Monomolecular electronic device

FIELD: monomolecular electronic devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed monomolecular electronic device has plurality of monomolecular conductors chemically bonded with at least one insulating group. At least one of mentioned molecular conductors is chemically bonded with doping substituent to form inherent bias across ends of mentioned insulating group. Second insulating group is chemically bonded with mentioned molecular conductor and current conducting complex is chemically bonded with mentioned second insulating group to generate separate molecule. Various alternatives of monomolecular electronic devices, monomolecular transistors, and monomolecular logic inverters are proposed.

EFFECT: developing of monomolecular switching device displaying power gain.

36 cl, 12 dwg

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention is directed to a monomolecular electronic device. In particular, the present invention is directed to a monomolecular transistor and monomolecular structures digital logic using molecular transistor for providing switching and power amplifier. More specifically, the present invention is directed to the addition of the molecular structure of the shutter to molecular diode, where the diode is also chemically alloyed. The molecular structure of the shutter is formed with another chemical group associated with a molecular diode near the respective alloying group, which is influenced by the potential applied from the outside of the structure of the shutter. The complex is conducting current, associated with the second insulating group so that it can be charged using an external voltage in order to influence their own bias diode, thereby to switch the device between the States "on" and "Off". In addition, the present invention is directed to a molecular transistor, in which the power required for switching control, is significantly less than that which is switched, and therefore, the transistor demonstrates the increased power. This izobreteny is also referred to monomolecular logic elements, constructed from combinations of monomolecular diode-diode logic and monomolecular inverters with increased power.

The level of technology

Over the last forty years of electronic computers become more powerful, while their main subunit, the transistor becomes less and less. However, the laws of quantum mechanics and limitations of the technology soon may prevent further reduction of the sizes of common currently field-effect transistors. Many researchers believe that over the next ten to fifteen years, as the small parts are produced in mass quantity transistors will additionally decrease from their current approximate width in the range from 100 nanometers to 250 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices will become more difficult and expensive. In addition, they may cease to function effectively in superdense integrated electronic circuits. To continue the miniaturization of circuit elements to nanometer size or even to molecular dimensions, researchers are studying several alternatives to solid-state transistor for superdense schemes. However, unlike modern field-effect transistors (FETS), which are based on the movement of masses of electrons in vol the second matter, new devices take advantage of quantum mechanical phenomena that occur at the nanometer scale.

There are two broad classes of nanoelectronic switching devices (switches) and amps:

(a) solid-state quantum and single-electron devices, and

(b) molecular electronic devices.

Device both classes use the advantages of various quantum effects begin to dominate the dynamics (motion) of electrons at the nanometer scale. Despite the novelty of the structures of solid-state quantum and single-electron devices, researchers are now able to develop, manufacture and use of schemes several promising types of new devices based on accumulated over fifty years of industrial experience with bulk semiconductors. Such solid-state quantum devices change the principles subminiature electronic switching devices, but they still carry a heavy burden on the nanometer structures, which must be cut from an amorphous or crystalline solid phone

Molecular electronics is a relatively new approach, which should change as the working principles and materials used in electronic devices. P is ichinoe or incentive for such a radical change is what are molecules that exist in nature nanometer structures. Unlike nanostructures built from bulk solids, the molecules can be made identical, cheap and just what would be required for the industrial production of superdense computers. Two significant challenges that must be overcome are (1) invention (creation) of molecular structures, which act as electronic switching devices with gain, and (2) the Association of these molecules in a more complex circuit structure required for applications in computing and management, and to provide amplification in these applications, so that the device produced in this manner had a useful "branching" on output.

As is known, a diode is a two-wire switching device that can switch the current between the terms "on" or "Off". Two types of molecular electronic diodes, which developed recently, are:

(a) rectifying diodes, and

(b) resonant tunneling (resonant tunneling) diodes.

Both types of diodes are based on application of an external bias voltage to move the electrons through one or more of the energy barriers when attached externally on the potential reaches a pre-defined value.

In particular, was developed molecular resonant tunneling diode (RTD), which takes advantage of the quantization of energy in such a way that allows selecting the magnitude of the bias voltage between the contacts of the source and drain of the diode to switch between the terms "on" and "Off" for the electron current flowing from the source to the drain. Figure 1A shows the molecular resonant tunneling diode, which was synthesized James Toram (James M. Tour) and demonstrated by mark reed (Mark A. Reed) in 1997. Structurally and functionally, the device is a molecular analog of the much larger solid-state RTD, who for the past ten years were made in many semiconductors such as III-V As shown in figa based on the main chain of the molecular conductor, proposed by reed and Torom Polyphenylene molecular RTD 11' is made by inserting two aliphatic methylene groups 16' in the molecular conductor 12 on both sides of one benzene ring 13'. Due to the insulating properties of aliphatic groups 16', they act as potential energy barriers 30 and 32 on the flow of electrons, shown in the energy diagram figures 1B and 1C. The authors define the benzene ring 13' between these groups as narrow, arr is siteline 0.5 nanometer, "the island", through which the electrons must pass to overcome the entire length of the molecular wire.

As illustrated in figv, if the offset is applied to the ends of the molecule, produces incoming or incoming electrons with a kinetic energy that is different from the energies of the unoccupied quantum levels available inside the potential well on this island, no current flows. That is, the RTD is switched to the "Off"position. However, if the bias voltage is set so that the kinetic energy of the incoming electrons coincides with one of your own energy levels, as shown in figs, the energy of the electrons out of the pit, one might say, is in resonance with the permitted energy inside the pit. Under these conditions through the device current flows, and can say that it switches to the "on"position.

The publication of the patent application in France under No. 2306531 describes the molecular switching device, which can be used for gain. The conductors are formed by chains (sequences) adjacent double bonds or connections between their rings, and they end in two areas dissipation (dissipation). However, the above device has such a principle, which in General is similar to the bulk field effect transistors, and the e is based on the effect, which can only be realized in individual molecules, where, for example, the effects of at least one alloying groups turn into its opposite by using a potential applied from the outside.

In the published international PCT application WO 97/36333 describes tunneling device, which uses the control electrodes to control the tunneling current flowing between the input and output of the device. The device is based on the principle of controlled correlated tunneling of electrons. This link also offers the use of such a device for constructing single-electron logic circuits.

The invention

Proposed monomolecular electronic device, which includes a number of molecular conductors, chemically bonded together with at least one insulating group. At least one of a multitude of molecular conductors chemically connected with alloying Deputy to form their own bias at the ends of the isolation group. The second chemical group is chemically bound with the molecular conductor, which is connected with alloying Deputy. Conducting current complex chemically connected with the second insulating group with the formation of a single molecule, which demonstrates the increased power. The second insulating g is the SCP is located in sufficient proximity to the alloying Deputy for in order to exert influence on the offset using the potential applied to the conducting current of the complex. Monomolecular electronic device according to the present invention can be created in the form of an inverter circuit in which the third insulating group is chemically bound with the second of many molecular conductors, and many United aromatic ring structures are chemically linked with the third insulating group.

In another aspect of the present invention is directed to a monomolecular electronic device with increased power. This monomolecular electronic device includes at least one molecular conductor with many interconnected essentially identical aromatic ring structures. At least one first chemical group that is attached between the respective pair of aromatic ring structures, creates (defines) two sections of a molecular conductor, the first section connected to the first electrical contact and the second section is connected to the second contact. At least one of these two sections is doped with the formation of at least one centre-electron donor(s) and centre-electron acceptor(s). The molecular structure of the shutter chemically linked to one and the those of the first and second sections in sufficient proximity to the alloying group, through potential applied to the structure of the shutter, to act on its own offset is formed between the first and second sections alloying group. The molecular structure of the gate is connected with a third contact for connecting to a source potential supplied.

In still another aspect of the present invention is directed to a monomolecular transistor, which includes a conductor based Polyphenylene with many interconnected molecular ring structures, and at least one insulating group attached between the respective pair of the molecular ring structures to create two sections of the conductor. Monomolecular transistor also includes a first doped group associated with the at least one molecular ring structure of one section of the conductor for forming the respective centers of the electron donor. The second alloying group associated with at least one molecular ring structure of the second section forms the centre-electron acceptor. The second insulating group chemically attached near one of the first and second alloying groups, and conducting the current complex attached to the second insulating group to associate with her electric charge order modification (change own bias, formed of the first and second alloying groups.

Still another aspect of the present invention is directed to a monomolecular electronic device formed using molecular diode having at least one insulating barrier group chemically attached between a pair of molecular ring structures for the formation of a pair of sections diode. At least one alloying group chemically linked to one of a pair of sections diode. The molecular structure of the shutter chemically linked to the section of the diode, which is chemically bound to at least one alloying group to influence its own offset, formed of at least one alloying group.

For this reason, one of the purposes of the present invention is to provide a monomolecular switching devices, which demonstrates the increased power.

An additional objective of the present invention is to provide an electronic switching device with increased power by adding patterns shutter to legirovannom molecular diode for forming a separate (single) molecule which functions as a transistor.

Another objective of the present invention is to create a schema monomolecular transistor, which functions as Inverto is.

In addition, another objective of the present invention is to provide Boolean logic functions by connecting with each other molecular structures of diode-diode logic with molecular inverter to ensure that a particular Boolean functions while providing power amplification.

These and other advantages and new features of the present invention will become apparent from the following further detailed description when considered in conjunction with the drawings.

Brief description of drawings

Figures 1A, 1B and 1C schematically represent the structure and operation of a molecular resonant tunneling diode, demonstrated by reed and Toram;

figa depicts an exemplary schematic representation of a molecular rectifying diode;

figv, 2C and 2D schematically shows the energy diagram of the orbitals, the corresponding monomolecular structure rectifying diode based Polyphenylene presented on figa when the molecule attached "direct" offset "reverse offset and zero offset, respectively;

figa is an exemplary schematic diagram of the present invention illustrating a three-prong molecular switching device with the shutter in an unloaded state;

figv schematically depicts energy is a mini-chart orbitals, the corresponding three-prong device figa;

figs is an exemplary schematic diagram of the present invention illustrating a three-prong molecular switching device with the shutter in a charged state;

fig.3D schematically depicts the energy diagram of the orbitals, the corresponding three-prong molecular switching device figs;

figa schematically depicts an exemplary alternative configuration of the device according to the present invention;

figv schematically depicts the energy diagram of the orbitals, the corresponding three-prong switching device figa;

figs schematically depicts the molecular switching device according to Figo charged with the structure of the shutter;

fig.4D schematically depicts the energy diagram of the orbitals, the corresponding three-prong switching device figs;

figures 5A, 5B, 5C and 5D each schematically show a representative molecular structure for three-prong switching device according to the present invention;

6 depicts an alternative exemplary variant of the three-prong molecular switching device of the present invention;

figa depicts an exemplary three-prong switching the device of the present invention, using molecular resonant tunneling diode, is attached to the alloying of the group and the molecular structure of the shutter;

figv depicts another alternative exemplary variant of the three-prong switching device of the present invention, using a molecular resonant tunneling diode, is attached to the alloying of the group and the molecular structure of the shutter;

figures 8A, 8B and 8C schematically show respectively an equivalent circuit for the inverter, a representative molecular structure for the inverter according to the present invention and an approximate molecular inverter-based Polyphenylene of the present invention;

figures 9A and 9B schematically show, respectively, an alternative representative variant of the molecular structure for the inverter according to the present invention and an approximate molecular structure of the inverter on the basis of Polyphenylene on figa;

figures 10A and 10B schematically show respectively the equivalent electrical circuit for the logical element AND-NOT and approximate molecular logical element AND-NOT on the basis of Polyphenylene of the present invention;

figures 11A and 11B schematically show respectively the equivalent electrical circuit for a logic gate EXCLUSIVE-OR-NOT and exemplary schematic structure is ru molecular logic gate EXCLUSIVE-OR-NOT on the basis of Polyphenylene of the present invention; and,

figures 12A and 12B schematically show respectively an equivalent circuit diagram for a half-adder and an exemplary schematic structure of molecular half-adder based Polyphenylene of the present invention.

Description of the preferred embodiments

Addressing figa, it depicts the molecular structure of 11 rectifying diode, which is based on polyaromatic the conductor 12, which contains many linked sequentially, essentially identical aromatic ring structures 13. As used here, the molecular conductor is a single molecule with many essentially identical ring structures connected or related to each other in series and/or parallel, which form conductive molecular chain or network. Under "related" aromatic ring means that the ring once and repeatedly connected to each other or with the intermediate carbon atoms or hydrocarbon groups. The use of the term "aromatic ring" refers to the inclusion in the consideration of the molecular ring structures having essentially of aromatic character, such as rings, in which were introduced and are connected in a ring heteroatoms. Such heteroatoms are atoms other than carbon zinc used is, for example atoms selected from the elements of the III, IV and V groups of the Periodic Table, such Bor, silicon or nitrogen. Molecular conductor can be formed of these rings, such as benzene, cyclopentadiene, cyclopropene, and their combinations.

Single molecule 11 has two sections 14 and 15, separated by an insulating group 16, designated by R. Section 14 of the molecule 11 may be doped with at least one associated group, selecting the electron(s) and designated as Y. Section 15 of the molecule 11 may be doped with at least one associated group 18, giving the electron(s) and marked as X. really should lagerbuchse only one section 14 or 15. Aromatic rings are linked together via at least one of the respective alloying groups X and Y, associated with one or more centres of the relevant sections of the conductor. Linking insulating and alloying groups with conductor can be carried out using conventional reactions inclusion and substitution, are well known in the art, and any such reactions by themselves or in combination with the methods of manipulation with a scanning tunneling electron microscope or other nanobond (nantachie). In addition, the sealing band 16 may be used for splicing with each other two conductors, each of which represents a corresponding section 14 and 15.

As shown, the molecular structure of 11 is a diode, which is integrally included in the molecular conductor 12 on the basis of Polyphenylene. Here the benzene ring 13 are connected triple ethynylene links 19. Triple ethynylene connection 19 is inserted (introduced in the structure) as spacers or separators between the rings 13 to eliminate steric interaction between the hydrogen atoms associated with the neighboring rings 13. The insulator 16 is introduced into the conduit by attaching a saturated aliphatic group or groups with a predominantly aliphatic nature in relation to the transport of electrons in it (no PI-orbitals). Adding insulator 16 separates the guide into two sections 14 and 15. Section 14, as shown, legarrette for the formation of the centre-electron acceptor, and section 15 legarrette for the formation of the Central electron donor. Although shown only one center electron donor and one acceptor of electrons, the number of such centers can be introduced into the structure, and in the same ring or in the neighboring rings to adjust the voltage drop at the ends of the insulator 16. It should also be noted that a sufficient voltage drop can be obtained by doping only one is ecchi 14 or 15 of the respective alloying group 17 or 18. The respective far ends of the conductor attached to the contacts. The conductivity of such compounds is improved by using group-Deputy ωlocated respectively at the ends of the conductor and which is chemically bonded to the electrical contact.

Comparing the molecular structure of 11 depicted in figa, potential energy diagrams shown in figures 2B-2D, you can see that the isolation group 16, located essentially in the middle of the molecule 11, corresponds to (associated with) the potential energy barrier 20. There are also barriers 21 and 22 between the molecule 11 and conductive contacts 23 and 24 at each end of the molecule 11, formed by the Vice ωhaving the appropriate characteristics for selective connection to a specific atomic or molecular structure of the contacts 23, 24. The barrier 20 is used to maintain some degree of electrical isolation between the various parts of the structure are sufficient to prevent ward level 26, 26' and 25, 25' power, respectively, sections 14 and 15 in the balance. However, none of these barriers is not so wide or high enough to completely prevent the tunneling of electrons through them under the action of the bias voltage. The material of the contacts 23, 24 can predstavljaetsja metal or conductive nonmetal, such as tubulin or nanotubes (from the English. buckytubes). Isolating the group R may be any group that is more insulating than polyaromatic circuit 12. Some candidates for this role include aliphatic groups such as the associated σ-bond, methylene group (-CH2-or dimethylene group (-CH2CH2-).

As shown in fig.2D to the left of the Central barrier 20 all 25 levels of energy from the valence p-type have higher energy due to the presence of group 18, giving the electron(s)and indicated in the structure of the molecule 11 as X. These levels include both the highest filled molecular orbital (from the English. the highest occupied molecular orbital, HOMO)and the lowest filled molecular orbital (from the English. the lowest occupied molecular orbital, LUMO). Among the many possible substitutes radiating electrons, the following groups are examples of some usable substituents, which can be used for the formation of a rectifying diode. In particular, such substituents include: -NH2, -OH, -CH3, -CH2CH3and the like.

In the context of modern molecular quantum mechanics it is necessary to understand that the group is a donor of electrons associated with the aromatic ring, tends to most e is ectroni density on the ring or there, where many groups X are attached to several paired aromatic rings, creating a higher electron density on the set of rings attached at zero offset. This increases the magnitude of the mutual repulsion between electrons in the molecular orbitals corresponding to the circular structure or of the conjugated ring structure. In this case, the conjugated ring structure to the left of the Central barrier 20 is an additional repulsive interaction increases the total energy and the energy of the orbitals of its components.

To the right of the Central barrier, all of the energy levels of the valence p-type have low energy because of the presence of group 17, discharging the electrons and the molecular diagram as Y. This applies both to the orbitals HOMO and LUMO on the center of the acceptor. Some examples of the substituents, discharging electrons which are suitable for use in the formation of acceptor doping of the group include:

-NO2, -CN, -CHO, -COR', and the like, where R' is an aliphatic chain. Group 17, discharging electrons, associated with the ring 13, or many groups 17 can be appropriately associated with several paired aromatic rings 13. These groups tend to remove electron density from the corresponding estoodeeva ring or rings 13, thus reducing the amount of electronic repulsion between the electrons associated with the ring structure or to the adjacent annular structure. This weakening of the repulsive interactions lowers the total energy of the structure to the right of the Central barrier 20, as well as the energy of the orbitals of its components under the condition of zero offset.

Adding one or more alloying substituents creates in a sense "pre-shift" along (or, in other words, at the ends) of the barrier 20. This is a preliminary offset or caused by alloying the difference in the energy levels of the orbitals between the two sections of the molecule 11 exists even when there is a zero offset, supplied from the outside, as shown in fig.2D. This is a preliminary offset must be overcome in order for the electrons flowed from the partition alloy by electron acceptor, in section, alloy donor of electrons tunneling through the barrier 20. The energy difference (ΔELUMObetween the energy of the LUMO orbitals of the donor (ED-LUMOand energy orbitals of the lowest energy orbitals of the acceptor (EA-LUMO)fitted with alloying sections of the conductor, makes it possible to use (operation) of the molecule as a rectifying diode. Through the use of both groups, i.e. groups of radiating electrons, and g is uppy, discharging the electrons, which are both associated with the relevant sections of the conductor, own the offset increases, raising the PI-orbitals 25 donor section and lowering the PI-orbitals 26 acceptor section. As previously discussed, sufficient difference of energy levels can also be obtained by using one of the alloying group, i.e. the group is an electron donor or group-electron acceptor, which would be sufficient for rectifying diode.

Induced by the difference of the relative positions of the energies of the valence p-orbitals 25 in the donor section 15 and the valence p-orbitals 26 acceptor in section 14 of the molecule 11 at zero bias voltage, supplied from the outside, creates the basis for principles of monomolecular rectifying diode embedded in a molecular conductor. The principles of such a rectifying diode are described in detail in the following sections.

On FIGU, to the molecule 11, shown in figa, making a direct bias voltage, and high voltage is on pin 24, (left pin), and a lower voltage on pin 23 (right contact). Under such bias, the electrons in the occupied quantum levels of the right-hand section 14 with a lower voltage are forced to move or flow from right to left through the molecule 11 in order to reach the left section 15 with bol is e high voltage. This flow of electrons is a consequence of the difference of the energies generated by the applied bias voltage, the electrons are pumped into the section to which is applied a positive voltage.

Populated quantum levels for each contact is represented closely spaced horizontal lines 27 on the left and the right sides of figures 2B, 2C and 2D. The energy of the highest of these infested levels 27, i.e. the Fermi level, known as the Fermi energy (EFin the metal contact. The direct application of a bias voltage tends to increase the energy of the Fermi level in contact with low voltage and to lower the energy of the Fermi level from another contact. Thus, to receive the flow of electrons from right to left under forward bias the difference between the bias voltage must be sufficient to raise the Fermi energy of the electrons in the occupied levels of the contact 23 at least to the level of energy PI-orbitals LUMO acceptor in section 14 of the molecule 11. This is in accordance with the Pauli principle, while the remaining electrons are forbidden to pass on the PI-orbitals HOMO with lower energy acceptor half of the molecules, because they are already double-busy (i.e. each of them is occupied by two electrons, and the electrons stored on them cannot tunnel to the left.

However, if the energy of the Fermi contact 23 is increased by means of direct voltage offset to the amount of energy to the acceptor LUMO section or above it, then the electrons can tunnel from the contact 23 on the empty LUMO directly to the left side. Then electrons can tunnel to the left through a Central insulating barrier 20 to the many unoccupied molecular orbitals in the donor section 15 of the molecule 11. Above the threshold voltage or the voltage "on" for molecular rectifying diode molecular orbitals in the donor section 15 sufficiently lowered in energy by means of direct bias voltage, so that one or more of them coincide with the LUMO in acceptors section 14 of the molecule 11, as shown in figv.

As will be clear to a person skilled in the technical field, in the case of a direct bias voltage the voltage that must be applied, probably will not be too large in order to start the movement or flow of electrons due to the increase of the Fermi level of the contact 23, which is sufficient to exceed the energy of the LUMO of the acceptor section 14 of the molecule 11. This is because the energy levels of the acceptor sections 14 are reduced in advance by the presence of the group-Deputy 17, discharging electrons and associated with section 14.

On the other hand, the flow electrono who is not such an easy thing, when the molecule 11 is applied a reverse bias voltage, as illustrated schematically in figs. In the case of reverse bias voltage with a higher voltage on terminal 23 and a lower voltage at pin 24 of the electrons on the right contact 24, as a rule, do not tend to move from left to right on the molecule 11. For the real implementation of this flow of electrons in the molecule, the reverse bias voltage must be sufficient to raise the Fermi level of the contact 24 so that it was at least as high as the energy of the PI-orbitals LUMO in the donor section 15 of the molecule 11. However, in the case of reverse bias voltage the voltage that must be applied is much greater than in the case of a direct bias voltage, to increase the energy of the Fermi contact, sufficient to exceed the energy of the LUMO of the adjacent part of the molecule 11. This is because all the energy levels of the donor section 15 is raised in advance by the presence of the group-Deputy 18 radiating electrons and associated with section 15 of the molecule 11. This high voltage level is analogous to the reverse breakdown voltage of the conventional semiconductor device.

As shown in figs, in the reverse direction is applied the same magnitude of voltage is Oia, as that which is used in the forward direction (pigv), and it is not sufficient to allow electrons to tunnel from the contact 24 on the energy level of LUMO of the molecule 11. Various characteristics of the molecules 11 in forward and reverse bias determines the classical behavior of the rectifying diode.

The above-described rectifying diode, like resonant tunneling diode on figa is suitable for use in the design of Boolean logic functions that can be used in digital circuits nanometer scale. However, such molecular electronic switching devices suffer from the same main drawback, that is, they do not have the ability to provide power amplification.

To achieve power amplification requires a three-prong device, i.e. a device with three contacts, in which a small voltage and/or current is applied to the control electrode for the implementation of the switching the greater voltage and/or current flowing between the other two electrodes of this device. In particular, molecular resonant tunneling transistor can be formed by linking the structure of the shutter to the structure of the molecular diode, and either rectifying diode, or a resonant tunneling diode, to form a new the th individual molecules, which operates as a switching device and an amplifier with an electric drive. An example of such a device is illustrated in figures 3A and 3C, where is depicted the structure of the molecular resonant tunneling transistor 100, which is formed by the chemical linking of the molecular structure 102 of the shutter with the molecular structure 111. Taken separately molecular structure 111 would define a rectifying diode, the structure and operation of which were discussed previously. The molecular structure of the transistor 100 is functionally it is similar to the bulk semiconductor transistor with n-type channel operating mode of enrichment. Like solid-state electronic device, a molecular transistor 100 is based on the strategic use of chemical alloying groups who electrons and discharging electrons (producing "holes"), i.e. alloying groups 117 and 118, respectively. These alloying chemical substituents 117, 118, which are covalently bound to the remaining part of the molecule 112, designated as X and Y. In accordance with the fundamental principles of organic chemistry Deputy X or multiple substituents X (as previously discussed) should be understood as a group of radiating electrons. Such a group may include, for example,

-NH2, -OH, -OCH3, -CH3, -H 2CH3and things like that. Alloying Deputy Y, or a number of such substituents should be understood as a group, identify electrons (or acceptor). Examples of such substituents include-NO2, -CN, -CHO, -COR', and the like, where R' is an aliphatic chain.

As will be seen in following paragraphs, a molecular transistor preserves the structure related to the structure of the source-drain-gate with three contacts found for the solid-state field-effect transistor. In addition, molecular transistor 100 uses resonant commutation (switching) effects, and these effects are well known in the art. The transistor 100 uses molecular structure molecular rectifying diode for forming regions of the source and drain of a molecular transistor. To obtain a molecular resonant tunneling transistor of the "main chain" molecular rectifying diode, the third contact, meaning "gate", is chemically bonded with a diode to provide opportunities for the application of small external bias voltage, which counteracts the effects of their own bias induced alloying substituents, or amplifies it, depending on the polarity of the bias voltage on the gate. Using this to is Banovci quantized molecular energy levels in the areas of source and drain patterns can be brought into resonance, or derived from it in a controlled way, and therefore, the current passing from the source to the drain can be turned on or off. In addition, since the current flowing through the structure of the shutter is substantially less than that which flows between the source and drain, realized gain power.

The transistor 100 includes electronic contact 124 of the source, which is connected with the molecular structure 111 through a group-Deputy ωthat is chemically bonded with the material of the contact 124 to improve the connection between the contact and the far end of the conductor 112, i.e. the far ring 113 section 115. Similarly electronic contact 123 drain connected to the opposite far ring 113 of the conductor 112 through a group-Deputy ω. As an example, it may be noted that if the contacts 123 and 124 are formed of gold, the band-Deputy ω can be formed by using a sulfur atom. Basically, as described for rectifying diode, the two sections 114 and 115 of the conductor 112 is defined by an insulating group 116, which separates these sections. Here again, although the figure shows that each section legarrette accordingly to induce its own bias, the energy difference at the ends (i.e. both sides) of the insulator 116 can also be obtained using only one alloying group 117, 118. Is sufficient is Oh or a group-donor X, or group acceptor Y. you also Need to understand that although alloying group 117, 118 are depicted as associated with the corresponding ring structure 113 directly next to the insulator 116, the substituents may be fixed to other parts of the molecule, such as rings, which are separated by one or more rings from the insulator 116. In addition, alloying substituents can be chemically bonded to the molecular structure of the shutter for air conditioning in relation to the channel, the source-drain, or alloying substituents can be introduced by substitution on the insulating barrier of the group for the conditioning of them with respect to conducting the source, drain and gate. In a molecular transistor structure 100 102 shutter includes an insulator 104 shutter, denoted as R', which is shown chemically combined with alloying group X 118. As will be discussed further in the following paragraphs, the insulator 104 of the shutter can be associated with other parts of the same ring 113 which is connected with the alloying group, or an insulator 104 of the shutter may be associated with other ring 113 of the same section 115, 114. With the insulator 104 shutter chemically bound conducting current complex 106, through which passes the current shutter and which can accumulate charge gate to cause the field effect component in the drain-drain molecules. Conducting current complex gate connected to the terminal 108 of the shutter through improving the conductivity band-Deputy ωthat is chemically bonded with the material of the electrical contact.

To understand the molecular transistor 100, need to refer to figures 3B and 3D. In the case of the diode structures shown in figures 1A and 2A, the voltage applied to the contacts similar to the contacts 123 and 124, change to induce the switching effect. In the case of a molecular transistor device 100, the voltage of the source-drain is kept constant, while the potential applied to the shutter, change to counteract or reinforce their own bias, which is induced by alloying substituents, and thereby switches the current source-drain. Thus, In figure 3 depicts the energy levels in each of sections 114 and 115 without of gate voltage applied to the contact 108, shown in figa. As in the diode structure, the insulator 116 forms a barrier 120 on the energy diagram. As shown In figure 3, in addition to the Central barrier 120, barriers 121 and 122 represent barriers respectively between molecular structure 111 and the corresponding conductive contacts 123 and 124.

When the applied external voltage, as shown in figv populated quantum energy levels 127 p is dobni levels of molecular rectifying diode under reverse bias. Due to the applied bias, the Fermi energy of the contact 124 is increased, and the energy of the contact 123 is reduced. Under conditions of reverse bias energy PI-orbitals 125, 125' donor section 115 is higher than the energy corresponding to the PI-orbitals 126, 126' acceptor section 114. That is, the energy levels of the donor complex does not coincide with the levels of the acceptor complex, which constitutes a barrier for the flow of electrons between the contacts of the source and drain. However, as illustrated in figures 3C and 3D, the application voltage to the contact shutter counteracts its own offset, established under the influence of alloying substituents. Under the influence of this voltage valence p-orbitals 125, 125' and 126, 126' are in resonance in order to allow electrons to flow from the contact of the source to the drain contact. Because it requires a much lower gate voltage than that which is applied between the source and the drain of the impact on the donor effect of the alloying group 118, and through the shutter is much less current than the one that switches between contacts of source and drain. Thus, like solid-state semiconductor transistor molecular transistor 100 is able to provide power amplification.

Referring to figures 4A-4D, there is shown molecularly resonant tunneling transistor 100', which is the analog of a semiconductor transistor with an n-channel operating in the depletion mode. The transistor 100' includes a structure 102 of the shutter, which is chemically bound to the acceptor section 114 polyaromatic circuit 112. The main structural difference between this mode of molecular depletion transistor 100'illustrated in figure 4, and mode of enrichment molecular transistor 100 illustrated in figure 3, is that the first has the structure of a shutter 102 associated with the acceptor complex 114, while the latter has the structure of a shutter 102 associated with donor complex 115.

The structure of the shutter 102 includes an insulator 104, designated as R', which is formed using a chemical group that is more insulating than polyaromatic circuit 112. Some candidates for this role include aliphatic groups, such as having a Sigma-bond, methylene group (-CH2-or dimethylene group (-CH2CH2-) and their longer chain. Although the insulator 104 of the shutter shown in figures 4A and 4C as associated with alloying group 117, it can also be connected to other nodes on the ring 113 which is connected with the alloying group 117, or on the rings adjacent to it. The control voltage of the gate applied to the contact 108, and the poet is through conducting current complex 106 is current, moreover, through increasing the conductivity band-Deputy ωthat is chemically bonded to the electrical contact 108. Conducting current complex 106 formed with (out) polyaromatic conductor with sufficient length or capacity in order to enable the charge to be collected (accumulated) on it to enhance field-effect at the donor-acceptor complex. Thus, by using setcompany (from the English. mesh-like molecular structure, such as a naphthalene group with two rings, the capacity is increased, thereby lowering the value of the building, which shall be attached to the structure of the shutter for the implementation of the "switch" molecular electronic devices.

As shown in the energy diagram in figv, molecular device 100' doped in such a way that the energy levels of sections 114 and 115 are in resonance under forward bias between the source and drain, but without the application of voltage to the contact shutter. Using the appropriate negative polarity applied to the contact 108 of the shutter, the device turns off, because unsettled levels 126' energy acceptor complex forced to move in and out of coincidence with the energy levels 125' donor complex, as illustrated in the energy diagram shown n the fig.4D. For the case when the gate is uncharged, the transistor operates in the same manner as diode with a forward bias.

Switching occurs because the application of a small negative charge to the shutter counteracts the effects of alloying groups, discharging electrons. The force is applied to the gate from the outside of the offset is to increase the energy of the unoccupied levels 125', 126' of energy in the conduction band acceptor region or region of origin, bringing there the energy levels from matching the levels of the donor region or drain of this device. The discrepancy between the unpopulated levels 125' and 126' energy (area) conductivity donor and acceptor complexes, respectively prevents tunneling of electrons from the source to the drain through the Central insulating barrier, thereby turning off the device. Similar to device 100, the transistor 100' uses a small current or voltage applied to the structure 102 of the shutter to control a much larger current or voltage that flows or is applied to the areas of the drain and the source 115 and 114. Thus, molecular transistor 100'operating in the depletion mode, demonstrates the increased power.

Referring now to figures 5A-5D, there is depicted a schematic diagram of molecular transit the RA 100, 100'illustrating some variations in the chemical binding of the alloying groups of substituents in the structure 102 of the shutter. On figa transistor formed by combining polyaromatic molecular structure 111 with the molecular structure of the shutter 102 to form a new individual molecules. Molecular structure 111 includes multiple series-connected, essentially identical aromatic ring structures 113, which includes any intermediate bridge group denoted by the symbol α. Since all ring 113 may be other than a benzene ring, such as cyclopentadiene, cyclopropene, or their combination, the symbol is used to denote any molecular ring structures having essentially of aromatic character, as discussed earlier. To create your own bias at the ends of the insulator 116, indicated by the symbol R, alloy group-Deputy 117, 118, indicated by the symbol Z, is connected with the ring 113 near the insulator 116. Section of molecular structure 111 on the other side of the insulator 116 opposite doping group 118, 117, denoted by the symbol Z', is connected with the ring 113a. Alloying the group Z' is a character of the opposite group Z; that is, when Z is a donor doping group, then Z' is an acceptor legs the ith group, and Vice-versa. The structure of the shutter 102 is associated with alloying group Z. This structure, the shutter includes an insulating group 104, indicated by the symbol R', which is connected to a conductive current complex 106, indicated by the symbol β.

Figv illustrates a molecular transistor, in which the structure of the shutter 102 is not directly related to alloying group Deputy 117, 118. Alloying group-Deputy Z can be either a group of radiating electrons, or by a group, identify the electrons attached to the ring 113 one of the sections of the molecular structure 111 on one side of the insulator 116. If desirable is a big difference ΔELUMObetween unoccupied energy levels on each side of the insulator 116, the group Z, giving the electrons, or the group Z', discharging electrons and relating to the opposite Z-type, can be connected with the ring 113a, similar to that illustrated in figa. On FIGU structure 102 of the shutter is chemically bound with the ring 113', i.e. with a ring, which is adjacent to the ring 113 is attached to the alloying group Z. the structure of the shutter 102 includes an insulator 104 shutter, indicated by the symbol R', as well as conducting the current complex 106, indicated by the symbol β.

As an additional variation, figs illustrates the structure of the shutter 102, which is attached to the right near St the public to the same ring 113, as alloying group Z. As in the previous cases, alloying the opposite group Z may be associated with ring 113a to increase the energy difference ΔELUMOat the ends of the insulating group R. Alloying group Z can be either group 117, discharging electrons or group 118 radiating electrons, which is attached to one of the positions of the ring 113. Associated with another position of the ring 113 is an insulator 104, which is also associated with conducting the current complex 106.

In another variation, shown in fig.5D, molecular structure 111 illustrates the case when the structure of the shutter 102 is connected with the ring which is not adjacent to a ring attached to the corresponding alloying group. Alloying the group Z, which may represent a group of 117 selecting electrons, or group 118 radiating electrons attached to the ring 113 in one of the sections that are defined by an isolation group 116. As in other cases, alloying group 118, 117 opposite type may be associated with ring 113a to increase the difference of energies ΔELUMObetween unoccupied energy levels are on different sides of the isolation group R. the structure of the shutter 102 is connected with the ring 113 in the same section as the ring 113 is attached to the alloy group. However, the ring 113' is offset from to LCA 113 more than one position of the ring (case of displacement in the position of one of the rings shown in figv).

Another alternative is shown in Fig.6, where many of the alloying groups used on one side of the Central insulator R, and the structure of the shutter 102 is connected to the ring 113, i.e. with a ring that is free from linking with alloying group. In this case, polyaromatic molecular conductor 112 is divided into two sections 114 and 115 by means of an isolating groups 116, indicated by the symbol R. the Acceptor section 114 includes a ring 113c, which is located near the insulator 116 and is attached to the first acceptor doping group 117, denoted by the symbol Y. the Second acceptor doping group 117', denoted by the symbol Y', is connected with the adjacent (boundary) ring 113d. Ring 113d is connected with the contact 123 flow through increasing the conductivity of the replacement group ω. On the other hand shows a section 115 with the first group of the donor-118 electrons, denoted by the symbol X and is connected with the ring 113b, and the second group of the donor-118' of electrons, denoted by X' and also connected to the same ring 113b. Located between the ring 113b and the insulator 116 is ring 113, which is connected structure 102 of the shutter. As in section 114, the two groups-donors 118 and 118' of electrons can be connected to alternate with each of the two different rings 113 and 113b. On the contrary, the two groups 117 and 117', discharging the electrons can be with dynany with one ring 113c, 113d. Through these variations in the position and amount of alloying groups can be achieved precision control of the energy difference ΔELUMOat the ends of the insulator 116. The structure of the shutter 102 includes dimethylene group 104 as gate insulator and polyaromatic conductor 106 as the conducting current of the complex, which is connected with dimetilfenola group and the contact 108 of the shutter through the Deputy ω. As an example, polyaromatic conductor 106 is depicted in the form of a naphthalene group, the structure of the two rings which provides increased capacity compared with the structure of the one ring.

The concept of creating a molecular transistor by adding patterns shutter to legirovannom molecular diode is not limited in its applicability only to molecular rectifying diodes. By adding alloying groups 117, 118 and patterns 102 of the shutter to a molecular resonant tunneling diode 202 may thus be formed of a molecular resonant tunneling transistor 200 shown in figa.

In a conventional structure of a molecular resonant tunneling diode 202 (as shown in figa) acceptor doping group 117 connected to respective rings 210b and 210c of the relevant sections 232 and 234, which are located on protivopul the different sides of the ring 235, which is "the island" resonant tunneling diode. As usual, the ring-island 235 is separated from the section 232 with isolation of group 236, which acts as a barrier through which electrons must tunnel for the implementation of the conductivity. The island 235 is connected to the section 234 through another insulating group 238, which acts as a second barrier through which electrons must tunnel for the implementation of the conductivity. To the ring-island 235 attached donor doping group 118 in order to form their own bias on both ends of barrier groups 236 and 238, and on it's own then offset will affect the external potential applied to the structure 102 of the shutter. The structure of the shutter 102 includes an insulating band 104, which is connected with alloying group donor 118 electrons. Conducting current complex 106 formed polyaromatic conductive structure similar to that of the molecular conductor and having United with each other aromatic ring 213a and 213b. Of course, a longer chain or mesh of aromatic rings or molecular structures having essentially of aromatic character, can be used to form conductive current complex 106. The far end of the conducting current of the complex is connected to the electrode 108 is the speaker through a group-Deputy ω . With this arrangement, the conductivity between the electrodes 230 and 240 may be exposed to the application potential of a given polarity to the electrode 108 of the shutter. In particular, a positive voltage is applied to the electrode 108 of the shutter, will seek to counter the influence of the alloying group X 118 associated with the island 235. Thus, the positive voltage of the gate tends to reduce unfilled energy levels of the island and to bring them more in coincidence with the corresponding unoccupied energy levels of the conduction in the areas 232 and 234 to the left and to the right. A sufficient positive voltage is applied to the shutter, can lead these three sets of energy levels in the areas 235, 232 and 234 to match, including molecular transistor. However, the voltage of the gate is still significantly less than the voltage that can be applied to current flow between the electrodes of the source and drain. Thus, for this device is achievable gain power.

Figv illustrates a structure alternative to that which is shown in figa. A variation on FIGU structurally differs from that shown in figa, only that replaced the type of alloying groups in each of the three positions where the alloying groups chemically attached to the structure. That is, figv alloying group 117 discharging electrons, attached to the ring-island and to the gate insulator, while in the corresponding position on figa attached alloying group 118 donating an electron type. Similarly alloying group 118 radiating electrons, polyaromatic conductors to the left and to the right of the island on FIGU belong to the opposite alloying Vice-117 type that appear in the relevant provisions on figa.

Such "switching" of all the types of alloying groups to obtain patterns of resonant tunneling transistor shown in figv, compared with those shown in figa also means that when the voltage of the opposite polarity must be applied to the electrode 108 of the shutter on figv in order to enable the device. It is necessary to apply a small negative voltage to the gate electrode on figv in order to counteract the effects of alloying and to cause coincidence of all the energy levels in conduction of all three parts 232, 235, 234 molecules, thereby allowing current to flow from the source to the drain. As figa conducting current complex can be formed using patterns from a variety of rings having aromatic character, such as polyaromatic Explorer.

Constructing a resonance tunneling transistor in f is RME individual molecules, becomes possible further modification of this molecule to achieve the functionality of the logic element (valve) is NOT. As shown in the diagram in figa, in the General case the function is NOT easily achieved by attaching a resistor 304 between the source of transistor 306 302 and the output contact C. In addition to the fact that it is connected to one end of resistor 304, the source 306 is connected to the power source positive polarity. The drain 308 is connected with the side of negative polarity power source, which may be a reference potential ground. The input contact A is connected to the gate 304 of the transistor 302. As is well known, this arrangement scheme provides an output signal at pin C, which is inverted relative to the input signal applied to the contact A, functioning as a classical inverter.

The circuit shown figv, represents a single molecule, which carries out the function of the inverter and is a molecular electronic variant of implementation of the General scheme shown in figa. In the molecular structure 312 polyaromatic conductor inserted insulating group R 316, and at least one alloying group Z 117, 118 associated with the ring 313a. The structure of the shutter 102 includes an insulating group R' 104 sat the RA, conducting current complex β106 connected to an isolation group 104, and one or more aromatic rings 310. Complex 106 may differ from rings 310 so that it rings connected in such a way as to increase their capacitive effectallowed resistor 304 to figa is provided with an insulating group R" 318 connected between the ring 313' and molecular conductor formed linked aromatic rings 320.

Turning now to figs, there is depicted an exemplary molecular structure to molecular electronic logic element is NOT or inverter 300 on the basis of Polyphenylene. The main chain of the molecular structure 311 diode formed using a molecular conductor 312, which is introduced by the replacement of the insulating group 316, thereby defining two sections 324 and 326. At least one of the alloying group donor 118 electrons or alloying group acceptor-117 electrons attached to section 326 in the form of an alloy of group Z, and alloying the group Z is chemically attached to the ring 313a polyaromatic structures. As discussed earlier, alloy group 117 opposite doping group 118 may be attached to the rings 313, 313' section 324 to increase the difference of energies ΔELUMObetween the conductivity zones on both sides of the insulator 316. In the same example, the structure of the shutter 102 is connected with alloying group Z for forming a structure of the transistor. The structure of the shutter 102 includes an insulating group 102 of the shutter formed with dimetilfenola groups, and conducting the current complex 106 formed using naphthalene group with two rings, the molecular structure of which may also hold some charge for amplifying field-effect with the purpose switching transistor. Conducting current complex 106 may be connected through a triple ethynylene 319 connection with one or more additional aromatic rings, so that the structure 102 of the shutter as a whole is connected to the input pin through A Deputy ωthat is associated with the material physical contact, to which the applied external voltage. This specific figure shows a group (is a HS, i.e. Tilney group. In practice, when this group is associated with the metal contact of gold, a hydrogen atom is removed, leaving only the S atom between the organic molecule and the metal contact. Resistor 304 schema depicted in FIGU formed using methylene insulating group 318, which is connected with the ring 313' section 324. Molecular conductor is formed using a variety of polyaromatic rings 320 with ethynylene 319 links between them, provides a conducting connection between an insulating group 318 and weekends contact the m of C. Polyaromatic ring structure is connected with the output contact using Colnago Deputy ωand this Deputy is associated with such materials as gold, which has already been mentioned above. The resistance value of the resistor formed by using an insulating group 318, may be corrected by using a varied group, having a lower conductivity than the polyaromatic molecular structure, and by placing many such isolating groups in the molecular conductor using conventional methods of organic chemistry, such as substitution, or techniques such as mechanosynthesis and chemosynthesis. The respective opposite ends of the main chain of the diode molecular structure 311 is connected to the contacts of the power supply of opposite polarity V+and V - to create the desired offset between the regions of source and drain.

Another alternative molecular variant embodiment of the inverter shown in figa represented by the structure shown in figa. The inverter 300' uses the molecular structure of the transistor, such as that depicted in FIGU, where alloying group Z, which can be either a group 117, discharging electrons, or by a group of 118 radiating electrons, is connected with the ring 313a, and the structure of the shutter 102 is connected with the shM, but neighboring ring 313b. In addition to the insulator 104 of the shutter and the start of the current complex 106, structure 102 of the shutter may include additional aromatic ring 310 to create a conductive path to the contact that provides the input A. In this molecular structure of the transistor, the resistor is determined by an insulating group 318 and with the symbol R, is connected to aromatic ring 313' section of the molecular structure 312, which is not part of the structure 102 of the shutter. Insulating group 318, which functions as a resistor, is connected with one or more aromatic rings 320 to create a conductive connection with the contact, which represents the output C.

Approximate molecular structure corresponding to figa depicted on figv. Here polyaromatic structure formed using benzene rings with ethynylene relationships, and the structure of the shutter 102 is connected to the ring 313b, while alloying group Z is connected with the ring 313a. Demeterova group 104 forms the gate insulator, and a naphthalene group forms a conductive current complex 106, which is optionally connected to one or more additional benzene rings for connection with the contact to which it has affinity tially Deputy. The contact shutter, thus, formiruet the input a to the ring 313', which are connected by methylene insulating group 318, which functions as a resistor, limiting the flow of electrons through a variety of aromatic rings 320 to the output C.

From the previous examples, shown in figures 8 and 9, it should be clear that any of the alternative molecular transistor structures discussed previously in connection with figures 3-7, may be used to form a monomolecular logic element, i.e. a circuit which operates as an inverter and which is in the form of individual molecules.

The combination of a large number of molecules with the formation of larger molecules, which bore the substitution and chemical joining other groups of the substituents for the formation of even larger molecules, includes procedures that are well known in the field of organic chemistry and nanotechnology. Using these methods, molecular diode or rectifying or resonant tunneling diode, is modified by adding paddle structures to form larger molecules. This converts the diode switching device in a molecular transistor, i.e. a switching device, which demonstrates the increased power. Molecular transistor, thus obtained, can then be further modified PU is eaten adding molecular group, which function as a resistive circuit element, for forming the function of the inverter, i.e. functions of the logical element.

In addition, by combining this basic molecular circuits logic element NOT with the molecular circuits that perform other elementary logical functions like AND, OR and XOR), can be made even more complex molecular electronic logic functions. These logic functions are implemented using more separate molecules. In this way, it becomes possible to design a single molecule, which demonstrates the performance of any complex Boolean logic functions. Examples of such Boolean functions can be functions of the logical element AND-NOT logical element xnor and half-adder, as well as any combination of them.

Addressing figa, here shows a General equivalent circuit that represents a logical element AND-NOT 400 with binary input signals A and B and the binary output signal to output a result of a logical operation on Input signals A and B arrive at the diode-diode logic element And 410. The output of this logic gate is further connected to the inverter 420 to ensure features are NOT that outputs a result of execution of the function. In this process the function is NOT also provides amplification or in other words, the increase in gain, output the resulting signal. The logical element 410 And formed with two rectifying diodes 412 and 414 and resistor 416. The inverter 420 includes a transistor 422, in which the output (conductor) gate connected to the output of logic element And. Then the source of the transistor 422 provides the inverted output signal through a resistor 424.

Approximate molecular structure that performs a function AND IS NOT presented on figv. The logical element AND-NOT 400, as shown, formed with the help of molecular diodes 412 and 414, whose anode ends connected together, and to them are attached the resistor is formed using an insulating group 416, while the opposite end of the resistor connected to the output of the supply voltage with a positive polarity. The node connecting the two diodes 412 and 414, connected to the transistor 422, and the transistor has a section of source, in which an insulating group 424 defines a resistor restricts the flow of electrons to the output C. Using Polyphenylene Explorer with the appropriate alloying and isolating groups, create a separate molecule that performs a specific Boolean function, i.e. the function of the logical element AND-NOT, and this molecule also gives increased power. Strengthening capacity makes possible the th logic element 400 to support what is known as "branching to exit the sequential logical operations, i.e., the ability to operate a variety of logical schemas after output C of the logical element AND-NOT.

On figa shows a General equivalent circuit that represents a logical element xnor 500 binary input signals A and B and the binary output signal to output a result of a logical operation on Input signals A and B are served on diode-diode logic EXCLUSIVE OR element 510. The output of this logic gate EXCLUSIVE-OR further connected to the inverter 420 to ensure features are NOT that outputs a result of execution of the function xnor. As in the case of the logical element AND-NOT function is NOT also provides amplification or increase the gain of the output of the resulting signal. Logical EXCLUSIVE OR element 510 is formed using two rectifying diodes 512 and 514, in which the cathodes are connected together through the corresponding resistance R0. The node connecting the two resistance R0connected with the resonant tunneling diode 516 on one end and the opposite end of the diode is connected with the resistor 518 load, and this latter end of this diode provides an output signal of the logic element ELIMINATING THE E OR. The output of the logical EXCLUSIVE OR element 510 is connected to the output (conductor) of the transistor 422. Resistor 424 inverter 420 connects the source of the transistor with the output C.

Turning now to figv, there is shown an exemplary molecular structure that performs the function xnor. The logical element xnor 500, as shown, is formed using a molecular logic gate EXCLUSIVE-OR 510, and this logical element includes molecular diodes 512 and 514, which have their cathode ends are connected together through a resistance determined by their respective own resistances. After a node connecting the rectifying diodes, is a molecular resonant tunneling diode 516, attached one end to said rectifying diodes and connected to its opposite end with a molecular conductor, having been inserted in the insulator for forming the resistor 518. The end of a molecular resonant tunneling diode 516, which is connected to the resistor 518 is connected also with the molecular logic element 420, i.e. with a similar molecular structure molecular logic element is NOT discussed in the earlier logical element AND-NOT. As a logical element AND-NOT discussed the logical element xnor 500 use the em Polyphenylene Explorer with the appropriate alloying and isolating groups for individual molecules, which executes the specified Boolean function. In addition to performing the logical Boolean function molecule gives increased power, and for this reason she has the ability to execute a set of logical schemas after output C logic gate EXCLUSIVE-OR-NOT.

Total equivalent electrical circuit representing the half-adder shown on figa. In the half-adder 600 gate xnor 500 combined with the inverter 420 to generate the output S of positive polarity. The logical element xnor 500 combined with the logical element AND-NOT 400, the output of which is connected with additional inverter 420. The inputs A and B serves the input signals, the output S represents a logical output amount, and the output C is a logical output transfer (senior category).

Approximate molecular structure that performs the function of a half-adder shown on figv. As shown, the half-adder 600 is formed using a separate molecules on the basis of Polyphenylene. It combines the functions of a logic gate xnor 500 with the functions of the logical element AND-NOT 400 by appropriately combining logical EXCLUSIVE OR element 510 with the first inverter (logical element) 420 and logic element 410 And the second inverter logic element) 420. The output of each of these logical elements connected with the respective inverters 420 to provide the desired polarity of the output signal. Similarly, more complex logical Boolean function can be formed by further (additional) Association of molecules that perform separate functions, with the formation of even more individual molecules, which are able to perform complex logic functions.

Although the present invention is described in connection with specific forms and variants of the embodiment, it is understood that various modifications and variations other than those discussed above, may be implemented without deviating from the spirit and scope of the present invention. For example, equivalent elements may be substituted for those specifically shown and described, certain features may be used independently of other features, and in certain cases, particular locations of elements may be reversed or changed places, and all this without deviating from the spirit or scope of this invention defined in the claims.

1. Monomolecular electronic device that contains a number of molecular conductors, chemically bonded together with at least one insulating group, and at least one of a specified set of molecules is situations conductors chemically connected with alloying Deputy to form their own bias at the ends of the specified chemical group, after this, the second insulating group is chemically bound with the specified at least one molecular conductor, and conductive current complex chemically connected to the specified second insulating group for the formation of individual molecules, which demonstrates the increased capacity and the specified second insulating group is in sufficient proximity to the specified alloying Deputy for impacts on specified private offset together with the potential applied to the specified start of the current complex.

2. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 1, additionally containing a third insulating group, chemically associated with the second from the specified set of conductors, and many United aromatic ring structures, chemically associated with the specified third insulating group for forming the output circuit of the inverter.

3. Monomolecular electronic device with increased power, containing:

at least one molecular conductor with many of the United essentially identical aromatic ring structures;

at least one first insulating group attached between the respective pair of the indicated aromatic ring structures to create two partitions of a specified molecular conductor is, the first of these sections is connected with the first electrical contact and the second of these sections is connected to the second contact;

means of doping at least one of the specified first and second sections, respectively, for forming at least one Central electron donor and center of the electron acceptor, and

means of molecular shutter, chemically associated with one of the specified first and second sections are in reasonable proximity to the specified tool for alloying effects on its own offset formed between the first and second sections using the specified means of doping, together with the potential applied to the specified tool of molecular shutter, and the tool of molecular gate connected to a third contact for connecting to a source of the specified capacity.

4. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the tool doping includes at least one group selected from a set consisting of groups of electron donors and groups of electron acceptors, chemically associated with the specified one of the first and second sections.

5. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the tool doping includes at least one of the groups is the electron donor, chemically associated with the specified first section, and at least one group-electron acceptor, chemically associated with the specified second section.

6. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the tool alloying includes a variety of groups selected from a set consisting of groups of electron donors and groups of electron acceptors, and specified many groups chemically associated with the specified at least one of the specified first and second sections.

7. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the specified chemical group selected from a set consisting of saturated aliphatic bridging group or groups with a predominantly aliphatic nature in relation to the transport of electrons.

8. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 7, in which the specified saturated aliphatic bridging group selected from a set consisting of a methylene group,- CH2-, dimetilfenola group-CH2CH2with the Sigma bond and longer chains.

9. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, wherein said molecular conductor includes many ethynylene separators, appropriately located between the said aromatic ring structures to link one aromatizes the second ring structure with another nearby structure.

10. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, wherein said at least one molecular conductor is a molecular conductor based Polyphenylene.

11. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the specified chemical group selected from the groups that create a potential barrier for the transport of electrons in the specified at least one molecular conductor.

12. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 3, in which the tool of molecular shutter includes a second insulating group, chemically associated with the specified at least one of the specified first and second sections in the vicinity of the specified means of doping and conducting current complex, chemically attached between the said second insulating group and the specified third contact.

13. Monomolecular electronic device according to item 12, in which the specified second chemical group selected from a set consisting of saturated aliphatic bridging group or groups with a predominantly aliphatic nature in relation to the transport of electrons.

14. Monomolecular electronic device according to claim 4, in which the indicated shutter means includes a second insulating group of chemically related to one of the specified first and second behold the Nations, and conductive polymer complex, chemically attached between the said second insulating group and the specified third contact.

15. Monomolecular electronic device according to 14, further containing a third insulating group of chemically related to the other of these first and second sections, and many of the United aromatic ring structures, chemically attached between the said third insulating group and the fourth contact to form a logical Boolean functions.

16. Monomolecular electronic device according to item 15, in which the specified logical Boolean function is a function NOT.

17. Monomolecular transistor containing:

the Explorer-based Polyphenylene with many United molecular ring structures;

at least one insulating group attached between the respective pair of these molecular ring structures to create two partitions of a specified conductor;

the first doped group associated with the at least one molecular ring structure of this first section to generate an appropriate centre-electron donor;

the second alloying group associated with the at least one molecular ring structure of this second succeeds formation of the centre-electron acceptor;

the second insulating group chemically attached near one of these first and second alloying groups, and

conducting current complex associated with the specified second insulating group to associate with her electric charge with the aim of modifying their own bias formed by these first and second alloying groups.

18. Monomolecular transistor having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R represents a saturated aliphatic group, R' represents a saturated aliphatic group, β is a conductive current complex, Z represents at least one alloying Deputy.

19. Monomolecular transistor on p, wherein said at least one alloying Deputy selected from a set consisting of an element of a group is an electron donor and item-group-electron acceptor.

20. Monomolecular transistor having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R represents a saturated aliphatic group, R' represents a saturated aliphatic group, β represents navigating the th current complex, Z represents at least one alloying Deputy.

21. Monomolecular transistor according to claim 20, wherein said at least one alloying Deputy selected from a set consisting of an element of a group is an electron donor and item-group-electron acceptor.

22. Monomolecular logic inverter having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R, R' and R" represent an aliphatic group, Z represents at least one alloying Deputy, β is a conductive current complex, ω is a Deputy, which is chemically bonded to the electrical contact, And indicates the entrance, With means output, and V+ and V - represent the potentials of the power source.

23. Monomolecular logic inverter according to article 22, further characterized by the molecule of the formula

where And denotes the input, With means output, and V+ and V - represent the potentials of the power source.

24. Monomolecular logic inverter having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R, R' and R" represent an aliphatic group, Z pre which is at least one alloying Deputy, β is a conductive polymer complex, ω is a Deputy, which is chemically bonded to the electrical contact, And indicates the entrance, With means output, and V+ and V - represent a potential source litany.

25. Monomolecular logic inverter at point 24, further characterized by the molecule of the formula

where And denotes the input, With means output, a V+and V - represent the potentials of the power source.

26. A transistor formed in a single molecule that contains:

the set of conductive polymer chains, and each of these polymer chains includes many chemically United, essentially identical aromatic ring structures;

at least one first insulating group attached between the respective pair of one of a specified set of polymer chains;

at least one alloying Deputy associated with at least one of the specified polymer chains to form their own bias at the ends of the specified first insulating group;

the second insulating group associated with one of the specified pairs specified multiple polymer chains in the vicinity of the specified at least one alloying Deputy; and

conducting current complex associated with the specified second insulating group to conduct the applied voltage to affect own specified offset.

27. Monomolecular electronic device containing:

the set of conductive polymer chains, and each of these polymer chains includes many chemically United, essentially identical aromatic ring structures;

at least one first insulating group attached between the respective pair of one of a specified set of polymer chains;

at least one alloying Deputy associated with at least one of the specified polymer chains to form their own bias at the ends of the specified first insulating group;

the second insulating group connected with the specified at least one alloying Deputy;

conducting current complex, connected to the specified second insulating group for forming the input circuit of the inverter;

a third switch group connected to a different circuit from the specified set of polymer chains; and

many United aromatic ring structures, chemically associated with the specified third insulating group to generate specified output device is Ista.

28. Monomolecular transistor having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R represents a saturated aliphatic group, R' represents a saturated aliphatic group, β is a conductive current complex, Z represents at least one alloying Deputy.

29. Monomolecular transistor having the formula

where α represents an aromatic ring group, R represents a saturated aliphatic group, R' represents a saturated aliphatic group, β is a conductive current complex, Z represents at least one alloying Deputy.

30. Monomolecular transistor containing:

molecular diode having at least one insulating barrier group chemically attached between a pair of molecular ring structures;

at least one alloying group of chemically related to one of the specified pairs molecular ring structures specified molecular diode, and

means of molecular shutter, chemically associated with the specified at least one alloying group to attack the Oia own offset, formed the specified at least one alloying group.

31. Monomolecular transistor according to item 30, in which the band-electron donor chemically linked to one of the specified pairs molecular ring structures specified molecular diode, and a group acceptor of electrons chemically linked to another of the specified pairs molecular ring structures specified molecular diode.

32. Monomolecular transistor according to item 30, in which the tool of molecular shutter includes a second insulating group, chemically associated with the specified at least one alloying group and a conductive polymer complex, chemically associated with the specified second insulating group.

33. Electronic logic device that implements the logical element AND-NOT and characterized molecule having the formula

where a and b denote the corresponding inputs, With means output, a V+ and V - represent the potentials of the power source.

34. Electronic logic device that implements the logical Exclusive OR element and characterized by a molecule having the formula

where a and b denote the corresponding inputs, C indicates the output and V+and V - represent the potentials of the power source

35. Electronic logic device that implements a half-adder and characterized molecule having the formula

where a and b denote the corresponding inputs, S denotes the output of the sum, C indicates the output of the transport, a V+ and V - represent the potentials of the power source.

36. Monomolecular electronic device containing:

molecular diode having at least one insulating barrier group chemically attached between a pair of molecular ring structures for the formation of a pair of sections diode;

at least one alloying group of chemically related to one of the specified pairs of these sections diode; and

means of molecular shutter, chemically associated with the specified one section of a diode to impact on their own bias, formed the specified at least one alloying group.



 

Same patents:

Polymer composition // 2222065
The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, in particular to polymeric compositions containing at least one essentially non-conductive polymer and at least one electrically conductive filler, in the form of granules, and the granules preferably have a size in the range up to 1 mm, more preferably between 0.04 and 0.2 mm at a volume ratio of the conductor and polymer preferably from 3:1 to 15:1

FIELD: monomolecular electronic devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed monomolecular electronic device has plurality of monomolecular conductors chemically bonded with at least one insulating group. At least one of mentioned molecular conductors is chemically bonded with doping substituent to form inherent bias across ends of mentioned insulating group. Second insulating group is chemically bonded with mentioned molecular conductor and current conducting complex is chemically bonded with mentioned second insulating group to generate separate molecule. Various alternatives of monomolecular electronic devices, monomolecular transistors, and monomolecular logic inverters are proposed.

EFFECT: developing of monomolecular switching device displaying power gain.

36 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: microtechnology; manufacture of microchip electrode systems for microanalytical devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed conducting composite incorporates elastomer, conducting polymer, and conducting carbon filler in the form of polymethyl methacrylate. Proportion of components is as follows, mass percent: conducting carbon filler, 95-97; elastomer, 1-2; polymethyl methacrylate, the rest. It is most reasonable to use glass-reinforced carbon or granular graphite as conducting carbon filler and polydimethyl siloxane, as elastomer. To facilitate its use conducting composite may be transformed to suspension in volatile concentrated solution or hexane or cyclohexane in dichloroethane. Resistivity of dried composite is 0.05 - 0.14 Ohm-cm.

EFFECT: facilitated preparation and use, enhanced chemical and biological inertness of composite.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: semiconductor engineering; biology, ecology, and medicine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electric-wave oscillator producing relaxation oscillations whose frequencies can be varied within wide range without changing supply voltage or current has its semiconductor structure built around liquid solutions of p and n organic materials with needle electrodes immersed in n-type liquid organic semiconductor and electrode immersed in p-type semiconductor. Liquid p semiconductor may be 1-20% aqueous solution of fuchsin triphenyl methane die or aqueous solution of methylene blue organic die of 1-20% concentration, or aqueous solution of glucose of 1-50% concentration. Aniline can be used as n-type liquid semiconductor.

EFFECT: ability of producing relaxation oscillations close in their parameters to those noted in biological objects.

5 cl 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: liquid semiconductors for biology, ecology, and medicine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for generating electric oscillations at frequencies close to those noted in biological specimens includes passage of electric current between electrodes immersed in n-type liquid organic semiconductor and placed at potential difference of 5-70 V. Current of 1 to 500 μA is passed between electrode placed at positive potential and that immersed in p-type liquid semiconductor.

EFFECT: ability of generating electric oscillations at frequencies close to those noted in biological specimens.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: photodiodes responding to ultraviolet spectrum region.

SUBSTANCE: proposed ultraviolet photodetector characterized in reduced sensitivity in visible region of spectrum has transparent hole-injection layer that functions as anode applied to solid transparent substrate, organic semiconductor layer, and electron-injection metal layer that functions as cathode. Organic semiconductor layer has active photosensitive layer of 3-(4-biphenyl)-(4-tertiary-butyl phenyl)-(4-dimethyl amino phenyl)-1,2,4-triazole (DA-BuTAZ) that abuts against cathode and organic hole-conducting layer that abuts against anode.

EFFECT: maximized photosensitivity in ultraviolet spectrum region at reduced sensitivity in visible region.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of generating electric oscillations using semiconductor and liquid dielectrics, and can be used biology, ecology, medicine and other fields, related to biological objects. The method involves exposure of a liquid medium, placed between two electrodes to an electric field. The liquid medium used is in form of protein solutions, based on substances with hydrogen bonds, extracted from biological objects and containing nano- and microclusters. The protein solutions are exposed to an alternating electric field with intensity 10-100 V/m and frequency 1-90 Hz. The protein solutions used are aqueous or aqueous-alcohol solutions.

EFFECT: design of an efficient and non-toxic method of generating electric oscillations of a wide frequency range, imitating oscillations of biological objects, which allows for simulating biophysical and biochemical processes in them.

2 cl, 1 dwg,1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for generation of electric oscillations with the help of semi-conductors and liquid dielectrics and may find wide application in biology, ecology, medicine. Method includes effect of physical field at liquid medium placed between two electrodes. Liquid medium used is protein solutions on the basis of substances that have hydrogen links extracted from biological objects and containing nano- and micro-clusters. Effect is implemented by alternating magnetic field with intensity of 10-120 A/m and frequency of 0.5-70 HZ. Protein solutions used are water or water-spirit solutions.

EFFECT: creation of efficient and non-toxic method for generation of oscillations of wide frequency range, which imitate oscillations of biological objects and makes it possible to model biophysical and biochemical processes in them.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compositions containing electroconductive organic materials. Described is a composition for making hole injecting holes or hole transporting layers in electroluminescent devices, organic solar cells, organic laser diodes, organic thin-film transistors or organic field effect transistors or for making electrodes or electroconductive coatings containing a polythiophene derivative, distinguished by that it contains a polythiophene derivative in form of at least one polythiophene containing a repeating unit with general formula (I): where X represents -(CH2)x-CR1R2-(CH2)y -, where R1 represents -(CH2)s-O-(CH2)p-R3-, where R3 represents SO3-M+, where M+ represents H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ or NH4+, s equals 0 or 1 and p equals 4, R2 represents hydrogen, x equals 1 and y equals 0 or x equals 1 and y equals 1, and at least one more SO3-M+ containing polymer group, where M+ represents H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ or NH4+, where mass ratio of polythiophene(s) to the said polymer equals 1 : (1-30). Also described is an electroluminescent device containing at least two electrodes from which if necessary at least one is deposited on an optionally transparent substrate, at least one emitter layer is deposited between both electrodes and at least one hole injecting layer is deposited between one of the two electrodes and the emitter layer, where the device is distinguished by that the hole injecting layer contains the above describe composition. An organic light-emitting diode containing the said electroluminescent device is also described.

EFFECT: longer service life, increased illumination intensity of electroluminescent devices and the light-emitting diode.

15 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of nanomaterials and nanostructures, and can be used to produce thin-film polymeric materials and coatings used in sensing, analytical, diagnostic and other devices, and when creating the protective dielectric coatings. The method of production of thin-film organic coating of cationic polyelectrolyte comprises modification of the substrate, preparing the aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte with the adsorption of polyelectrolyte on the substrate, washing, drying the substrate with the deposited layer. The substrate is used as monocrystalline silicon with roughness less than or comparable with the thickness of the obtained coating. To generate the negative electrostatic charge the substrate is modified in the solution of alkali, hydrogen peroxide and water at 75°C for 15 min. During the adsorption the substrate is illuminated from the side of the solution with light having intensity in the range of 2-8 mW/cm2 and with wavelengths of the range of intrinsic absorption of silicon.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the roughness and thickness of the organic coating.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the photo-electric element consisting of electron-donating and electron-seeking layers, as a part of an electron-seeking layer containing methane fullerene where methane fullerene compounds with the generalised formula , where R = - COOCH3, - Cl, and the electron-donating layer is hydrochloric acid doped polyaniline or methane-sulphonic acid based polyaniline.

EFFECT: increase of overall performance of converters of solar energy into electric and idle voltage.

1 tbl, 4 ex

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