateral movements of extremities. Then, heterolateral movements are done with extremities: first, without crossing median line of the body and then with shoulder girdle rotation to one side and pelvic girdle to the opposite side ending in movements crossing the median line. Then, the heterolateral movements are combined with eye movements and functional loads upon the hemispheres. Infinity sign drawing is carried out in the air with the right hand, left hand and with both hands, following the imaginary drawings with eyes and transferring center of gravity from one leg to the other one. Then, symmetrical figures are drawn simultaneously using both hands. Then, autotraining exercises are done consisting in creating and fixing in memory image of both working hemispheres.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of influence exerted to both hemispheres in activating interhemispheric links and restoring injured cortical functions.
8 dwg, 2 tbl