Method for producing of crunchy bread sticks

FIELD: baking industry, in particular, manufacture of extruded bakery products.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing crumbs of hard and deformed bread with food additives; moistening and extruding resultant mixture. Bread crumbs with particle sizes of 2 mm are mixed with beet pulp-based powdered semi-finished product used in an amount of 3-5% by weight of crumbs produced from hard and deformed bread. Method further involves moistening resultant mixture until moisture content is 12-15%; processing said mixture on single-screw extruder, with temperature of product when the latter approaches die is 433-453°K, angular rotational velocity of screw is 4.95-6.28 s-1 and pressure in zone of extruder near die is 6-7 MPa.

EFFECT: increased nutritive value of combined extruded food product.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the baking industry, in particular to a method of manufacturing extruded cereal products.

Closest to the proposed technical essence is a method for the production of bread (A.S. No. 865249, MKI3And 21 D 13/00, publ. 23.09.1981, BI No. 35), according to which the stale bread mixed with prescription required components and then ekstragiruyut.

The disadvantages of this method are the limitations of its application in terms of processing is not popular kinds of bread, and hard modes of the process - high pressure and temperature, which are not desirable in the extrusion of heat-sensitive food mixtures.

The technical problem of the invention is the production of composite extruded food products of high quality, increase their nutritional value and the broadening of the range of extruded products.

This object is achieved in that in the proposed method of production crispy breadsticks, involving mixing the crumbs from stale and deformed bread with food additives, wetting mixture and extruding, what's new is that the bread crumbs with a particle size of 2 mm is mixed with beet syrup powdered cake mix in the amount of 3...5% by weight of the crumbs from stale and deformable the pot bread moisten the mixture to 12...15% and have it processed in a single screw extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 433...453 K, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 4,95...6,28 with-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6...7 MPa.

The technical result of the invention is to obtain high-quality extruded food products with high nutritional value while respecting rational process parameters (temperature before the matrix, the rotation speed of the auger and others), as well as the broadening of the range of extruded products.

Figure 1 shows the comparative characteristic amino acid composition of the extrudate and bread; figure 2 - comparative characteristics of biological value and coefficient of amino acid differences Skoura (KRAS) crispy breadsticks (a) and corn sticks (b); figure 3 - chart nutritional crispy breadsticks in comparison with the formula of balanced nutrition.

Obtain extruded products from stale and deformed bread (CDH) is one of the promising areas of integrated waste processing bakeries. However, the production of a new food product only on the basis of bread it would not be appropriate.

Therefore, as an additive to baby from CDH (bakery waste production is TBA) used beet syrup powdered mix (sppp) in the amount of 3...5%, making it possible to obtain high-quality extruded products with good coefficient of expansion. A distinctive feature of SPP is a high content of pectin, macro - and micronutrients (e.g., potassium beet syrup cake mix 7.5 times more than the crumbs from CDH).

The method is as follows. As a source of raw materials used: bread "Darnitsa" from a mixture of flour, rye flour and wheat first grade (GOST 26983-86) and beet syrup powdered mix (sppp) (TU 9164-001-2068102-94)obtained by spray method. Sppp has a more intense color, is required for correction of the original dark color of crumb CDH from a mixture of rye and wheat flour. On organoleptic beet syrup cake mix is a powder Burgundy color with a characteristic smell and taste of beetroot.

The crumb of stale and deformed bread (CDH), for example bread "Darnitsa" first grade (GOST 26983-86), with a particle size of 2 mm is mixed with beet syrup powdered cake mix (sppp) in the amount of 3...5% by weight of the crumbs from CDH. Then the mixture is moistened to 12...15%.

Next, process the mixture CDH and SPP on a single screw extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 433...453 K, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 4,95..6,28 with -1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6...7 MPa (rational process parameters) [Abramov O.V. Optimization of the production process crispy breadsticks by extrusion//Herald of the Voronezh state, technology. Academy. - 1998. No. 3. - P.72-76].

Recyclable material through the loading pipe enters into the working chamber, where it is moved by a screw to the matrix.

As the promotion of the product in the mixing zone is partially mixed in a zone of compression occurs, a sharp increase in pressure and the seal of the product due to a sharp decrease in the size of the screw channel. In the area of plasticization is a partial transformation of the granules of the product in the melt due to the friction between the particles of the product and the turns of the screw.

Then there is the further compression of the product. Further in the area of homogenization is turning softened granules into a homogeneous melt due to the increasing pressure. The pressure of the molten product in the batching area reaches the desired value, provided the final melting of small inclusions and forms a melt of uniform composition and temperature. This allows for normal operation of the extruder to have a defined, uniform in cross-section of the melt temperature of the product.

In the stabilizing zone is balanced pressure and temperature fields of rasplavatsya. Then he gets into pragmatico zone and is forced through the hole in the matrix.

After the product is released from the matrix in the sudden drop of temperature and pressure is instantaneous evaporation of moisture, accumulated product of the energy is released at a speed approximately equal to the velocity of the explosion, which leads to the formation of the porous structure and the increase in the volume of extrudate (heaving). In the "explosion" of the product (or "decompression shock") is undergoing a profound transformation of its structure: the rupture of cell walls, degradation, hydrolysis [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994.-200 C.].

Receive extruded crisp breadsticks good quality, the degree of expansion which is about 1000% when the diameter of the matrix 4·10-3m (the degree of swelling is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the extrudate to the area of the outlet of the matrix of the extruder) [Ostrikov A.N., Abramov O.V. the Determination of quality characteristics of bread sticks, obtained by extrusion //Storage and processing of farm products. - 1999. No. 5. - P.48-50].

The method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. The crumb of stale and deformed bread with the size of h is stitz 2 mm is mixed with beet syrup powdered cake mix in the amount of 4% by weight of the crumbs. Then moisten the mixture to 14% and have it processed in a single screw extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 445 K, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 4,95-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6 MPa. The degree of expansion of extruded sticks is 826%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Example 2. Technology of preparation of breadsticks similar to example 1, but the proportion of the additive SPP to the mass of crumbs is 5%, moisten the mixture to 12%, and then perform its processing in the extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 453 K, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 6,28 with-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder of 6.6 MPa. The degree of swelling of the extrudate is 900%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Example 3. Technology of preparation of breadsticks similar to example 1, but the proportion of the additive SPP to the mass of crumbs is 4.8%, moisten the mixture to 12%, and then perform its processing in the extruder at a temperature of product before matrix 450 K, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 4,95-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder to 6.5 MPa. The degree of swelling of the extrudate is 977%. The results are presented in table. 1.

Table 1

The experimental data is haunted extrusion process crispy breadsticks (examples 1-3)
# exampleMass fraction of additives SPP, %Humidity extrudable mixture, %Temperature before the matrix,The angular velocity of rotation of the auger, with-1The pressure before the matrix, MPaThe degree of swelling of the extrudate, %
14144454,956826
25124536,286,6900
34,8124504,956,5977

In relation to justification of the choice of the size of bread crumbs 2 mm. Processing chips larger than 2 mm leads to a significant waste of energy and the product of heterogeneous consistency because of the formation of a heterogeneous structure of the melt in the area of homogenizing extruder. And, conversely, decreasing the size of bread crumbs less than 2 mm leads to an increase in powder fractions, which are baked and not contribute to the formation of a homogeneous melt.

In the justification dosage beet syrup powder semi-finished product (3...5% by weight of the crumbs from CDH) took into account a number of factors. First, the need for a four-s the enrichment of the extruded product in dietary fibre and minerals to achieve their treatment and prophylactic or physiological doses. Secondly, achieving a pleasant taste and aroma, slightly altering the traditional characteristics of products from bread. An equally important factor was the cost sppp, which is almost 10 times the cost of the main raw materials - crumbs from CDH and therefore greatly limits its application.

The upper limit of dosing was determined economic feasibility of obtaining new extruded product.

In addition, experimentally [Ostrikov A.N., Abramov O.V. the Determination of quality characteristics of bread sticks, obtained by extrusion //Storage and processing of farm products. - 1999. No. 5. - P.48-50; Abramov O.V. Optimization of the production process crispy breadsticks by extrusion/Vestnik Voronezh state., technology. Academy. - 1998. No. 3. - P.72-76] found that in flavor and appearance in the resulting crisp breadsticks, it is advisable to make no more than 5% beet syrup powder semi-finished product to the mass of crumbs from CDH. With the increasing content of powder more than 5% of crispy bread sticks did not possess a sufficient degree of expansion. Making CPP of less than 3% does not increase the nutritional value and balance of securities components in the sticks.

The necessity of moistening the mixture CDH and sppp (up to 12...15%) stipulated by the and by the following considerations. It is proved that the expansion of the product at the exit of the holes of the matrix directly is a consequence of the physical properties of water [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994.-200 C.]. Under such thermal conditions (temperature change in the extruder may be in the range of from 130 to 200° (C) and under very high pressure water only exists in the liquid state. When plasticized material out of the matrix and reaches atmospheric pressure, the waters of the state of the hot liquid instantly into steam, releasing a significant amount of energy. Under the action of the steam pressure in the product formed pores, and the remaining intact starch grains are broken. If moisture in the mixture was less than 12%, it was not sufficient, and the product leaving the extruder was not inflated. Conversely, if the moisture in the product was more than 15%, it also led to the decrease of the degree of expansion, as it is formed thicker product structure with a rough texture. The reason for these changes is that with increasing humidity increases the plasticity of the mass, and this leads to the reduction of mechanical stresses in the extrudate. Therefore, the amount of heat emitted from the forces of viscous friction, providing ALOS is not sufficient to produce exfoliated structure.

The extruder should work when the pressure of the product in pragmatichnoj area not exceeding the optimal value. This is necessary because the amount of pressure determines the temperature of the processing of the product, which, in turn, depends on the quality of the finished product [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994.-200 C.]. Set [Thermoplastic extrusion: scientific fundamentals, technology, equipment/ Under. edit Anegative, Vperedi. - M.: Degree, 1994.-200 C.; Ostrikov, A.N., Abramov O.V. the Determination of quality characteristics of bread sticks, obtained by extrusion //Storage and processing of farm products. - 1999. No. 5. - P.48-50]that the main components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and other) foods have different optimum temperature required for full flow and quality physico-chemical changes during the extrusion process.

For the efficient and effective flow of extrusion to pick a character changes the temperature at which the main components of the products are subject to, on the one hand, full hydrothermal processing, and on the other they were "soft" (low) temperature effects that prevent their thermal decomposition.

theoretical analysis and the experience is imentally data [Ostrikov A.N., Abramov O.V. Mathematical model of the extrusion process for non-isothermal viscous environment in a single screw extruders //Izvestiya vuzov. Food technology. - 1999. No. 1. 49 - 52; Ostrikov, A.N., Abramov O.V. the Determination of quality characteristics of bread sticks, obtained by extrusion //Storage and processing of farm products. - 1999. No. 5. - P.48-50; Abramov O.V. Optimization of the production process crispy breadsticks by extrusion//Herald of the Voronezh state, technology. Academy. - 1998. No. 3. - P.72-76] showed that the quality of extrusion treatment, gradual temperature increase of the product with subsequent stabilization. Experimentally, it is the angular velocity of rotation of the auger ω=4,95...6,28 with-1allows you to achieve a pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder P=6...7 MPa, which provides the temperature of the product before the matrix T=433...453 K. In this temperature range be a complete and profound physical and chemical changes of proteins, carbohydrates and other components, giving them properties that are most appropriate for full absorption by the human body.

Received crispy bread sticks (with the rational process parameters) were investigated using a range of indicators, characterizing consumer properties, food and energy is valuable is here the finished product. They were crushed, sieved through a metal grid No. 025 (GOST 4601-73) and subjected to analysis. Extruded crisp breadsticks were analyzed by sensory characteristics according to GOST 15113.3-77, humidity - according to GOST 15113.4-77, pH - according to GOST 15113.5-77.

Organoleptic characteristics: the product obtained in the form of straight or curved short sticks rounded cross-section, with a rough surface and well-developed porosity. Color (cream with pink undertones), taste and aroma, corresponding to the original type of material) extrudate has satisfactory consumer data that is specific to this group of foods as "cereal".

To assess the quality characteristics of bread sticks were investigated following their physico-chemical properties: swelling properties (water absorption capacity), solubility and water holding capacity. These are important indicators that demonstrate the ability of the extrudate to bind water and to dissolve it, characterize its carbohydrate composition, as well as consumer properties and partial digestibility of the product. The following results are obtained: the swelling properties breadsticks - 2.1 g/g; solubility respectively 46,2%; water-holding capacity of the crushed extrudates - 3,82 g/, found that these indicators breadsticks to meet the t similarly, typical of the traditional dry clean.

Other physico-chemical characteristics also met the standards for this category of products (table. 2). The energy value of the obtained product was 1412,0 kJ/100 g To compare the energy value of rye-wheat bread - 862 kJ/100 g

Table 2

Physico-chemical and thermal characteristics of extrudates
IndicesDimensionExtruded bread sticks
Humidity%8,0
Aciditydeg8,1
Bulk densitykg/m3227,5
Mechanical strengthN1,41
Mass fraction of total sugar, calculated on SV%78,64
Mass fraction of fat in terms of SV%1,63
Coefficient of thermal conductivityW/(m·)0,22
The ratio of heat capacityJ/(kg·)1600

The determination of the biological values of the extrudates. Evaluation of amino acid that is rovannost and biological value of the products was carried out according to the following indicators: the ratio of amino acid differences Skoura (KRAS) and biological value (BC) food protein. For comparison and accordingly calculate the biological value of the extrudate parallel data on amino acid composition of rye-wheat bread (figure 1).

Analysis of the data showed that the number of amino acids in a crispy bread sticks 62% higher than their content in bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour. This is due to the reduction of the final moisture content of the extrudate (8% compared with 43% of the bread) and partly by its enrichment in protein beet syrup powdered cake mix. While there is an almost twofold increase in essential amino acids like methionine and isoleucine.

The calculated values of biological value and KRAS crispy breadsticks compared to traditional corn sticks is shown in figure 2.

Nutritional analysis developed extruded products. One of the basic requirements for food, in addition to high consumer properties, is the balance of their composition.

The ratio of the components in the "perfect" product, based on the Institute of Nutrition, Academy of medical Sciences of the Russian Federation in comparison with the composition of the obtained extrudates are presented in figure 3. As you can see from the chart, due to the consumption of 100 g crispy breadsticks you can meet the daily need for protein, 13.3%, carbohydrates - 15,4%, pexeva the fibers - 5.2%, and iron - 23.6% and vitamins on average by 11%. Comparative analysis of the results showed that the final product has a sufficiently high content of carbohydrates, organic acids, compounds of iron.

Tested on the example of extrudates from CDH making beet syrup powdered cake mix technologies can have great prospects, in particular in order to produce a more balanced composition or special purpose.

Thus, the present invention compared to the baseline will allow you to:

to obtain extruded bread sticks with good consumer properties and a sufficiently high biological and nutritional value; they are more balanced composition of essential amino acids, as well as optimized according to the criterion of the ratio of amino acid differences Skoura" (KRAS);

- use recycling stale and deformed bread (CDH) with the addition of beet syrup powdered material (sppp) in the high-quality product;

to expand the range of manufactured products in the processing of different raw materials with unstable properties, using as an additive vegetable and fruit powders.

Method for the production of crispy breadsticks, comprising mixing the crumbs from stale and de is ormirovannogo bread with food additives, hydration mixture and extruding, characterized in that the bread crumbs with a particle size of 2 mm is mixed with beet syrup powdered cake mix in the amount of 3-5% by weight of the crumbs from stale and deformed bread, moisten the mixture up to 12-15% and have it processed in a single screw extruder at a temperature of product before the matrix 433-453, the angular speed of rotation of the auger 4,95-6,28 with-1and the pressure in pragmatichnoj zone of the extruder 6-7 MPa.



 

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10 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of farinaceous confectioneries.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains farinaceous powdered semi-finished product and fatty product. Fatty product is margarine. Farinaceous powdered semi-finished product contains wheat flour, sugar powder, whole dried milk, chemical leavening agents, edible salt and fruit powder, said components being used in weight ratio of 1:0.4:0.05:0.005:0.004:0.08, respectively. Fruit powder is apricot-syrup, cranberry-syrup, melanocarpous mountain ash, or brier powder.

EFFECT: provision for producing of biscuit with crumby structure, increased organoleptical and nutritive properties due to used combination of components in farinaceous powdered semi-finished product.

8 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of foods formed as products with filler, such as meat pockets, ravioli, hinkali, mants, curd or fruit dumplings and other products made from yeastless dough with various fillers.

SUBSTANCE: method involves kneading yeastless dough based on cereal flour with gluten content of at least 23%; preparing filler and forming products from dough with filler, with thickness of dough layer being 0.1-3 mm and its weight being within the range of 1-15 g; subjecting resultant products to thermal processing in infrared field or by dipping into fryer for 0.5-30 min until temperature in product center is at least 71°C; cooling and packaging products into hermetically sealed package; pasteurizing or sterilizing packaged products. Before packaging, products may be glazed with butter and/or sauce. After thermal processing, products are cooled with air or water by dipping into or spraying with water. Package may be provided with packaged spices and/or sauces and/or bouillon concentrate. Immediately before eating, product is heated to desirable temperature in microwave oven or in common oven or may be poured with boiling water.

EFFECT: improved quality and increased biological value of fast-cook product, convenient use, improved organoleptical properties approximating those of products prepared by conventional processes.

10 cl, 9 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of foods formed as products with filler, such as meat pockets, ravioli, hinkali, mants, curd or fruit dumplings and other products made from yeastless dough with various fillers.

SUBSTANCE: method involves kneading yeastless dough based on cereal flour with gluten content of at least 23%; preparing filler and forming products from dough with filler, with thickness of dough layer being 0.1-2.0 mm and its weight being within the range of 1-15 g; subjecting resultant products to thermal processing in microwave field or in cooking vessel filled with water or by steaming for 0.5-60 min until temperature in food product center is at least 72°C; cooling products; slightly drying; freezing and charging into hermetically sealed package, or into package filled with modified gaseous medium, or in vacuum package; pasteurizing or sterilizing packaged products. After thermal processing, product is cooled with air or with water by dipping of products into or spraying with water. Meat based filler is used as filler. Package may be provided with packaged bouillon concentrate and/or spices and/or sauces. Immediately before eating, product is poured with boiling water, mixed with bouillon concentrate and left for 1-10 min for heating thereof to temperature of 50-70°C.

EFFECT: improved quality and increased biological value of fast-cook product, convenient use, improved organoleptical properties approximating those of products prepared by conventional processes.

8 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, baking industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves kneading dough from top-grade or fist-grade wheat flour, compressed yeast, edible salt and water; fermenting and cutting dough; proofing and baking doughs; during dough kneading procedure, additionally introducing flax-seed flour in an amount of 25% by weight of top-grade or first-grade wheat flour, dry gluten in an amount of 6.7-10.0% by weight of top-grade or first-grade wheat flour, and ascorbic acid in an amount of 0.005-0.009% by weight of top-grade or first grade wheat flour. Flax-seed flour and dry gluten are preliminarily mixed with top-grade or first-grade wheat flour. Ascorbic acid is introduced in the form of solution.

EFFECT: improved organoleptical and physicochemical properties of bread, wider range of prophylactic bakery products, increased nutritive and biological value and increased biological effectiveness of products.

2 tbl, 3 ex

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