# Method of measuring physical parameters of liquefied gas in container

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: first measurement of level of liquid is performed from value of measured electric capacitance C1 of first radio-frequency detector. Density of gaseous phase is determined on the base of value of electric capacitance C3 of corresponding radio-frequency detector. Simultaneously the second measurement is performed of level of liquid in reduced or increased range of change on the base of measured value of electric capacitance C2 of corresponding radio-frequency detector. Then functional conversion of measured electric capacitances C1, C2 and C3 is performed and dielectric permeability of liquid and gaseous phases is measured.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; widened functional capabilities.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used for high-precision determination of the physical parameters of the liquefied gas contained in the vessel.

Known methods of determining the physical, including quantitative (level, volume, mass), parameters of the substance in the vessel, based on the electric capacitance, radiowave - principles of instrumentation (monographs: 1) beaver G.N., Rollers A.G. Methods of level measurement. M: Engineering. 1977. S-141; 2) V.A. Viktorov, Lunkin BV, Sablukov A.S. radio-wave measurement of parameters of technological processes. M.: Nauka. 1989. P.84-117). Thus, in particular, the measurement of electrical capacitance using capacitive measurement methods, or resonant frequency of the electromagnetic oscillations of the RF or microwave resonator partially filled of controlled substances, to determine the level of the controlled fluid. Such methods are applicable in cases where the electrophysical parameters of the liquid and gas environment above it unchanged. When solving the problem of measuring the amount (mass) of liquefied gas such methods are very methodical measurement error due to variability ratio of liquid and gas phases, its arbitrary and uncontrolled changes due to changes in the temperature and other factors.

The closest in technical essence and purpose is capacitive method of measurement the quantity (level) of liquefied petroleum gas (article: Atant B.A., Peshenko A.N., Severin, I., "control of the level of liquefied hydrocarbon gases using capacitive devices". The gas industry. 1997. N 6. S-28), adopted as a prototype. According to this method prototype in the tank with liquefied gas have vertically capacitive sensor in the form of a cylindrical capacitor (two pipes with annular gap) and measure the capacitance of the capacitor, partially fill a controlled substance. The degree of filling of the tank with liquefied gas corresponds to the degree of immersion of the sensor.

This method, however, has some significant drawbacks. To determine the mass of liquefied gas, which is the most objective parameter of the content of this two-phase substance in the tank, you want to make additional density measurements of the special sensor density. Because it takes place in the vessel uncontrolled transition gas depends on its temperature, composition) from a liquid phase to a gas and Vice versa, the readings of this sensor density is inaccurate; the use of two sensors density separately for liquid and gas phases significantly complicates PR is a process measure and construction of the measuring device, implementing this method. Since the density of vapors of liquefied gas depends on temperature, pressure and composition (in particular, the ratio of propane and butane), then measuring the mass of the vapor phase may pay an additional truncation error (3-7%). Added to this is also the error due to the variation in pressure when pumping gas. Thus, for high-precision measurement of the mass of liquefied gas, you must have the channel strip (pair) and correction of errors due to changes in the density of steam. Next, note that the liquefied gas is boiling, resulting in lost the "liquid mirror". Therefore, various known methods of measurement (radio wave, ultrasonic, capacitive, which allows to determine only the level or edge Radel environments cannot provide high accuracy, stable and reliable operation of measuring devices to determine the actual value of the quantity (mass) of liquefied natural gas. Besides having a place boiling liquefied gas change as the level and density of gas. Intensive boiling (increase by 5-10%) occurs at the end of the process of transfer of liquefied gas, the adjustment pressure vapor phase and upon release of pressure for any reason; it lasts a few minutes. More low boil (increase by 1-3% is observed after an intense boiling as fading process, and when selecting a pair of the compressor, when mixing liquefied gases of different composition or different temperature and can last in this case a few hours.

To uniquely determine the level z requires knowledge of the dielectric permittivities ε_{W}fluid and ε_{g}gas. At the basic level sensor and the corresponding sensor for measuring ε_{W}and ε_{g}available in liquid and gas phase in the vessel, it would be possible to determine the physical parameters of liquefied gas. However, practically, in most cases, there is a possibility to carry out measurements, giving a capacity of 4 sensors only from the upper side (surface) of capacity. Known as the way of determining the level of z with the implementation of sensors for measuring ε_{W}and ε_{g}quite complex (U.S. Pat. USA N 6016697, int. CL: G 01 F 23/00). Therefore, another method of measuring physical parameters of a controlled substance in the tank.

The proposed method of determining the physical parameters of liquefied gas in the vessel is free from the above disadvantages. It provides high-precision determination of the following parameters: total mass of liquefied gas in real conditions of its storage capacity, regardless of its phase composition and the ratio of liquid and gas phases, the presence of boiling; fluid mass; massagetai phase; the density of the liquefied gas; density of the gas phase; the level of liquefied gas; the volume of the liquid and gas phases.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measurement and the expansion of the scope.

The goal in the proposed method of determining the physical parameters of the liquefied gas in the tank, including the density of the liquid and gas phases, the level of liquefied gas, the volume of the liquid phase and the gas phase, the mass of the liquid phase, gas phase and the total mass, which make a first determination of the liquid level on the magnitude of the measured electrical capacitance With_{1}vertically disposable capacity of the first radio frequency sensor and the determination of the density of the gas phase on the magnitude of the measured electrical capacitance C_{3}the respective radio-frequency sensor located in the gas phase, is achieved by the fact that at the same time produce a second determination of the liquid level in the reduced or increased from the bottom range of its measurement on the measured value of the electric capacitance C_{2}second vertically disposable radio frequency sensor, perform joint functional transformation of the measured electric tanks_{1}With_{2}and C_{3}and determine the dielectric constant of the liquid and gas phase by the formulas accordingly
where the signs "+" and "-" corresponds to reduced and increased bottom-range level measurement, the density of the liquid and gas phases - on formulas, respectivelywhere a is a constant for each substance value, the liquid level is according to the formula, where l is the measuring range of the level, With_{0}- electric capacity per unit length of the sensor, the volume of liquid and gas phases - on formulas, respectively, V_{W}=zS(z), V_{g}=V_{0}-V_{W}where V_{0}- tank capacity, S is the cross-sectional area of the vessel, the mass of the liquid and gas phases - on formulas, respectively, M_{W}=ρ_{W}V_{W}, M_{g}=ρ_{g}V_{g}and the total weight of the liquefied gas in the tank - by the formula M=M_{W}+M_{g}.

A distinctive signs, according to the authors, is:

- implementation of two level measurements in different ranges;

- implementation of joint functional transformations of the results of two level measurements in different ranges of change and measuring the density of the gas phase.

The set of distinctive features of the proposed method accounts for its new property: the definition of each of these physical parameters of the liquefied gas in the container of the STI only radio frequency (capacitive or radio wave) sensors regardless of the phase state of the liquefied gas, the presence or absence of its boiling point. This property provides a useful effect, formulated in the objectives of the proposals.

The proposed method is illustrated in the drawings in figure 1 and figure 2. In figure 1,and figure 1,b shows the functional scheme of the device for implementing this method. In figure 2,a and 2,b - graphs of equivalent electrical capacitance sensors liquid level.

The implementation of this method is done with the use of radio frequency sensors and measuring any informative parameter of each of them. The number of radio frequency sensors, running, usually in the mega Hertz range frequency range are as capacitive sensors, and the sensors on the basis of segments long lines; the latter is the process of distributing them along the electromagnetic waves. So, if you implement this method using capacitive or radio wave (in the form of segments of a long line of radio frequency sensors measured informative parameter of each sensor may be the resonant frequency of the electromagnetic oscillations f_{p}oscillating circuit (resonator)containing such a sensor as a frequency control element. When implementing this method with the use of segments of length of the line segment itself a long line is a resonator with fluctuations of THE type. For circuits with capacity is diversified sensors resonant frequency f_{
p}capacitive sensor, where L is the inductance connected to the sensor with equivalent capacity C. For circuits with radio wave sensors based on defined physical parameters describes the exact transcendental equations implicitly or explicitly close relationships, which are, however, sufficiently accurate for solving problems of technological measurements (see, for example, the monograph: V.A. Viktorov, Lunkin BV, Sablukov A.S. radio-wave measurement of parameters of technological processes. M.: Nauka. 1989. 280 C.).

To implement this way of measuring, you can use different designs of radio frequency sensors.

For RF level sensors, density, dielectric substances, which are liquefied gases, in particular capacitive sensors, it may be view equivalent electrical capacitance. The resulting conclusions are fully apply to cases where the implementation of this method on the basis of long line segments.

The essence of the method consists in the following.

As shown below, two level measurements in different ranges of change and measuring the density of the gas in the tank allows to solve the problem.

To determine the current values of physical parameters size the tion of gas in the tank produce,
in addition to the first dimension level value of the equivalent electrical capacity_{1}sensor one of the specified types, the second measurement in terms of the equivalent electrical capacitance With_{2}another sensor. The density of the gas phase LPG determined by determining its dielectric constant ε_{g}that is found by measuring the corresponding equivalent electrical capacity_{3}the third sensor located in the upper part of the tank filled with gas.

At the first measurement of the capacitance (capacitor) or radiofrequency (cut long lines) RF sensor 1 provides the definition of level z liquefied gas in the vessel 4 in the whole range of its dimensions - from zero to full fill (z=l, where l is the length of the first level sensor). In this case,

Here ε_{W}and ε_{g}- permittivity respectively the liquid and gas phases of a controlled substance; (C_{0}- capacity per unit length (i.e. linear capacity).

At the second level measurement controlled substance in the vessel 4 equivalent capacitance C_{2}capacitive or radio wave (in the form of a segment of a long line) RF sensor 2 is determined at a reduced bottom (Fig 1,a) or Uwe is Econom below (Fig 1,b) on the value of l_{
0}the range of change of level (range):

Here the signs "+" and "-" correspond to increasing and decreasing the length of the sensor 2 in the second dimension level. As shown in figure 1,b, to increase the measuring range (length sensor 2) by adding to the lower end of the capacitive or radio wave (cut long lines) sensor 2 horizontal plot filled with liquefied gas immediately at the depth of his connection, which may be the same as that of the first sensor when the first measurement). Considering the increase or decrease of the range of level measurement can be fundamentally any. If the increase of the measuring range no practical limitations, while reducing the measurement range should be considered best practices. In practice, such a change (decrease) in l_{0}may amount to 0.3 to÷0,4l. His choice of l_{0}due to the fact that for large values decreases the part of the working range level changes, which determine the current value of ε_{W}. At lower same values of l_{0}increases accuracy when calculating ε_{W}according to the procedure described below equation (3): absolute error of the measured values of tanks_{1}and C_{2}division by a small value production is edenia l_{
0}C_{0}(C_{0}=const) leads to a significant increase in the relative error of determination ε_{W}.

In figure 1,a and 1,b shows the functional block of the signal processing 5, coming from the RF sensors 7, 2, and 3, to determine the desired physical parameters of the liquefied gas in the tank 4, the co conversion of the output signals of these sensors.

Of the joint transformation of the relations (1) and (2) we find:

Here the sign "-" corresponds to the reduced range of the second dimension level (Fig 1,a); in this case_{1}>With_{2}. The "+" sign corresponds to an increased range of measurement in the second measurement, and figure 1,b; in this case_{1}<With_{2}.

The dielectric constant of the gas can be determined by measuring (probe 3) the equivalent capacitance C_{3}:

where- initial (when ε_{g}=1) is equivalent capacity_{3}.

For simplicity we will consider next the measurement process, in which the second dimension corresponds to the reduced range.

In this case, from the formula (1) and (2) we obtain:

The values here ε_{W}and ε_{g}are expressed respectively by formulas (3) and (4).

Figure 2 shows graphs of equivalent containers_{1}(line 1) and C_{2}(line 2) depending on the level z of the liquid. They correspond to the illustration of the measurement process in figure 1,b. It also marked the section with a length l_{0}that reduced the sensor 2 at the second level measurement z. Graphs corresponding to figure 2,b, is shown in figure 2,B. Here the dashed line shows the effective measurement range increase at the second level measurement z by the value of l_{0}(instant increase in the fill sensor due to its horizontal section on this value). These charts also indicated by dotted lines corresponding to a certain current level value z and the corresponding equivalent capacitors C_{1}(z) and C_{2}(z).

Knowing the geometry of the vessel containing liquefied gas, it is possible to find the volume occupied by the liquid and gas phases. In practice, where the used capacity of complicated shapes, sizes, often used special empirical or calculated tables showing the dependence of V(z) of the volume V of filling containers with liquid on its level z; this takes into account the dependence on z of the cross-sectional area S of capacity. In more simple cases, when the cross-sectional area of the tank is constant, the dependence of V(z) can be written analytically. This is the case, in which lastnosti,
for containers of cylindrical shape, which is filled along its longitudinal axis. In this case, the volume of liquid V_{W}and gas V_{g}phases are, respectively: V_{W}=zS; V_{g}=V_{0}-V_{W}where V_{0}- tank capacity.

For LPG the most appropriate parameter to determine its reserves in the tank is its mass. For nonpolar substances, including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is just the ratio of the Clausius - Mosotti describing the functional relationship between the density of matter (liquid, gas) and dielectric constant (Skanavi GI Physics of dielectrics (the region of weak fields). M.-L., Gill. 1949).

where ε - permittivity substance, μ - its molecular weight, ρ - density of matter, α - polarizability of molecules, N is the Avogadro's number.

From (6) it follows that

where A=4πNα/3μ - constant for each compound value.

Therefore

Then, knowing the density of the liquid and gas phases of a substance can help determine the appropriate mass values:

It is known that mixtures of gases, mixtures of liquefied gas is in, in particular propane-butane mixtures, fairly high accuracy in the following ratio (Rudakov GY and other "Dielectric permeability of gas condensate and its fractions". Scientific and technical. the overview. Series: the Processing of gas and gas condensate. M: Negatron. 1973):

Here ρ_{cm}and ε_{cm}the density and dielectric constant of the mixture; n_{i}the number of molecules of the ith species per unit volume, α_{i}the polarizability of molecules of the ith species, μ_{i}- molecular weight molecules of the ith species.

For each mixture the value of the

is constant.

From relations (12) and (13) imply the following formula for mixtures of substances:

This ratio is fairly high accuracy for any phase state of a mixture of substances, including liquefied gases. Therefore, in this case on the basis of (14) can be found similarly to (10) and (11) the mass of liquid, gaseous phase of the mixture and the total weight.

Thus, the proposed method allows to determine a set of different physical parameters of the liquefied gas contained in the vessel, with high accuracy regardless of its phase state and the ratio of liquid and gas phases, the presence of the boil. Possible determination of the mass of liquefied gas, the fluid mass and the mass of the gas above the liquid, the level of liquefied gas, the volume of its liquid and gas phases, density liquid density gas. In particular, this method can be applied for high-precision determination of these parameters liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

The method of determining the physical parameters of the liquefied gas in the tank, including the mass of liquid and gas phases and the total mass of liquefied gas, the level of liquefied gas, the volume of liquefied gas, the density of the liquid and gas phases, which produce a first measurement of the liquid level on the magnitude of the measured electrical capacitance With_{1}the first radio frequency sensor and the determination of the density of the gas phase on the magnitude of the measured electrical capacitance With_{3}the respective radio-frequency sensor, characterized in that simultaneously produce a second determination of the liquid level in the reduced or increased from the bottom range of its change on the measured value of the electric capacitance C_{2}the respective radio-frequency sensor, perform joint functional transformation of the measured electric tanks_{1}With_{2}and C_{3}and determine the dielectric constant of the liquid and gas phase by the formulas respectively

where the sign "-" corresponds smart the high range of the second dimension level, the sign "+" corresponds to an increased range of measurement with the second measurement;

l_{0}the size of the range of changes of level;

With_{0}- electric capacity per unit length of the sensor,

the density of the liquid and gas phases is determined by the formulas accordingly

where a is a constant for each substance value,

the liquid level is determined by the formula

where l is the measuring range of the level,

the volume of liquid and gas phases - on formulas, respectively, V_{W}=zS and V_{g}=V_{0}-V_{W}where S is the cross - sectional area of the vessel; V_{0}- the volume of the vessel,

the mass of the liquid and gas phases - on formulas, respectively, M_{W}=ρ_{W}V_{W}and M_{g}=ρ_{g}V_{g}where V_{W}and V_{g}volume of tank liquid and gas phases, respectively.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has excitation winding, fed by alternating current and measuring winding, connected to alternating voltage meter. Both windings are enveloped by protective cover, placed in controlled electric-conductive environment. To provide for high sensitivity to level of environment and decrease of temperature error from influence of construction materials, conductors of measuring winding are distanced from excitation winding conductors for distance, equal to one to ten sums of thickness of protective cover and radius of excitation winding cable cover. Also provided are different variants of constructions of level meters both with solenoid and frame windings.

EFFECT: higher precision.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: water level alarm comprises the section of coaxial long line provided with inner conductor projecting beyond its end. The section is connected with the high-frequency generator and recorder. The generator is made of a self-excited oscillator. The section is connected to the frequency generating circuit of the self-excited oscillator. The recorder is made of a frequency meter. The projecting part of the inner conductor is made of two members of the same length, but different diameters. The diameter of the end part exceeds that of the other part of the projecting part of the inner conductor by a factor of ten. The projecting part of the conductor can be covered with a dielectric shell.

EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.

1 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; high-accuracy determination of liquefied gas mass in reservoir irrespective of its phase.

SUBSTANCE: three RF sensors of different length are placed in reservoir filled with liquefied gas. Sensors are connected to secondary converter. Length of first sensor vertically placed in reservoir corresponds to height of reservoir. Length of second vertical sensor is reduced from below by value no more than 0.35 of length of first sensor. Third sensor is located in gas phase of liquefied gas and its length is no more than 0.3 of length of first sensor. Each sensor may be connected to frequency-setting circuit of respective self-excited oscillator.

EFFECT: enhanced measurement accuracy; extended field of application.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; high-accuracy determination of liquefied gas mass in reservoir irrespective of its phase.

SUBSTANCE: three RF sensors of different length are placed in reservoir filled with liquefied gas. Sensors are connected to secondary converter. Length of first sensor vertically placed in reservoir corresponds to height of reservoir. Length of second vertical sensor is reduced from below by value no more than 0.35 of length of first sensor. Third sensor is located in gas phase of liquefied gas and its length is no more than 0.3 of length of first sensor. Each sensor may be connected to frequency-setting circuit of respective self-excited oscillator.

EFFECT: enhanced measurement accuracy; extended field of application.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: water level alarm comprises the section of coaxial long line provided with inner conductor projecting beyond its end. The section is connected with the high-frequency generator and recorder. The generator is made of a self-excited oscillator. The section is connected to the frequency generating circuit of the self-excited oscillator. The recorder is made of a frequency meter. The projecting part of the inner conductor is made of two members of the same length, but different diameters. The diameter of the end part exceeds that of the other part of the projecting part of the inner conductor by a factor of ten. The projecting part of the conductor can be covered with a dielectric shell.

EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.

1 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has excitation winding, fed by alternating current and measuring winding, connected to alternating voltage meter. Both windings are enveloped by protective cover, placed in controlled electric-conductive environment. To provide for high sensitivity to level of environment and decrease of temperature error from influence of construction materials, conductors of measuring winding are distanced from excitation winding conductors for distance, equal to one to ten sums of thickness of protective cover and radius of excitation winding cable cover. Also provided are different variants of constructions of level meters both with solenoid and frame windings.

EFFECT: higher precision.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: first measurement of level of liquid is performed from value of measured electric capacitance C1 of first radio-frequency detector. Density of gaseous phase is determined on the base of value of electric capacitance C3 of corresponding radio-frequency detector. Simultaneously the second measurement is performed of level of liquid in reduced or increased range of change on the base of measured value of electric capacitance C2 of corresponding radio-frequency detector. Then functional conversion of measured electric capacitances C1, C2 and C3 is performed and dielectric permeability of liquid and gaseous phases is measured.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; widened functional capabilities.

2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for measuring electric parameters of two-terminal devices used as physical process detectors (temperature, pressure, level of loose and liquid matters and et cetera) at transportation vehicles and in systems for measuring level of filling of rocket-space equipment. Device for measuring level of dielectric matter has first and second measuring inputs, sinusoidal voltage source, equivalent circuit preset unit, standard which has first output connected with first input of switching unit, current-to-voltage converter, scaling amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. Switching unit is made to be multi-channel one, which has first measuring, input with second output of standard and with output of sinusoidal voltage generator. Control input of the latter is connected with first output of frequency-control unit. Measuring inputs starting from second to (n+1) are connected with corresponding inputs of switching unit which has output connected with first outputs of electric capacity and active resistance calculators through current-to-voltage converter, scale amplifier and analog-to-digital converter all connected in series. It is also connected with first input of measurement control input which has outputs connected with control inputs of switching unit, of scale amplifier and analog-to-digital converter as well as with first input of frequency control unit and with second inputs of electric capacity and active resistance calculators. Control input of measurement control unit is connected with control output of mode control unit which has outputs connected with second input of frequency control unit, with equivalent circuit setting unit, with first input of electric capacitance total increment calculator, with first input of level calculator, with first input of electric capacitance current increment calculator and with input switching control unit. Output of the latter is connected with second control input of switch unit. Output electric capacitance calculator is connected with second input of calculator of current increment in electric capacitance. Output of the latter is connected with second input of level calculator. Third and fourth inputs of electric capacitance and active resistance calculators are connected with output equivalent circuit preset unit and with second output of frequency control unit. Output of calculator of current increment in electric capacitance is connected with third input of level calculator. Output of the latter as well as outputs of active resistance calculator and switch control unit have to be outputs of the device.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved manufacturability; improved efficiency of measurement.

6 dwg

FIELD: electric measurement engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measurement of electrical parameters of two-terminal networks used as detectors of physical processes (temperature, pressure, level of liquid and loose maters et cetera) at industrial installations, transportation vehicles and in systems for measuring level of setting-up of rocket-space equipment. Sinusoidal voltage is formed in capacitive level gauge and complex current is measured which passes through dry capacitive level gauge as well as through filled-in capacitive level gauge. Equivalent circuit of capacitive level gauge is specified which circuit consists of electric capacitance and active resistance. Sinusoidal voltage is formed in capacitive detector at two frequencies. After it complex current is measured through dry level detector and through reference detector for any of those frequencies. Results of measurement are registered, electric capacitance of capacitive level gauge is measured and registered and increment in electric capacitance of capacitive level gauge is measured and registered when submerging gauge into dielectric matter completely. Subsequent measurement and registration of complex current is carried out through capacitive level gauge filled with dielectric matter and through reference gauge for any of mentioned frequencies. For any periodical measurement the electric capacitance of capacitive level gauge is measured and registered. Relative filling of capacitive level gauge with dielectric matter is measured as difference of values of electric capacitance of dry capacitive level gauge and electric capacitance of filled-up capacitive level gauge related to increment in electric capacitance of capacitive level gauge submerged into liquid totally.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved adaptability to manufacture.

2 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering, possible use for measuring level of liquid products, in particular, oil and oil products in railroad cisterns.

SUBSTANCE: level meter for measuring level of liquid contains bar with single capacity level indicators, positioned along its length, bar is made in form of hollow elongated construction, inside the construction a pair of electronic boards is positioned in form of rods, mounted in parallel to one another and at fixed distance from each other, forming single capacity level indicators on opposite planes facing each other, by means of electrodes on one electronic board and common electrode on the other board. When measuring level of liquid, serial scanning of indicators is performed in pairs of following indicator with previous one and on basis of received scanning results, level of liquid is calculated.

EFFECT: increased manufacturability, reliability and precision when measuring level of liquid product.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measuring level of melt metals, possibly in systems for controlling manufacturing processes in metallurgical industry, for example in apparatuses for thermal-magnetic reduction of titanium.

SUBSTANCE: device includes exciting windings and metal level pickups in the form of induction turns, computing unit. Said windings and level pickups are placed in pairs around vessel with melt metal. Computing unit is connected with level pickups. It provides possibility for scanning pickups, digitizing voltage values of pickups, approximating pickups readings of designed curve found according to decision of simulation task, calculating derivative of said curve and determining metal level according maximum value of derivative. Excitement windings of device are connected in series and they form electromagnet.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy, lowered labor consumption of measuring process.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: fuel level meter comprises elongated capacitive sensor connected in the frequency-generating circuits of functional and base self excited oscillators. The main and additional counters generate the position code of the fuel level from the output frequencies of the self-excited oscillators. The level is indicated by the linear or pointer indicator provided with a converter of position code into the current of supplied to the pointer indicator.

EFFECT: reduced power consumption and enhanced reliability.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: holding system for measuring device for controlling and/or determining level of environment in reservoir, containing at least one body (13) and at least one elongated block (1). In accordance to invention, body (13) of device includes at least one incision ring (4), which is cut into external layer of elongated block (1) oriented from end process with possible connection of elongated block (1) to body (13) of device electrically, with resistance to compression and stretching.

EFFECT: creation of holding system, by means of which holding block may be fastened on or in a body of device.

8 cl, 3 dwg