Method for producing of extruded pea sticks

FIELD: food-concentrates industry, in particular, manufacture of extruded groats-based products.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing pea grains with protein food additives and extruding resultant mixture. Pea grains are preliminarily ground to particle sizes of from 0.32 mm to 0.63 mm and mixed with crude animal protein material used in an amount of 3-5% by weight of pea grains. Method further involves moistening resultant mixture to moisture content of 14-17% and processing moistened mixture on extruder, with temperature of product before it is fed to die constituting 453.3-458.3°K and pressure in extruder zone upstream from die being 6.0-6.5 MPa.

EFFECT: increased nutritive value and wider range of combined extruded food products.

5 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to food concentrates industry, in particular to a method of manufacturing extruded cereal products.

Closest to the proposed technical essence is a way of cooking extrusion products (Patent No. 1829916, MKI323 R. 1/08, publ. 23.07.1993,, bull. No. 27), which consists in mixing products with subsequent extrusion of the mixture.

The disadvantages of this method are the limitations of its application in terms of processing of raw grain, and hard modes of the process - high pressure and temperature, which are not desirable in the extrusion of heat-sensitive food mixtures.

The technical problem of the invention is obtaining a combined extruded food product of high quality, improving its nutritional value and the broadening of the range of extruded products.

This object is achieved in that in the proposed method of manufacturing extruded gorokhovich sticks, providing a mix of pea protein supplements and extruding the resulting mixture, it is new that the peas crushed to particle size of from 0.32 to 0.63 mm and then mixed with the protein raw material of animal origin in number 3...5% by weight of peas, moisten the mixture up to 14...17% and implement its education is otcu on the extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 453,3...458,3 and To the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder...6,5 6,0 MPa.

The technical result of the invention is to obtain high-quality extruded food product with high nutritional value while respecting rational process parameters (temperature and pressure before the matrix, and others), as well as the broadening of the range of extruded products.

Figure 1 shows the comparative characteristic amino acid composition extruded gorokhovich sticks and peas with a protein additive extrudate; figure 2 - comparative characteristics of biological value and coefficient of amino acid differences Skoura (KRAS) crispy gorokhovich sticks and corn sticks (b); figure 3 - comparative characterization of the carbohydrate complex of pea protein supplements and gorokhovich sticks; figure 4 - chart nutritional value of extruded gorokhovich sticks in comparison with the formula of balanced nutrition.

Obtaining extruded gorokhovich products is one of the promising areas of complex processing of raw grain. Interest in plants as sources of food proteins has recently emerged due to the rapid scientific and technical progress in the field of food production and incurred a qualitatively new areas of intensification of the processes of obtaining food from secondary resources, nerdic the traditional sources.

When choosing prescription mixture of pea protein supplements take into account a number of factors. First, the need for maximum enrichment extruded product proteins of animal and mineral substances to achieve their physiological doses. Need along with a developed structure of extrudates to seek balanced nutritional value of foods. Secondly, achieving a pleasant taste and attractive patterns, which changes the traditional characteristics of peas. It is also worth noting that the appearance is one of the main factors in the consumer's choice of food.

So I used a protein Supplement Drinde Li from food raw pork in the amount of 3...5%, making it possible to obtain high-quality extruded products with good coefficient of expansion.

Analyzing the amino acid composition of protein supplements Drinde Li 15/A, note the high content of glycine, isoleucine and tryptophan.

The method is as follows. As a source of raw materials used: peas, shelled (GOST 6201-68) and protein Supplement Drinde Li (Denmark).

Peas are crushed in a crusher and were selected through a sieve No. 2 for the purpose of alignment of particle size distribution from 0.32 to 0.63 mm, then loaded into a mixer and thoroughly mixed with protein doba is some Drinde Li 15/A (Denmark) in the amount of 3...5% by weight of peas and watered the resulting mixture to a moisture content of 14...17%.

Next, process the mixture in a single screw extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 453,3...458,3 To, the speed of rotation of the screw 8...10-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6...of 6.5 MPa (rational process parameters).

Recyclable material through the loading pipe enters into the working chamber, where it is moved by a screw to the matrix.

As the promotion of the product in the mixing zone is partially mixed in a zone of compression occurs, a sharp increase in pressure and the seal of the product due to a sharp decrease in the size of the screw channel. In the area of plasticization is a partial transformation of the granules of the product in the melt due to the friction between the particles of the product and the turns of the screw.

Then there is the further compression of the product. Further in the area of homogenization is turning softened granules into a homogeneous melt due to the increasing pressure. The pressure of the molten product in the batching area reaches the desired value, provided the final melting of small inclusions, and the melt is formed, uniform in texture and temperature. This allows for normal operation of the extruder to have a defined, uniform in cross-section of the melt temperature of the product.

In the stabilizing zone is balanced pressure and temperature fields of rasplavatsya. Then he gets into pragmatico zone and is forced through the hole in the matrix.

After the product is released from the matrix in the sudden drop of temperature and pressure is instantaneous evaporation of moisture, accumulated product of the energy is released at a speed approximately equal to the velocity of the explosion, which leads to the formation of the porous structure and the increase in the volume of extrudate (heaving). In the "explosion" of the product (or "decompression shock") is undergoing a profound transformation of its structure: the rupture of cell walls, degradation, hydrolysis [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment,// Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994. - 200 S.].

Receive extruded pea sticks of good quality, the degree of expansion which is approximately 280% when the diameter of the matrix 3·10-3m (the degree of swelling is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the extrudate to the area of the outlet of the matrix of the extruder).

The method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Peas with a particle size of from 0.32 to 0.63 mm, thoroughly mix with protein supplements Drinde Li 15/A (Denmark) in the amount of 3% by weight of peas. Then moisten the mixture up to 16% and have it processed in a single screw extruder with temperature is ur product before matrix 453,3 To, the speed of rotation of the auger to 8.5 with-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder to 6.0 MPa. The degree of expansion of extruded sticks at 300%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Example 2. Technology of preparation of extruded gorokhovich sticks similar to example 1, but the proportion of protein supplements Drinde Li to the mass of peas 4%, moisten the mixture to 15%, and then perform its processing in the extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 458 K, the speed of rotation of the screw 9-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder to 6.5 MPa. The degree of swelling of the extrudate is 270%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Example 3. Technology of preparation the extra giovanny gorokhovich sticks similar to example 1, but the proportion of protein supplements Drinde Li to the mass of peas 5%, moisten the mixture to 15%, and then perform its processing in the extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 458,3 To, the speed of rotation of the auger 9.5 s-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6.4 MPa. The degree of swelling of the extrudate is 250%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Table 1

Experimental data of extrusion of the extruded gorokhovich sticks (examples 1-3)
# example Mass fraction of additives, %Humidity

extrudable mixture, %
Temperature before the matrix,The speed of rotation of the auger, with-1The pressure before the matrix, MPaThe degree of swelling of the extrudate, %
1316453,38,56,0300
2415458,09,06,5270
3515458,39,56,4250

Use a pea size particles to 0.32 mm led to unsustainable extrusion process, the driving of the product discharge opening. In the extrusion grains with a particle size of more 0,63 mm heaving product is uneven - diameter expanded product varies from 3.5 to 4.0 mm; the product was represented by sticks with irregular in cross-section porosity. The cross section of the product it was possible to distinguish the inclusion of a small number of particles that can be explained by the incomplete transition of particles of peas into the melt.

When choosing prescription mixture of pea protein supplements take into account a number of factors. First, the need for maximum enrichment extruded p is oduct proteins of animal and mineral substances to achieve their physiological doses. Need along with a developed structure of extrudates to seek balanced nutritional value of foods. Secondly, achieving a pleasant taste and attractive patterns, which changes the traditional characteristics of peas. It is also worth noting that the appearance is one of the main factors in the consumer's choice of food.

The upper limit of dosing was determined economic feasibility of obtaining new extruded product.

In addition, it is found experimentally that for flavor and appearance appropriate to make no more than 5% of protein supplements Drinde Li to the mass of peas. With increasing additive concentration of more than 5% extruded pea sticks did not possess a sufficient degree of expansion. Introduction protein Supplement in the amount of less than 3% does not increase the nutritional value and balance of securities components in the sticks.

The humidication mixture of pea protein supplements (up to 14...17%) due to the following reasons. It is proved that the expansion of the product at the exit of the holes of the matrix directly is a consequence of the physical properties of water [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994. - 200 S.]. With thermal conditions (temperature change in the extruder may be in the range of from 130 to 200° C) and under very high pressure water only exists in the liquid state. When plasticized material out of the matrix and reaches atmospheric pressure, the waters of the state of the hot liquid instantly into steam, releasing a significant amount of energy. Under the action of the steam pressure in the product formed pores, and the remaining intact starch grains are broken. If moisture in the mixture was less than 14%, it was not sufficient, and the product leaving the extruder was not inflated. Conversely, if the moisture in the product was more than 17%, it also led to the decrease of the degree of expansion, as it is formed thicker product structure with a rough texture. The reason for these changes is that with increasing humidity increases the plasticity of the mass, and this leads to the reduction of mechanical stresses in the extrudate. Therefore, the amount of heat emitted from the forces of viscous friction, was not sufficient to obtain exfoliated structure.

The extruder should work when the pressure of the product in pragmatichnoj area not exceeding the optimal value. This is necessary because the amount of pressure determines the temperature of the processing of the product, which, in turn, depends on the quality of the finished product. Set [Thermoplastics what I extrusion: the scientific basis, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994. - 200 S.]that the main components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and other) foods have different optimum temperature required for full flow and quality physico-chemical changes during the extrusion process.

For the efficient and effective flow of extrusion to pick a character changes the temperature at which the main components of the products are subject to, on the one hand, full hydrothermal processing, and on the other they were "soft" (low) temperature effects that prevent their thermal decomposition.

The analysis of theoretical and experimental data [Ostrikov A.N. The mathematical model of non-isothermal fluid flow in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder / Anistratov, Youravlov, Ruvinov, NR. Vasilenko // Storage and processing of farm products. - 2001. No. 12. - P.7-9; Ostrikov A.N. Development of extrusion equipment of new generation for the processing of heat-sensitive food / Anestacon A.S., Rudometkin., Overlow, Vinasiam // Equipment engineering. - 2002. No. 8.- S-93] showed that the quality of extrusion treatment, gradual temperature increase of the product with subsequent stabilization. Experimentally set the go, what is the temperature of the product before the matrix T=453,3...458,3 It allows to achieve a pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder P=6...Of 6.5 MPa. In this temperature range be a complete and profound physical and chemical changes of proteins, carbohydrates and other components, giving them properties that are most appropriate for full absorption by the human body.

Received (with the rational process parameters) extruded pea sticks with protein supplements Drinde Li were investigated using a range of indicators, characterizing consumer properties, food and energy value of the finished product. They were crushed, sieved through a metal grid No. 025 (GOST 4601-73) and subjected to analysis. Extruded pea sticks were analyzed by sensory characteristics according to GOST 15113.3-77, humidity - according to GOST 15113.4-77, pH - according to GOST 15113.5-77.

Organoleptically indicators: the obtained product in the form of straight or curved short sticks rounded cross-section, with a rough surface and well-developed porosity. Color (cream with a yellowish tinge), taste and aroma, corresponding to the original type of material) extrudate has satisfactory consumer data that is specific to this group of foods as "cereal".

To assess the quality characteristics of extras is giovanny gorokhovich sticks were investigated following their physico-chemical properties: swelling properties (water absorption capacity), solubility and water holding capacity. These are important indicators that demonstrate the ability of the extrudate to bind water and to dissolve it, characterize its carbohydrate composition, as well as consumer properties and partial digestibility of the product. The following results are obtained: expansion - 2.1 g/g, the solubility of 45.4% and a water retention capacity of the crushed extrudate - to 3.52 g/, found that these indicators crispy gorokhovich sticks are the same, typical of the traditional dry clean.

Other physico-chemical characteristics also met the standards for this category of products (table. 2). The energy value of the received product is 1431,5 kJ/100 g, while pea - 1248,6 kJ/100 g

Table 2

Physico-chemical characteristics of the extrudate
IndicesDimensionThe extrudate
Humidity%6,0
Aciditydeg8,10
Bulkkg/m3227,50
Mechanical strengthN1,41
Mass fraction of total sugar, in terms of what and SV %4,29
Mass fraction of fat in terms of SV%2,00

The determination of the biological values of the extrudates. Evaluation of amino acid balance and biological value of the products was carried out according to the following indicators: the ratio of amino acid differences Skoura (KRAS) and biological value (BC) food protein. For comparison and accordingly calculate the biological value of the extrudate parallel data on amino acid composition of pea (figure 1).

Analysis of the data showed that the number of amino acids in the extrudate exceeds their content in peas. This is due to the reduction of the final moisture content of the extrudate and partly its enrichment in protein protein supplements. While there has been a significant increase in essential amino acids like isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan.

The calculated values of biological value and KRAS gorokhovich sticks compared to traditional corn sticks is shown in figure 2.

Nutritional analysis developed extruded products. One of the basic requirements for food, in addition to high consumer properties, is the balance of their composition.

The ratio of the components in the "perfect" product, informed by the Institute PI the project of the Academy of medical Sciences, in comparison with the composition of the obtained extrudates are presented in figure 3.

As can be seen from the chart in figure 4, due to the consumption of 100 g crispy gorokhovich sticks you can meet the daily need for protein 21.6%, carbohydrates - 12.9% and mineral substances to 15.7%.

Tested on the example of extrudates of peas with making protein supplements technologies can have great prospects, in particular in order to produce a more balanced composition or special purpose. Practical steps for using other protein supplements (e.g., based on protein hydrolysates) for receiving the extrudate of high biological value are of great scientific interest and suggest the need for further study of this promising direction.

Thus, the present invention compared to the baseline will allow you to:

to obtain extruded pea sticks with good consumer properties and a sufficiently high biological and nutritional value; they are more balanced composition of essential amino acids, as well as optimized according to the criterion of the ratio of amino acid differences Skoura" (KRAS);

to expand the range of manufactured products in the processing of different raw materials with unstable properties, using as an additive vegetable and fruit is e powders.

Method for the production of extruded gorokhovich sticks, comprising mixing pea protein supplements and extruding the resulting mixture, characterized in that the peas crushed to particle size of from 0.32 to 0.63 mm and then mixed with the protein raw material of animal origin in the amount of 3-5% by weight of peas, moisten the mixture to 14-17% and have it processed on an extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 453,3-458,3 and To the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6,0-6,5 MPa.



 

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8 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of foods formed as products with filler, such as meat pockets, ravioli, hinkali, mants, curd or fruit dumplings and other products made from yeastless dough with various fillers.

SUBSTANCE: method involves kneading yeastless dough based on cereal flour with gluten content of at least 23%; preparing filler and forming products from dough with filler, with thickness of dough layer being 0.1-3 mm and its weight being within the range of 1-15 g; subjecting resultant products to thermal processing in infrared field or by dipping into fryer for 0.5-30 min until temperature in product center is at least 71°C; cooling and packaging products into hermetically sealed package; pasteurizing or sterilizing packaged products. Before packaging, products may be glazed with butter and/or sauce. After thermal processing, products are cooled with air or water by dipping into or spraying with water. Package may be provided with packaged spices and/or sauces and/or bouillon concentrate. Immediately before eating, product is heated to desirable temperature in microwave oven or in common oven or may be poured with boiling water.

EFFECT: improved quality and increased biological value of fast-cook product, convenient use, improved organoleptical properties approximating those of products prepared by conventional processes.

10 cl, 9 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, baking industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves kneading dough from top-grade or fist-grade wheat flour, compressed yeast, edible salt and water; fermenting and cutting dough; proofing and baking doughs; during dough kneading procedure, additionally introducing flax-seed flour in an amount of 25% by weight of top-grade or first-grade wheat flour, dry gluten in an amount of 6.7-10.0% by weight of top-grade or first-grade wheat flour, and ascorbic acid in an amount of 0.005-0.009% by weight of top-grade or first grade wheat flour. Flax-seed flour and dry gluten are preliminarily mixed with top-grade or first-grade wheat flour. Ascorbic acid is introduced in the form of solution.

EFFECT: improved organoleptical and physicochemical properties of bread, wider range of prophylactic bakery products, increased nutritive and biological value and increased biological effectiveness of products.

2 tbl, 3 ex

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