Liquid heater

FIELD: heat-power engineering; water heating systems for living and industrial rooms.

SUBSTANCE: proposed liquid heater has stator with cylindrical cavity and rotor mounted in this cavity at spaced relation and secured on rotating shaft; intermediate bush or disk mounted between rotor and shaft is made from dielectric material, thus reducing losses of heat over rotor shaft.

EFFECT: reduction of heat losses; enhanced efficiency.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to heat engineering, in particular to a device for receiving heat generated otherwise than as a result of combustion of fuels, and can be used in hot water heating systems, residential and industrial premises.

A device for heating the liquid friction method lies in the fact that heat is produced through friction for each other and/or liquid to solid, driven in a vessel with liquid, as described in SU # 1627790.

A disadvantage of this device is that due to the loss of energy efficiency of heating (the ratio of the number of produced thermal energy to mechanical or electrical energy consumed by the device) much less than unity.

A device for heating the liquid in which the efficiency of heating up. This "hydrogena pump as described in US patent No. 5188090, author J.L. Griggs. This device consists of a metal stator having a cylindrical cavity closed by a flat cover. In the center of the cover and in the opposite side of the stator has an axial hole in which the bearings installed shaft attached to the motor causing it to rotate. On the shaft within the cavity of the stator reinforced cylindrical aluminum rotor, on the peripheral cylindrical surface of which a teacher is oorno there are many recesses, having a diameter ˜ 10 mm and drilled to a depth approximately equal to the diameter of these holes. The gap between the cylindrical surfaces of the rotor and stator is ˜ 0.5 mm Shaft through the holes in the stator and its lid sealed end seals for preventing leakage of the heated liquid from the device and hit her in the bearings. In the end covers of the stator there are openings for supplying heated liquid to the device with one hand and tap it with the other hand.

Described known device operates as follows. Through the inlet into the cavity of the stator serves water to be heated. It flows through the gap between the stator and the rotor and extends from the opposite side through the hole in the end cap of the device that is attached to the pipe for exhaust heated water to the consumer. During the rapid rotation of the rotor is the turbulence of the water in the grooves on its surface. In the recesses of the rotor and the gap between the cylindrical surface and the stator cavitation occurs, leading to heat water.

A disadvantage of the known device is described in U.S. patent No. 5188090, is that a monolithic rotor with this device is made of an expensive large-sized workpiece. To address this shortcoming in the invention described in U.S. Pat is the Ukraine No. A, the proposed device for heating the liquid, the rotor is composed of several metal disks mounted on the driven shaft with intervals between the peripheral parts of the disk. On the cylindrical surface of the disc is full of holes, drilled to a depth approximately equal to their diameter, and the periphery of the disk rotor at their ends, there are many holes located around the circumference and extending in the space intervals between the discs. Some of these holes can be performed not through, and to a depth approximately equal to from 0.5 to 1 diameter. Execution of the rotor from multiple disks mounted on the shaft, allows the use for the manufacture of the rotor is not already large and small workpieces, which are cheaper and more accessible large and which is easier to handle cutting machines. This simplifies and reduces the cost of manufacture and repair of the rotor.

The closest technical solution to the declared object (the prototype) is the "heater fluid"described in the patent of Ukraine №A.

In this device, consisting of a stator with a cylindrical cavity through which pass the heated liquid, and inserted with clearance in the cavity metal of the rotor, mounted on the driven shaft and made in the form of C is lindra, having on its surface a multitude of recesses or recruited from disk having on its surface a multitude of recesses and/or holes, the rotor is made of a transition metal of the iron group or of a ferromagnetic alloy of the metal with other metals and/or carbon.

Execution of the rotor or its constituent disks of these metals or alloys leads, as shown by experiments, to significantly improve the efficiency of heating the liquid (the ratio of heat produced to the required mechanical or electrical energy) compared to heating it in the same device, but with a rotor made of other metals that are not included in the specified collection. The reasons identified according to the efficiency of the heat from the kind of the metal of the rotor is not very clear. However, the dependence is manifested clearly that enables to significantly improve the efficiency of the fluid heater compared to heaters of the same design, the rotor of which is made of aluminum.

A drawback of the known device the prototype is the large inertia of the rotor is made of a ferromagnetic metals and alloys, the density of which is several times more than the density of aluminum. This leads to overload the motor, causing the rotor in rotation, IOM is NT starting the engine and the emergence of large inrush currents.

Another disadvantage of the known device the prototype, is also peculiar, and the above described well-known generators, having lightweight aluminum rotors, is that the heat generated on the peripheral surface of the rotor is easily transmitted through the metal of the rotor to its shaft, and the shaft comes to seals and bearings, overheating them, which leads to rapid failure. In addition, a significant part of the produced heat is lost as a result of leaving it on the shaft of the heat generator to pressurized parts and the clutch connecting the shaft with the shaft of the motor, causing the rotor to rotate.

A disadvantage of the known device is low and the efficiency of heating the liquid in it (the ratio of heat produced to the required mechanical or electrical energy).

The basis of the invention the task is to create a device for heating the liquid, which is due to the introduction into the design of the rotor of additional parts of the lungs insulating metals allows to reduce the weight and inertia of the rotor and thereby to reduce the inrush currents of the motor, causing the rotor in rotation, and to prevent the flow of heat from the rotor to the shaft and thereby to reduce overheating of seals and bearings, and also to reduce the loss of heat generated and thereby increase is to build the capacity and efficiency of the fluid heater.

The problem is solved in that the fluid heater comprising a stator having a cylindrical cavity through which pass the heated liquid, and inserted with clearance in the cavity and fixed on the driven shaft of the rotor is made in the form of a cylinder having on its cylindrical surface a multitude of recesses, or in the form of a disk or multiple disks, having on its peripheral surface a multitude of recesses and/or holes, according to the invention between the rotor shaft and the intermediate sleeve or disk of insulating or dielectric material.

Introduction to the design of the heater intermediate sleeve or disc of insulating material mounted between the rotor and the shaft, substantially reduces the maintenance of heat from the rotor to the shaft, and through it to the seals and bearings. This not only protects the seals and bearings from overheating, but also reduces the loss of generated heat that ran through seals and bearings on body parts, as well as going through coupling with the shaft of the heater fluid to the motor shaft.

Introduction to the design of the heater intermediate sleeve or disc of insulating material mounted between the rotor and the shaft, not only significantly reduces maintenance t the PLA with the rotor on the shaft, and further thereon, but also decreases the weight of the rotor, as the majority of thermal insulation materials (fiberglass, fiberglass laminate, plastics, wood and others) have a density less than the density of steel and other ferromagnetic material of the rotor in the known device. This ensures the reduction of the moment of inertia of the rotor and the reduction of inrush currents when starting the motor, causing the rotor of the fluid heater in rotation.

The proposed solution does not apply to normal engineering design, because the intermediate sleeve or disk mounted between the rotor and the shaft, of a dielectric material provides electrical isolation of the rotor from the stator. And this leads to accumulation on the rotor of the electric charge when the rotor due to the electrification of the rotating parts of the rotor friction of the heated fluid. (Especially a large electric charge appears when used as a working fluid, transformer oil or other dielectric fluids.) The appearance of the electric charge on the rotor causes the electric field in the working gap between the rotor and stator and electric discharges between their surfaces. These electric fields and discharges can significantly affect the character of physical processes, increasing the yaschih in the working gap. Beforehand it was impossible to predict, will increase or decrease all the work efficiency of the proposed heater. Therefore, the proposed solution does not apply to obvious. Only the experiments of the applicant have shown that the electric field and the discharge in the working gap of the proposed boiler not only provide additional heating of the liquid, but also intensify other electrophysical processes of cavitation in the working gap, which make the main contribution to heat the working fluid. All this leads to increasing the efficiency of heating the liquid.

Below the invention is disclosed in detail in the description with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 depicts in the context of the proposed heater liquid with a monolithic cylindrical rotor;

figure 2 is another embodiment of a heater having a composite rotor recruited from discs;

figure 3 is another embodiment of the heater is made on the basis of the centrifugal pump;

figure 4 is another variant of the heater, also made on the basis of a centrifugal pump in which the rotor has a metal hub.

The proposed fluid heater consists of a casing 1 (Fig 1) stator made of cut steel pipe, to which the bottom is welded to the legs of the spacer and the plate 2 with the bolt holes on the I mounting the device to the Foundation. The ends of the stator housing 1 is closed by a steel lid 3 is pressed against the rubber or PTFE rope seal 4 using tightening bolts 5. In the center hole of the lid 3 is inserted and welded hermetic seam of the sleeve 6 that serve as supports for the bearings 7, which has a steel shaft 8. He sealed end seals 9, presses the cups 10 and springs 11. On the shaft 8, provided with a plug 12 mounted sleeve 13 of the PCB or fiberglass, or from dried wood impregnated with linseed oil, or heat-resistant plastic. The sleeve 13 is pressed, the rotor 14 is made of a section of a pipe made of carbon steel or other transition metal. The diameter of the rotor 14 is chosen depending on the maximum speed of rotation of the shaft 8, developing a used engine, so that the maximum of the tensile stresses arising in the metal of the rotor against the centrifugal force, does not exceed the allowable conditions of strength for this material.

In the apparatus shown in figure 2, the rotor consists of a disk 15 made of the above-mentioned ferromagnetic metal or alloy and mounted on textolite or plastic sleeve 13, which are mounted on a steel shaft 8, provided with a plug 12. The same intervals (5-25 mm) between the disk 15, having a thickness of 10-30 mm, are provided intermediate disk and 16, made of textolite or ebony. The rotor disks 15 and 16 are compressed into a package using metal discs 17 and nuts 18. The disks 17 we recommend the stainless steel, thermal conductivity of which is 5 times lower than that of carbon structural steel. This reduces the maintenance of heat in the disk 17 with extreme drives the rotor 15 on the shaft 8.

Outside the bearings 7 are closed lids, one of which has a Central hole for the shaft 8, the end of which stands for the cover and has a seat for the mounting of the pulley or coupling, with which it is connected to the engine (electric, diesel, or other)that causes the shaft 8 to rotate.

The outer diameter of the disk rotor 15 is selected depending on the kind of metal or alloy from which made the disks, and the maximum speed of rotation of the shaft 8, developing a used engine, so that the maximum of the tensile stresses arising in the metal disk 15 against the centrifugal force, does not exceed the allowable conditions of strength for this material. At the same time, it is recommended to achieve when the device maximum permissible stresses for a given metal disk 15. Then the device is most effective. The number of disks 15 in the package constituting the rotor depends on the power of the motor which drives the shaft 8 in rotation, and taken the big the more powerful the engine.

The gap between the rotor 13 or disk 15 and the inner surface of the cylindrical cavity in the stator 1 is 0,3-0,7 mm

On the outer cylindrical surface of the rotor or disk 15 there are many cylindrical recesses 19 having a diameter of 5-25 mm, They are made to a depth of 0.5 to 1 diameter of these holes by drilling or EDM machining. These grooves 19 are evenly spaced around the cylindrical surface of the rotor 13 or around the circumference of each disk 15 with a step between the recesses constituting 2.5 - 3 diameter recess. When performing composite rotor disk 15 between the grooves 19 done (by drilling or EDM processing) through holes 20 located at the ends of the disk 15 and spaced from the edge on the distance to the center of the hole equal to 2-2,5 times the diameter of these holes, selectable in the range from 5 to 25 mm, the holes in the ends of the disks 15 of the rotor located on the periphery of these discs may not be transparent, and at a depth of 0.5 to 1 diameter of these holes (see figure 2). This through hole 20 and the non-through holes 21 are interleaved alternately. At the top of the caps 3 are screw holes 22 and 23, into which is screwed fittings pipelines to supply and exhaust fluid heated in the described device, zobrazen the m in figure 2.

In the device shown in figure 1, the outside of the stator housing 1 is welded to the casing of the heat exchanger 24 from the inlet 25 and outlet 26 holes. The first attached the pipe feeding the working fluid to be heated from the second leaves the pipe 27, coming toward the inlet 22 in the cover 3 of the heater fluid.

Single heater fluid, is shown in figure 3 also has a cylindrical stator 1, but the whole construction is mounted not on the legs welded to this stator, as in the devices shown in figures 1 and 2, and is screwed to the bearing node 28 standard centrifugal pump console type by pins 29 screwed into a steel casing 30 packing site. Between the housing 30 and the flange of the bearing unit 28 posted by insulating strip 31 of the PCB, hard rubber or other heat-resistant plastic. Gland packing gland 32 node is pressed by the cover 33, is screwed to the housing 30 omental site two studs with nuts (not shown)seals the shaft 8, being sandwiched between the sleeves 34 and 35, is made of heat-resistant plastic. To the housing 30 stuffing node welded steel flange 36, which through a layer of adhesive-sealant to secure the stator 1. On the shaft 8, provided with a plug 12 mounted rotor, consisting of a disc (washer) 37, made of a ferromagnetic metal is or alloy and screwed on the disk 38, made of fiberglass or other dielectric material. The disc 38 of the rotor is sandwiched between the steel washers 39 and 40 by means of a bolt 41, screwed into the end of the shaft 8. The gap between the disc 37 of the rotor and the inner cylindrical surface of the stator 1 is 0,3-0,7 mm the outer cylindrical surface of the disc 37 of the rotor drilled a lot of cylindrical recesses 42, having a diameter of 5-10 mm, They are made to a depth of 0.5 to 1 diameter of these holes. These grooves 42 are evenly spaced around the circumference of the cylindrical surface of the disk 37 of the rotor with a pitch between the grooves constituting 2.5-3 diameter recess. The left outer edge of the disk 37 in the intervals between the recesses 42 is cut or drilled radial grooves 43 that performs the function of the blades of a centrifugal pump. In the dielectric disk 38 has holes 44 drilled parallel to the axis of the shaft 8. To the flange 36 and the housing 30 of the seal is welded to the casing of the heat exchanger 45 with the inlet pipe 46 for supplying it heated liquid. On the opposite side to the end face of the stator 1 having holes 47 under the bolts parallel to the axis of the shaft 8, glued adhesive-sealant steel disk 48, provided with welded thereto by a fitting 49 to exhaust heated liquid. This fitting is wearing a steel washer 50 and a Teflon gasket 51. The disk 48 is glued with adhesive-sealant hundred is inoe ring 52 with bolt holes, and to him the same glue and glued the cover 53. It is fastened by bolts 54, tightening the whole package of the above details. However, only half of the holes 47 in the stator 1 is occupied by the bolts 54, and the remaining holes 47 are free and serve for the passage through them of the heated liquid. Outside on the output fitting 49 is wearing a Teflon gasket 51 and a steel washer 55, presses the nut 56.

Single heater fluid, depicted in figure 4, it is proposed to make on the basis of centrifugal pumps, the shaft of which is threaded for the attachment to it of the rotor on which the response thread, made in fiberglass or other plastic, would not survive engine torque and would be disrupted during the rotation of the shaft. This heater is a cylindrical housing 1 is made not of steel but of a heat-resistant plastic (e.g., from apoteka). As in the device shown in figure 3, the whole structure of the actual fluid heater bolted to bearing the node 57 standard centrifugal pump console type by pins 58, under nuts are enclosed insulating dielectric washers. Case 59 stuffing of site, covered with rubber chemical-resistant shell on the factory pump, and the flange bearing Assembly 57 is separated from the heater to the liquid insulating ring 60 of tech is the out this fascinating site, apoteka or other solid heat-resistant plastic. Gasket seal 61 with the cover 62, screwed to the housing 59 stuffing host two studs with nuts (not shown)seals the shaft 8, being compressed by the sleeve 63, made of heat-resistant plastic. Rubber seal 64 seals the joint of casing 59 stuffing node and steel flange 65 of the fluid heater, drawn together by pins (not shown). To the flange 65 through a layer of adhesive sealant-attached ring body 1. On the threaded end of the shaft 8 is screwed to the rotor, consisting of a steel hub 66, the disk 67 (washers), made of a ferromagnetic metal or alloy, and connecting the intermediate disk 68, made of textolite and riveted to the hub 66 and the disk 67 rivets 69. The stator fluid heater consists of a massive steel ring 70 that is welded to a steel flange 71. The gap between the disc 67 of the rotor and the inner cylindrical surface of the ring 70 of the stator is 0,3-0,7 mm the outer cylindrical surface of the disc 67 rotor drilled a lot of cylindrical recesses 72, having a diameter of 5-10 mm, They are made to a depth of 0.5 to 1 diameter of these holes and are evenly spaced around the circumference of the cylindrical surface of the disk 67 of the rotor with a pitch between the grooves constituting 2.5-3 diameter recess. On the surface of the disc 67, p is ilegala with a gap of 0.5-1 mm to the flange 71 of the stator, in the intervals between the recesses 72 are holes 73, which has a diameter of 5-10 mm, They drilled to a depth of 0.5 to 1 diameter of these holes. To the flange 71 of the stator glued adhesive-sealant steel ring gasket 74, and to it the same adhesive bonded steel plate (disc) 75 heat exchanger. Then, the second ring-gasket 74, and on top of it is covered by a steel cap plate heat exchanger 76. The whole set of plates and gaskets glued adhesive-sealant and pulled the bolts 77. In the center of the cover 76 has an inlet 78 for filing in the described device of the heated liquid, and in the flange 65 has a pipe 79 for exhaust heated liquid.

The proposed fluid heater shown in figure 2, works as follows. Into the inlet 22 of the cover 3 supplied from the pump through a pipeline attached to this hole, the fluid to be heated (water, oil, transformer oil, antifreeze or other). Filling device, it flows out through a pipeline attached to the opposite hole 23 in another cap 3, and is fed either to the consumer of heat, either in the vessel drive heated liquid. From there, it again serves the pump to the input of the described device, pumping the liquid through it in a continuous loop until until its temperature in the vessel drive in depannage heating in the proposed device does not rise to the desired value. After filling the internal cavity of the stator of the device is heated by the liquid include a motor (electric motor, diesel or other)that is attached to the shaft 8 and causes it to rotate. The higher the speed, the higher the efficiency of the proposed heater and the faster is heated fluid in it. The maximum speed is limited not only by the capabilities of the used engine, but also the durability of the metal disk 15 of the rotor is exposed during the rotation of tearing the influence of centrifugal forces.

The liquid supplied through the hole 22 inside the described heater, enters the gap between the surface of the cavity in the stator 1 and the disk rotor 15. In this part of the fluid flow flows through the gap between the surfaces of the rotor and the stator, and the other part through the through-hole 20 in the disk rotor 15. When the rotor is the turbulence of the liquid in these holes, and recesses 19 and 21 and there are ultrasonic vibrations in it, just as occurs whistle of air into the perforations of the rotor siren sound as it rotates. By increasing the speed of rotation of the discs 15 of the rotor starts to work cavitation at the edges of these holes and recesses. When periodic rapid compression and expansion of the cavitation vapor bubbles occurs in accordance with Sakanami thermodynamics transformation of mechanical energy into thermal energy, which leads to heating the liquid.

In addition, cavitation bubbles with resonance strengthen their ultrasonic vibrations occur in the periodic collapse of the vapor-gas mixture, leading to local heating it in the center of the bubbles to temperatures of thousands of degrees Celsius. This leads, as is known, to sonoluminescence the glow of the liquid in the ultrasonic field.

During the rapid rotation of the rotor occurs electrification from its friction on the fluid (especially when using dielectric fluids). The disks 15 and 16, made of an electrically insulating material to provide electrical isolation of the metal disk 15 of the rotor from the shaft 8, and the other metal parts of the heater fluid, the rotor is not in contact. Therefore, the disks 15 of the rotor charged electrostatic electric charge and between their surface and the surface of the stator 1, an electric field. It enhances sonoluminescence in cavitation bubbles, which in this case goes into electroanalytical.

The device shown in figures 1, 3 and 4 are almost the same as described above, the device shown in figure 2. Only the heated fluid, the direction of which is shown by arrows, before serving in the cavity of the stator pre-heated warmth of corpus the x components of the stator by means of heat exchangers. This reduces the temperature of the body parts and reduces the loss of heat with the surrounding air.

A fluid heater, comprising a stator having a cylindrical cavity through which pass the heated liquid, and inserted with clearance in the cavity and fixed on the driven shaft of the rotor is made in the form of a cylinder having on its cylindrical surface a multitude of recesses, or in the form of a disk or multiple disks, having on its peripheral surface a multitude of recesses and/or holes, characterized in that between the rotor shaft and the intermediate sleeve or disk of insulating or dielectric material.



 

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5 dwg

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device for heating water comprises heat generator of pump type, which consists of housing that have cylindrical section and receives at least one member for acceleration of fluid flow made of working wheel composed of two disks which allow the working wheel to be set in rotation and disk made of a flat ring secured inside the cylindrical section of the housing in the zone of rotation of working wheel coaxially to it, one member for decelerating fluid flow made of a conical straightener, and heat exchange system connected with the delivery branch pipe and the pump. The disks of the working wheel define nozzles arranged closer to its face. The working wheel and unmovable disk define space of variable cross-section for sucking heated fluid through the nozzles and supplying it to consumers. According to a particular version, the working wheel can be mounted for permitting adjusting the spaces between its sides and lids at the inlet and outlet of the heat generator.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

9 dwg

FIELD: heat production by means other than fuel combustion for premises water heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cavitation-type rotary heat-generator has housing provided with heated-liquid inlet and outlet and cylindrical surface carrying two coaxial rings of which one is fixed in position relative to housing and other ring is set in rotary motion by drive shaft disposed coaxially with rings. The latter are provided with radial holes disposed in plane perpendicular to axis of revolution. External coaxial ring is revolving and internal one is fixed in position relative to housing, clearance of 0.5 to 3 mm being provided between external revolving ring and internal cylindrical surface of housing. Steel disk is turned onto threaded end of drive shaft and external revolving ring is turned onto its rim. Drive shaft has spider with steel spokes tightened by means of claw nuts installed in depressions of external revolving ring. Threaded end of drive shaft mounts metal head with rimmed textolite disk attached thereto; this rimmed disk carries external revolving ring. Diameter of holes in internal fixed ring is larger by 1.5 - 3 times that that of holes in external revolving ring. Hole number in external revolving ring is other than that in internal fixed one.

EFFECT: augmented cavitation processes occurring during rotor revolution which enhances heating efficiency.

6 cl, 5 dwg

Heat generator // 2260750

FIELD: heat-power engineering; generation of heat in the course of combustion; degassing liquid in the course of heating.

SUBSTANCE: proposed heat generator includes cyclone-type jet apparatus mounted vertically and provided with inlet branch pipe located in upper part and outlet branch pipe located in lower portion; it is also provided with expansion reservoir mounted above jet apparatus; upper cavity of this jet apparatus is communicated with expansion reservoir.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of degassing liquid; enhanced corrosion resistance; increased flow rate of liquid; reduced noise of pump.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; use of geothermal heat in units using water from external sources.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes vertical delivery well-bore running to earth's crust and vertical outlet well-bore located at some distance from delivery well-bore; provision is made for evacuation of vapor from this well-bore; plant is also provided with horizontal well-bore for connection of two vertical well-bores and at least one section of horizontal well-bore located in hot rock; all said well-bores are provided with casing pipes to exclude contact of liquid flowing through well-bores with soil or underground water; water obtained after condensation of vapor from outlet well-bore is pumped to delivery well-bore and is used repeatedly. Besides that, horizontal well-bore may be entirely located in rock; delivery and outlet well-bores enter hot rock; plant is provided with devices for delivery of water from delivery well-bore to horizontal well-bore. Water admitting to rock is not contaminated in such plant and may be used repeatedly.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying methane-containing gas to the cavitation liquid (water), bringing the gas into contact with the cavitation liquid to produce exothermic reactions, withdrawing heat, and removing oxygen-organic compositions, highest hydrocarbons, and unreacted gases from the cooled liquid, and rising pressure of the purified liquid. The reaction between the methane-containing gas and cavitation liquid is carried out in the presence of catalyzers that contain carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals. The unreacted gases are supplied to the methane-containing gas.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl

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