Cutter to number program controlled machine

FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes active portion and stem. Cutter apex is arranged in its axis belonging to front surface. Main and trailing back faces are equally inclined relative to cutter axis and they cross front surface by positive back angles relative to main and trailing cutting edges having their own angles in plan view. Trailing back surfaces form second pair of surfaces inclined by the same angles relative to cutter axis. Inclination angles of main and trailing back surfaces relative to cutter axis is determined by value of back angle of main cutting edge. Trailing back surfaces are inclined by less angles relative to cutter axis. Active portion of cutter has at least with two chamfers equally inclined relative to cutter axis.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

5 cl, 19 dwg

 

The proposal relates to metal on CNC lathe and is intended in particular for etching in the manufacturing process drawings for metallographic forms used in the creation of printed products with a high degree of protection against forgery.

Known cutter according to GOST 13288-76 the USSR, having a shank and a working portion, the top of the cutter is located on its axis belonging to the front surface. The main and auxiliary rear surface defined by the angles in terms of the main and auxiliary cutting edges, and the rear corners of these edges perpendicular to the planes. In fact the rear surface forming the top of the cutter sharpening at different positions of its axis, which leads to unacceptable errors in the location of the top of the cutter relative to the axis.

Also known cutter, found in the book Vpeter, Wiveton. "Handbook of the designer-maker", Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1975, page 8 and 9. The working part of the cutter differs in that its top is reinforced with chamfer performed on the main back surface with the formation of the transition of the cutting edge adjacent to the main cutting edge. At the top of the cutter is made with offset from the axis of the cutter, which is unacceptable in multipass planing to turn the cutter around its axis.

The closest proposed the structure on the technical merits (prototype) is the cutter for machining the patent of Russian Federation №2179094, having a working portion and a shank. On the axis of the cutter belonging to the front surface, is located on the top of it, which was formed with the help of all his rear surfaces, including additional.

The rear surface at the same angle to the axis of the cutter, each in its plane, which passes through the axis of the cutter and oriented relative to the front surface. The main and auxiliary rear surface intersect the front surface of the positive rear angles relative to the main and auxiliary cutting edges, which are located under their corners in the plan.

The cross-section of the working portion of the cutter is a versatile form of a polygon, in particular Pentagon, whose ratio of height to width is less than 0.5. This, as well as the value of the angle of the main cutting edge is defined structurally, the angle of inclination to the axis of the cutter to its rear surface.

The design of the cutter consists also in the fact that its working part formed without taking into account the values of the rear corners of its cutting edges, which is not possible to consider in the manufacture of the cutter. However, the value obtained, in particular, the posterior angle of the main cutting edge at least twice the largest recommended for such conditions cutting.

Ignoreme is but significantly reduced the angle of the cutting wedge in the plane passing through the top of the cutter. These features of the dimensional parameters of the cutter is determined by its design, reducing the resistance of the cutter, reduce the strength of its vertices, and this increases the likelihood of breakage of the cutter.

Addressed by the proposal, the task of improving the life of the cutter and reliability of the process.

For this purpose, the cutter for machining with working part and a shank, whose vertex is located on its axis belonging to the front surface of the main and auxiliary rear surfaces are made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter and cross the front surface under positive hind angles relative to the main and auxiliary cutting edges located under their corners in the plan, and optional rear surface comprise a second pair of surfaces made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter, according to the proposal the main and auxiliary rear surfaces constructed at an angle to the axis of the cutter, which is defined by the clearance angle of the main cutting edge with additional rear surface at a smaller angle to the axis of the cutter and its operating part provided with at least two facets, made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter.

The chamfer can be made between additional rear surfaces in the form of faces, etc is tivolia front surface, the main and auxiliary rear surface forming the top of the cutter, near which the intersecting pairs of surfaces of the working portion of the cutter to form a convex contour.

In another embodiment of the cutter chamfering is performed on optional rear surfaces, and one of them crosses the main, and the other supporting the back surface; chamfer can together with the main and auxiliary rear surfaces forming the top of the cutter.

In another embodiment, bevel, crossing the main and auxiliary rear surface, intersect the front surface and form the top of the cutter and transitional cutting edges, one of which is adjacent to the main cutting edge and the other helper.

In figure 1, 2, 3 presents the proposed cutter for cutting V-shaped grooves, the views from the side, top, front;

Figs.4, 5 - section of the AOA and BOB figure 3;

Figure 6, 7 - section B1O1B2and G-g of figure 2;

On Fig - place "M" in figure 1;

Figure 9 - cut D2figure 2;

Figure 10, 11, 12 section e-E, K-K and L-L Fig;

On Fig - path processed by the cutter groove;

On Fig, 15 presents the proposed cutter for cutting V-shaped grooves, side and front views, version 2;

On Fig - section of P1JV2on Fig;

On Fig, 18, 19 presents the proposed R the set of technical documents for rough planing, the views from the side, front and top.

Cutter (1, 2, 3) contains the shank 1 and the working part 2 top 3 axis 4, which belongs to the front surface 5. The main 6 and 7 auxiliary rear surface (figure 4) is executed to the axis of the cutter at an angle δ, which is defined by the clearance angle of the main cutting edge α:

δ=arctan(ctgα cosϕ sinψ),

where

The dependences obtained using 2, 4, 6, 9.

The clearance angle α1(7) depends on α and ϕ-ϕ1and when ϕ=ϕ1α1=α.

Optional rear surfaces 8 and 9 angled δ1to the axis of the cutter (figure 5), where δ1<δ.

The working part 2 cutter provided with chamfers 12 and 13 (figure 3), which are made between the surfaces 8 and 9 with an equal angle to the axis of the cutter in the form of faces opposite the front surface 5 and provided with angle θ size m (figure 1).

Face pairs 8-9 and 12-13 are arranged such that they intersect the axis 4 of the cutter over the top at points 17 and 18 (Fig).

Angle values α and α1provide sufficient magnitude angle of taper β0in the axial plane passing through the top of the cutter 3 (Fig), near which a pair of opposite faces form a convex contour of the segments 14, 15 and 16.

Pop the river cross-section of the working part has the form of a versatile septangle, which in the vicinity of the shank, the ratio of height to width is less than 0.5 (figure 9), and with the approach to the top of the cutter is the ratio increases, ie,

(Fig.9, 12, 11, 10).

Near the top of the cutter, the number of parties forming the cross-section of the working part, reduced from seven to five, then to three (Fig, 11, 10).

Figure 10, 11, 12, taken together, illustrate the successive stages of cutting cutter to the workpiece; it is shown that this cutter can handle groove, the radius of curvature of which its internal circuit

rmin≥0,25V0,

where0- the width of the processed groove (Fig).

This cutter handle groove V-shaped profile in the form of the number "8" on the CNC machine, providing navigation coordinates X, Y, Z, C. Before processing fixed cutter on the carriage of the machine and guide it by turning coordinate With, as shown in Fig, where the thin line shows the contour of the cross-section of the working portion of the cutter. Motion by coordinates X, Y, Z move the cutter to the point C1before touching its top with the workpiece.

Process the groove while turning the cutter around its axis by keeping the angle equal to 90° between the front surface 5 and 40 tangent to the trajectory, letting the cutter following move:

-the rotation around the axis O 5clockwise along the circle of radius R1to C2while moving along the Z coordinate to provide the desired depth of the groove;

- the rotation around the axis O6counterclockwise 360° on a circle of radius R2with the output at point C2,

- the rotation around the axis O5clockwise 360° on a circle of radius R1with the output at point C2;

move Z from preparation and removal of the cutter to its original position.

In contrast to the first described in the second embodiment of the cutter (Fig, 15) chamfer 21 and 22 are made on an optional rear surfaces 23 and 24, and the chamfer 21 crosses the main rear surface 25, and the chamfer 22 - auxiliary rear surface 26.

Angle δ2(Fig) set the slope of the chamfer to the axis 28 of the cutter. The orientation relative to the front surface 20 of facets and surfaces on which they are executed can be the same (angles ψ5and ψ6on Fig). Chamfer 21 and 22 intersect the axis 28 of the cutter at the point 27 and together with the front surface 29 and the surfaces 25 and 26 form the top of the cutter. This cutter can be used for processing grooves (Fig) V-shaped profile similar to the cutter, the proposed first.

In contrast to the first described in another embodiment of the cutter (Fig, 18, 19) chamfer 31 and 32, issue lnany on optional rear surfaces 33 and 34 so that that cross the main 35, 36 and auxiliary front surface 37 of the working part 30. These chamfers formed the top 38 and transitional cutting edges 39 and 40, respectively, at 41 main and auxiliary cutting edges 42 of the cutter.

This cutter can be used for pre-treatment of the groove (Fig) V-shaped profile similar to the cutter, the proposed first.

Thus, due to the fact that virginiarismedia main and auxiliary rear surface unlike the prototype is made with the provision of the specified value of the rear angle of the main cutting edge, increased cutting wedge in both the normal to the cutting edges of the planes and the plane passing through the top of the cutter. However, in order thus became possible processing of curvilinear grooves with an extremely small radius of curvature near the top of the cutter created a convex contour with all the side surfaces of the working portion of the cutter. The location of these surfaces is such that with the approach to the top of the cutter increases the ratio of height to width in the cross section of the working part.

Compared with the prototype reinforced top cutter, improved heat from it, increased cutter life and process reliability.

High precision cutter is ensured by processing PE escoumins pairs of surfaces in a fixed position its axis.

1. Cutter for machining with working part and a shank, the top of the cutter is located on its axis belonging to the front surface of the main and auxiliary rear surfaces are made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter and cross the front surface under positive hind angles relative to the main and auxiliary cutting edges, which are under their corners in the plan, and optional rear surface comprise a second pair of surfaces made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter, wherein the main and auxiliary rear surfaces constructed at an angle to the axis of the cutter, which is defined by the clearance angle of the main cutting edge, moreover, additional rear surface at a smaller angle to the axis of the cutter and its operating part provided with at least two chamfers made with equal angle to the axis of the cutter.

2. The cutter according to claim 1, characterized in that the said chamfer is made between additional rear surfaces in the form of faces opposite the front surface, while the main and auxiliary rear surface forming the top of the cutter, near which the intersecting pairs of surfaces of the working parts form a convex contour.

3. The cutter according to claim 1, characterized in that the said chamfer is made on optional rear is poverhnosti, one of them crosses the main, and the other supporting the back surface.

4. The cutter according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that the said chamfer along with the main and auxiliary rear surfaces form the top of the cutter.

5. The cutter according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that the said bevel intersect the front surface and form the top of the cutter and transitional cutting edges, one of which is adjacent to the main cutting edge and the other helper.



 

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FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes active portion and stem. Cutter apex is arranged in its axis belonging to front surface. Main and trailing back faces are equally inclined relative to cutter axis and they cross front surface by positive back angles relative to main and trailing cutting edges having their own angles in plan view. Trailing back surfaces form second pair of surfaces inclined by the same angles relative to cutter axis. Inclination angles of main and trailing back surfaces relative to cutter axis is determined by value of back angle of main cutting edge. Trailing back surfaces are inclined by less angles relative to cutter axis. Active portion of cutter has at least with two chamfers equally inclined relative to cutter axis.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

5 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: micro- and(or) nano-technology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of removing allowance in central zone of working during rough pass and then finishing surfaces of lateral faces of shaped fragments of pattern along the whole depth of rough working pass. It is realized at using only one lateral edge of cutter to be rotated around its lengthwise axis in curvilinear and broken portions of its cutting path while providing optimal three-dimension position of front surface of cutter relative to cutting surface. Rough passes are performed by means of cutter while using in first pass simultaneously two lateral cutting edges and then using only one of said cutting edges turned to formed lateral face of shaped fragment of pattern. In order to enhance accuracy and quality of working by providing possibility of removing allowance in zones of pattern with broken cutting path during process of removing allowance remained after rough working at finishing, in zones of internal angles of broken portion of cutting path and in zone of portions with small joining radius cutter is lifted for providing outlet of its working part onto upper plane of functional layer of article. Then cutter is turned by angle normalized by cutting path going-on line and it is again fed-in to allowance portion remained after lifting cutter by initial depth. Cutter is lifted and descended while simultaneously imparting to it main cutting motion into zone of removed allowance. Planing cutter includes stem and working part restricted by flat front surface with lateral cutting edges and profiled back surface with lead angle equal to zero for forming end portion of working part. Cross section of working portion is in the form of axially symmetrical figure. Generatrices of back surface are inclined by the same angles relative to axis of cutter stem. End portion of working part is flat one and it is the form of oval-half whose plane is spatially inclined by acute angle relative to front surface. Rib formed by crossing of end portion and front surface serves functionally as third cutting edge; it is oriented by angle 90° relative to lengthwise axis of cutter.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and quality of planing by such cutter.

7 cl, 20 dwg

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