Automatic parametric electric drive

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed energy conservation electric drive that can be used for rotary boring, measurement of liquid discharges through large-diameter pipelines, and pump delivery regulation in main pipelines has at least one ac squirrel-cage actuating motor incorporating two independent windings of which one is connected in delta and other one, in star; three-phase generator that functions as three-phase power supply coupled with prime mover, such as diesel engine or electric motor; and automation system incorporating rectifier for varying parameters of dc current from control system, its output being connected to leads of three-phase generator inductor windings, as well as comparison device that generates control signal and is connected through its output to rectifier input and through inputs, to controlled variable setting element and sensor installed on controlled entity, such as on motor shaft. Eliminating operating instability zone and enhancing shaft starting torque, as well as extending range of shaft speed variation have made it possible to improve mechanical characteristics of electric drive.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and operating reliability, reduced mass and maintenance charges.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to actuators, and more specifically to parametric drive frequency of the shaft rotation of which is regulated by voltage, and diesel generator regulated drives.

The proposed automated parametric drive can be used as an actuator for rotary drilling, measurement of liquid flow in large diameter pipes, for controlling the feed pumps in pipelines of oil and water and as actuators for various purposes, which requires a greater depth of control when high starting point.

Widely known diesel generator with electric Executive (traction) DC motors for high-speed rail locomotives, heavy trucks and other vehicles (see textbook "Electrical machines", part 2, the authors Daibouken, Aesoteric, Vshost, M., "Higher school", 1987 str).

Diesel generator actuators contain a primary engine, typically a diesel engine, mated with a synchronous AC generator, semiconductor rectifier, the Executive "compounders", electric motor DC or switching unit, if one of the generator power is connected to several artist who fired the engines.

For these actuators during operation, especially in harsh climatic conditions of the Subpolar the problem is brush-collector node, when the subcooling brush crumble, leaving the system, and overheating swell and get stuck in the yoke.

Transport at high linear speeds between the collector and the brush there is a "circle of fire" even for platinum-carbon brushes.

Tires of large cross-section in the stator cause overheating of the actuator and low efficiency, especially in the process of starting the vehicle and driving with low speed.

Fire safety of DC motors is achieved by a complex of protective structures, which significantly increases the specific gravity of the links associated with the primary engine.

Energy efficiency links associated with the primary engine is in the range of 15-20%.

The frequency range of rotation of the motor shaft is 1:5. Lower speed is not allowed "circle of fire" collector. At low speed the traction motor low torque and pulling power.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved technical result is an automated parametric drive, developed "Vniiehlektroprivod" and the Moscow experienced the m factory "Unit" (see technical data sheet-Complete parametric drive type KPI-5.5-850-ROLS IGTP-PS, 1988).

Complete automated parametric drive contains Executive AC induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor and a stator, the windings of which have three outputs for connection to three-phase power source.

The shaft of the Executive motor mechanically connected with the shaft of the working machine, having a backbone of a working body.

Automated parametric drive is made on the basis of the thyristor control devices and asynchronous motor with parametric control (KPIs) in the form of three-phase asynchronous motor, the rotor of which is made in the form of "hot pipe" with a high ohmic resistance or laminated tires with a high ohmic resistance. The motor is equipped with additional independent fan for cooling it from overheating.

For example, the engine KPI-5,5, 5,5 kW is driven fan forced cooling, power 0,25 kW. Specifications contained in the passport KPIs are given in table 1.

Engine efficiency in the regulatory process does not exceed 8%, and the load current 24 And that at start-up reaches 168 A.

The weight of the electric motor, as VI is but from table 1, equal to 160 kg

Table 1

Main technical data of a complete parametric drives
Drive typeThe range of speed controlAt rated speed
power RNpower factor

cos ϕN
weight
min-1kW-kg
KPI-4-1350-ROLS135...13504,00,4080
KPI-5,5-1350-5,50,45160
KPI-7,5-13507,50,50200
KPI-11-135011,00,50200

Drive typeThe range of speed controlAt rated speed
power RNpower factor

cos ϕH
weight
min-1kW- kg
KPI-15-1350-15,00,50300
KPI-18,5-1350-18,50,50350
KPI-2,5-850-R UHLS85...8502,50,5080
KPI-5,5-850-5,50,47100
KPI-7,5-8507,50,49200
Bullpen-10-85010,00,45300
KPI-13-85013,00,50350

For all drives error on the control and disturbance effects of not more than 10%, the maximum value of overshoot of no more than 20%.

The most significant disadvantages of the known actuator are low energy indicators (efficiency, cos ϕ) and intensive heating of the Executive motor.

Powerful drive fan forced cooling as additional mandatory protection systems from overheating, having a large mass and dimensions, increases the weight and size characteristics, complicates the cooling system and the design in General.

Use teritory the device type trailer hitch has a negative impact on reliability.

No less significant disadvantage of this drive is the limited frequency range of rotation of the shaft of the Executive motor, especially at low revs. This limitation is due to a possible "tipping" induction motor due to a sharp drop in torque on its shaft and a considerable increase in current in the windings of the stator, which can cause fire if not work protection.

The basis of the invention is the creation of automated parametric actuator with improved mechanical characteristics actuating motor by eliminating the unstable zone and to increase the starting torque on its shaft that allows loads dramatically different from the nominal (acceleration, braking, operation at reduced speed, reversal), and when the voltage drop power supply for actuating the motor more than 30% from the nominal to provide a wide range of frequency control shaft rotation (from 0 rpm to the synchronous frequency) while maintaining high energy efficiency, ensuring any drive power up to MW, and high energy properties.

This is achieved in that the drive called automated parametric drive Yalovega (CEA), with the holding of at least one Executive AC induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor and a stator, windings of which have three outputs for connection to three-phase power source, the shaft of the Executive motor mechanically connected with the shaft of the working machine according to the invention, as a three-phase power source used three-phase generator, three pins which are electrically connected with the three leads of windings of the Executive motor shaft three-phase generator mechanically connected with the shaft of the primary motor, for example a diesel engine or electric motor and the windings of the inductor generator through an automated system electrically connected to at least one sensor parameter is set on the corresponding object of regulation, while the automated system includes a rectifier configured to change the settings permanent current from the control signal, the output of which is connected to the leads of the windings of the inductor, the comparator forming the control signal, the output of which is connected to the input of the rectifier and the input from the setting device and the sensor of the controlled parameter, which is set on the object of regulation.

As Executive motor to minimize costs and significant improvement in the properties compared to asynchronous or compounded series motor constantly what about the current use of structural steel standard three-phase asynchronous motor, in the stator slots of which there are two independent windings, one of which is connected Wye, another scheme is the triangle, well-known scheme BEA (USA patent No. 5559385 from 24.09.1996 year).

As a power source using a standard three-phase synchronous generator driven by an automated system with a semiconductor rectifier output that feeds (DC) inductor generator through the slip rings. Sensor controlled parameter is, for example, a Tacho-generator connected directly with the shaft of the Executive motor.

As the primary engine can be: adjustable BEA powered by three-phase network, diesel engine or engine category.

There are various ways to perform CEA, for example, the sensor of the controlled parameter can be set for actuating the motor and mechanically connected to its shaft for registering the rotation frequency.

In addition, the sensor of the controlled parameter can be installed on the production machine and mechanically connected to its shaft. Possible implementation, when the shaft three-phase generator mechanically connected with the shaft of the diesel engine, equipped with means for regulating the frequency of its rotation, and the sensor parameter is set to Executive engine and made in the form of current sensor is of botoc its stator.

It is advisable when using multiple Executive of AC motors in the case of group drives, for example at start-up and partial shutdown in stationary motion, the conclusions of the three-phase generator are electrically connected with leads of the windings of the motor through the switching unit.

The sensor of the controlled parameter can be installed on the trunk of the working fluid working machine to control such parameters of the working fluid as, for example, pressure, temperature, viscosity, saturation.

Tech shafts all links to articulate to each other via a hinge - coupled clutch, serving simultaneously vibromassage device.

The invention is further illustrated by a description of specific examples and the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 depicts the conditional functional diagram of an automated parametric actuator according to the invention, in one embodiment;

figure 2 - conditionally functional diagram of an automated parametric actuator according to the invention, in another embodiment;

figure 3 shows the appearance of the proposed parametric motor, Yalovega (CAA) and its dimensions in comparison with the known constructive solutions.

Consider the functional diagram pre the proposed actuator, depicted in figure 1, where the working machine is a powerful centrifugal pump 1 of the highways of oil or other fluid, connected articulated dual clutch 2 with twelve degrees of freedom, which is also vibromassage link (see RF patent №2155887). It is designed to transfer pump 1 Executive motor 3 torque without distortion in shape and time, neutralizing the negative impact of paired parts structural diagram of the proposed drive.

The shaft of the actuator 3 is connected to the tachogenerator 4 (sensor controlled parameter) standard design that provides the comparator 5, the feedback signal from the motor shaft 3. The comparator 5 is supplied the signal Y from the unit.

The actuator is equipped with a primary motor 6, which shaft through its own articulated dual clutch 7 is mechanically connected with the shaft of the three-phase generator 8, three pins which are electrically connected with the three conclusions of the windings of the stator of the actuator 3.

In the slots of the stator of the Executive motor 3 AC squirrel cage rotor has two independent three-phase windings, one of which is connected according to the scheme of the triangle, and the second Wye. Winding supply is s three leads for connection to three-phase power source, which is a three-phase generator 8, the conclusions of the windings of the inductor 9 is connected to the outputs of the rectifier 10, made in the form of a semiconductor transducer, the input of which receives the control signal.

The input device 5 comparison that generates a control signal which is connected to the setting device and the sensors of the controlled parameter, one of which is the Tacho-generator 4. Other sensors 11 and 12 can be installed on the trunk of the working fluid, in this example, on highways fluid, to control the parameters of the fluid such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, saturation and other parameters.

In addition, the sensor of the controlled parameter can be mechanically connected to the shaft of the pump 1 to the registration rate of rotation (not shown).

The use of the proposed Automated Parametric drive Yalovega has a large subset of cases. For example, figure 2 shows a variant of use of the actuator for rotary drilling, when as the primary motor 6 used diesel engine, torque generator 8 and the associated protective sleeve 7. The contact rings of the inductor 9 is connected, as in the previous diagram, figure 1, with the rectifier 10 automated control system. Feedback is generated by a tachometer , rigidly connected with the shaft of the actuator 3, which actuates the table 13, which passes through a rectangular drill rod 14.

This system has a high efficiency of energy and has full autonomy of supply.

In addition, by regulating the diesel engine can be used for frequency regulation method of the Executive motor.

While diesel is equipped with means for regulating the frequency of rotation of the shaft, and the sensor parameter is set to Executive engine and made in the form of current sensor winding its stator.

Automated Parametric drive Yalovega operates as follows.

Primary motor 6, for example RPAA, sets the frequency of the rotation shaft of the generator 8, for example 50 Hz. Specifies the Y signal and the signal from the Tacho-generator 4 unit 5 form a signal impact on power semiconductor Converter-rectifier 10, which forms a linear DC voltage into a three phase synchronous generator 8. The voltage applied to the terminals of the windings of the Executive motor 3, determines the frequency of rotation of the shaft and the centrifugal wheel pump 1. Control device 5 comparison of the setting device sets the wheel speed of the pump 1, starting with the smallest value is the example with two revolutions per minute. Gradually, over a given time interval of the transition process, for example 10-20 min, Executive motor 3 allows any given shaft speed limit and tightly regulated. The five-times overload on the shaft CAA does not change the frequency of rotation of the shaft. CAA regulated and the current frequency. With primary engine 6 you can set the frequency generator 8, in principle 50-55-60-65 Hz, if the mechanical strength of the pump 1 and the other rotating shafts and their aggregates.

Automated electric drive has a great depth of regulation, is a great starting point, therefore, is also an energy-saving system. This is evidenced by the large energy efficiency in regulating the rotation speed of the actuating motor. Energy efficiency drive without taking into account the control object is a centrifugal pump or other categories of load, in the rated mode is equal to 0.85. In the example used BEA received from the asynchronous motor A4-400X-WS, 500 kW, modernized scheme RPAA. In the result of the replacement of only the stator winding is increased capacity by 30%, the consumption of electrical steel is reduced to 250 kg of Starting torque is increased 4 times. Therefore, in the design process there is no need to overstate the power of the motor ,5-3 times, reducing the cap 3 times from the maximum of the passport.

The invention provides the use of protective clutch ShSM (RF patent No. 2155887 from 10.09.2000,), prolonging the service life of machines and mechanisms by half.

The proposed actuator has a control range of shaft speed from 0 rpm to the synchronous frequency, high energy efficiency, high power, up to MW, high starting torque, energy saving property.

In addition, the drive features high reliability, minimum specific weight per kW of power and low operating costs. With the technical implementation of the proposed CAA you can use the steel standard three-phase motor with squirrel-cage rotor.

The following is a comparative analysis of the properties of the proposed CEA compared with the known solutions:

- Adjustable voltage amplitude at a constant frequency current to a depth of 1:2900, and the known DC motor, compounded series: 1:5. Moreover, at low rpm, reduces the efficiency and torque.

- RPEA has favorable mechanical characteristics: 2/3 of the upper synchronous speed characteristic of the integrator, and the rest of traction with starting torque 3-4 times greater than that of an induction motor AD). Tests have shown that feedback on the speed of the Executive motor fivefold change in load did not change the setpoint speed for a single unit. Compounded series traction motor does not admit the feedback.

Proposed parametric drive more than 5 times more efficient than asynchronous unregulated drive or traction compounded with a series direct current motor uses electrical energy from the network for an extended period of time (60 days). Repeatedly tested by direct measurements.

- Inrush current at BEA 2.5 times less than the asynchronous, and significantly less than the compounded series. Due to this property the reliability in operation at BEA much higher than any other motor.

Connection of shafts of units in the proposed actuator is made using a special coupling ShSM (RF patent No. 2155887), which dampens the mutual shocks and vibration transmitting torque without mechanical interference. Increases the time interval between overhauls.

- Unlike DC drives offer does not generate powerful interference with the radio and electronic systems on Board the vehicle.

- State CAA mounted thinner wires, what the HELL similar power, but the starting torque is not less than that of the compound-series traction motor. As part of the windings of the stator there is no thick tires, which at full load reduce energy efficiency up to 15% (start).

Parametric motor, Yalovega has production costs 4-5 times less than the production of the compound-series traction motor.

- Automated Parametric actuator for high-speed transport has a mass 5 times less known actuators. Fireproof and does not have a brush-collector issues in conditions of the Arctic. Figure 3 shows photographs of two KPIs 5,5 kW each (right) and one engine RPE, Yalovega (left), with a capacity of 18 kW and an efficiency of 92%. Below the photo shows a thyristor control system type trailer hitch with the switching unit.

- To minimize costs and obtain a significant improvement in the properties of the actuator compared to asynchronous or compounded series with the direct current motor is used entirely of metal asynchronous, three-phase squirrel cage motor (HELL).

The simplest upgrade by replacing the traditional three-phase stator winding on a six-phase winding CEA included in the standard is Yu three-phase network. More complex modernization involves the formation of a new rotor design, which will give an increase of power 75%. Development RPAA completely full of the new theory allows to double the capacity without overheating the motor.

Table 2 shows the properties HELL with the capacity of 500 kW, acquired after the elementary modernization scheme BEA.

0,345
Table 2
HELLBEA
The name of the real parameters for the Protocol and referenceA4-400X-WSPA-400X-WS
Rated power, kW500646
Rated voltage60006000
Allowable voltage fluctuation, %+10; -5+ 20; -80
Rated phase current, a5872,5
Power factor, PU0,880,896
Slip, %1,31,14
Total losses in the nominal mode, kW2829,45
Efficiency, %94,795,6
The transition process0,538
The moment of rotor inertia, KGM,21111
Starting torque, KGM322,61517
Permissible load, kW25100
The temperature rise of the stator winding above ambient temperature, °C.6028
The range of the regulation voltage at a constant frequency current11:500
System management9multiwinding transformer
Weight of motor kg20702070
Efficiency average on the interval of 100 days or more with a centrifugal pump, %1254
The specific gravity of the engine, kg/kW4,143,28
Motor protection voltagerequirednot required
Mechanical characteristicsnot sustainable after Mkrstatically stable in all speed range
MTBF compared to A4 PU110

We offer Russian Automated Parametric drive Yalovega becoming the public may be applied as an actuator for rotary drilling for the measurement of liquid flow in large diameter pipes (2 m and more), flow control of pumps, for example, in pipelines, oil and water.

Calibration of large centrifugal pump with this drive can be performed on the water in laboratory conditions before setting into a highway. Measurement of water flow or especially oil in large pipelines previously known methods display is carried out with great accuracy, 10% or more.

The proposed device allows you to tarasovat consumption on the frequency of shaft rotation with an accuracy of 1%. In addition, the dosing flow rate of oil can be produced in the range from 0 to the maximum flow of the pump at any point.

The actuator is universal and can be used as actuators for various purposes, which requires a greater depth of control when high starting point.

1. Automated parametric drive that contains at least one Executive AC induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor and a stator, the windings of which have three outputs for connection to three-phase power source, the shaft of the Executive motor mechanically connected with the shaft of the working machine, wherein as a three-phase power source e is ectropion equipped with three-phase generator, three conclusions which are electrically connected with the three findings of two independent windings Executive motor one of which is connected according to the scheme of the triangle, and the second Wye, shaft three-phase generator mechanically connected with the shaft of the primary motor, for example a diesel engine or electric motor and the windings of the inductor generator through an automated system electrically connected with at least one sensor parameter is set on the corresponding object of regulation, while the automated system includes a rectifier configured to change the settings of DC control signal, the output of which is connected to the leads of the windings of the inductor, and a comparator that generates the control signal, the output which is connected to the input of the rectifier and the input from the setting device and the sensor of the controlled parameter, which is set on the object of regulation.

2. The actuator according to claim 1, characterized in that the sensor of the controlled parameter is set to Executive motor and mechanically connected to its shaft for registering the rotation frequency.

3. The actuator according to claim 1, characterized in that the sensor of the controlled parameter is mounted on the working machine and mechanically connected to its shaft for registering the rotation frequency.

4. The actuator according to claim 1, the best of the decomposing those the sensor of the controlled parameter is selected on the highway working fluid working machine control parameter of the working fluid, such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, gas saturation.

5. The actuator according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaft of the three-phase generator mechanically connected with the shaft of the diesel engine, equipped with means for regulating the frequency of its rotation, and the sensor parameter is set to Executive engine and made in the form of current sensor winding its stator.

6. The actuator according to claim 1, characterized in that when using multiple Executive of AC motors in the case of group drives, for example, at start-up and partial shutdown in stationary motion, the conclusions of the three-phase generator are electrically connected with leads of the windings of the motor through the switching unit.

7. The actuator according to any one of claim 2 to 6, characterized in that the shafts of all parts mechanically interconnected by means of hinge-coupled clutch, which vibromassage device.



 

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