Apparatus for quick large-scale production of solid carbon dioxide tablets

FIELD: processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises body with inner partially cylindrical surface, cylindrical rotor installed into the body and rotating around an axis offset from central axis of inner body surface. Apparatus also has feeding unit for liquid CO2 supplying and expanding communicated with the body and rotor. Liquid CO2 is supplied from high-pressure source to feeding unit and turns into gas and dry ice. Gas is then discharged. The rotor has a row of blades movable in radial direction and extending between rotor and inner body surface so that pockets for dry ice receiving from feeding unit are formed. During rotor rotation about its axis pockets and dry ice are circumferentially displaced, pocket volumes decrease and dry ice is pressed to form tablets. The body has unloading zone communicated with the pockets having minimal volumes to unload solid tablets from the body.

EFFECT: increased output along with reduced time for solid carbon dioxide tablet production, increased density of the tablets, reduced power inputs, possibility of in-situ solid carbon dioxide tablet production.

23 cl, 20 dwg

 

The scope of the invention.

This invention relates to a simplified, highly mobile and effective apparatus for immediate obtain a large amount of tablets compressed solid carbon dioxide (CO2). The device utilizes liquid carbon dioxide which is discharged through the nozzle and extends to reach a state triple point of the phase diagram, in which liquid, gaseous and solid phases can coexist in the well-known process to instantly jump into a mixture consisting of CO2in the gas phase and particles of dry ice. Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere or returned to the process for making the liquid in the vacuum system restore, or is used to extinguish the fire. Dry ice particles escalated into flakes of larger size, which are pressed into tablets by means not installed Central rotor with radially moving vanes mounted in the radial slots of the rotor. The rotor and vanes forming pockets which move circumferentially connected to the inner partial surface of the rotor housing, where the flakes are pressed into tablets as the volume of the pockets decreases with movement of the rotor and blades to the discharge point of tablets. The blades are made slits reaching the outer edges Lopato is. These cracks are delimiters, rigidly mounted on a partial enclosure, and divide oblong pockets along the rotor, housing and adjacent blades on the pockets smaller for the formation of smaller tablets. These smaller tablets are unloaded from the partial rotor housing into the lock chamber, comprising a housing and a rotor with blades, to move the tablets to the outlet, insulated from the device, tablet pressing. Airlock includes a hole for air release, which serves to facilitate the movement of the tablets to the place of use, such as a fire to extinguish the fire.

Description of the prior art.

The formation of tablets2solid carbon dioxide is well known. These pills have been used for various purposes, for example, for surface treatment such tablets released from the sandblasting apparatus for moving material to neutralize harmful substances in ambient air, for quick freezing of food products or other materials etc.

Various ways of using liquid CO2including apparatus for receiving tablets2of liquid CO2are disclosed in the following U.S. patents: 4033736, 4389820, 4977910, 5355962, 5419138.

Although some patents related to the prior art, the description is in the apparatus for the formation of tablets 2, performance characteristics, including the protracted start-up, small volume products and parts of structures, including large, heavy components, and operational requirements have restricted the use of tablets CO2for a variety of purposes.

For example, in U.S. patent No. 4033736 the impeller 80 is not installed centrally relative to the housing 30. Dry ice from CO2is formed between the casing and the impeller. During the rotation of the impeller dry ice radially displaced through the passages 52, where dry ice is pressed mainly under the influence of spring 76. In this invention, the dry ice is pressed during its circular motion between the rotor and the housing in the pockets, limited housing, the rotor and radially moving vanes on the rotor. These pockets move in circles and decrease in volume due to the eccentric relationship between the rotor and the housing.

In U.S. patent No. 5419138 describes the use of a hydraulic plunger for pressing dry ice (CO2in tablets and discussed improvements of known devices for reception of tablets CO2and dry ice, the use of such tablets and dry ice and operational characteristics of known devices. The performance of the device is low, the start of a protracted, heavy construction and energy needs are significant.

The device according to the us is oasea the invention, on the contrary, enhances the production of a large volume of solid tablets2high density and requires little energy to obtain tablets "on the spot", where such tablets need to extinguish fires, reduce environmental pollution, etc.

Summary of invention.

For many years gaseous carbon dioxide from the dry ice particles or without them was used to extinguish fires, especially in some dangerous conditions.

Before the invention of systems "halon" CO2was the only gaseous medium effective fire fighting in case of fire of most materials, except for some active metals and materials containing its own source of oxygen. Gaseous carbon dioxide is a desirable tool for eliminating fires because it does not burn, does not throw out their own decomposition products, provides its own seal for a release from a storage container, so there is no need for additional sealing, gaseous carbon dioxide leaves no residue, so there is no need for cleaning of the container from the agent, it is relatively inert to most materials, provides a three-dimensional protection, since the conditions surrounding the it environment is a gas, it does not conduct electricity and can be used in the presence of energized electrical equipment. However, the use of gaseous CO2as a means for the elimination of fires and firefighting somewhat limited due to the inability to deliver gaseous CO2to fire at distances much larger than 10-15 feet. In addition, the previously known devices do not produce large enough volumes tablets CO2that could be transported over long distances to effectively combat fires and pollution.

System on the basis of the "Halon" is gradually removed from the production in connection with the Management rules for the Protection of the Environment, which require gradual discontinuation of substances that cause the depletion of the ozone layer.

Carbon dioxide is considered as an alternative technology, and the present invention provides for the use of CO2as a replacement for "Halon and other substances that cause ozone depletion, which can harm the environment, such as a variety of foaming agents, etc.

The aim of the present invention is to provide apparatus for immediate obtain a large amount of tablets of solid carbon dioxide to the high density of liquid carbon dioxide under pressure, using relation is sustained fashion small lightweight, highly mobile design. One variant of the device according to the invention has a total weight less than 100 feet, a height of about 30 inches and a depth and a width of approximately 6 to 12 inches. The device runs on an electric motor of small capacity. The above dimensions may vary depending on the desired performance. The machine can also operate a gasoline or diesel engine low power. The above variant of the apparatus according to the invention can produce approximately 600 to 800 pounds tablets2per hour depending on the component size and the speed of rotation of the rotor. The startup time of the device is approximately 3 seconds, which is very effective, inexpensive and quickly actuated fire extinguishing system.

Another objective of the invention is to provide apparatus for obtaining tablets of carbon dioxide according to the invention and the previous target, which includes a housing for receiving liquid carbon dioxide under pressure, which is discharged through a number of nozzles in square compensatory tube, where the liquid carbon dioxide is transformed into a mixture of gaseous carbon dioxide and particles of dry ice. Gaseous carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere or into the vapor recovery system. Particles of dry l is Yes, formed in the pipe from expanding CO2going into the pockets of the rotor system and pressed into pellets of solid carbon dioxide.

Another aim of the invention is to provide apparatus for obtaining tablets of carbon dioxide according to the invention and the previous order, in which the structure for pressing the accumulated dry ice particles in tablets mainly includes partial cylindrical housing with a cylindrical rotor mounted in the housing on an axis deviated from the center of curvature of the partially cylindrical body. The rotor has radial slits are radially movable blades or vanes, the end edges of which are supported in close contact with the inner space of the partially cylindrical body, forming a multitude of continuous pockets, with the exception of those slots are arcuate dividers on the body. These vanes move radially relative to the rotating rotor, which moves along the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body. In the dry ice particles and flakes, moving in a circle, turn into a solid tablet carbon dioxide as a continuous pockets formed by the housing, the rotor and blades are moved from a large input volume to a small output volume. Divide and on the housing cut pill formed in each pocket, on many tablets of smaller size, which is unloaded from the rotor.

An additional objective of the invention is to provide apparatus in accordance with the purpose specified above, in which the CO2is fed into the compressor through the nozzle, includes the aperture in order to allow expansion of the liquid CO2to state the triple point of the phase diagram.

Another aim of the invention is to provide apparatus for obtaining tablets of carbon dioxide as specified in the previous order in which the tablets are smaller unloaded from the rotor into the lock chamber for receiving solid tablets. Airlock comprises a cylindrical housing with an inlet opening for tablets and a rotor with radial vanes extending from the rotor and are in continuous contact with the inner surface of the housing. The rotor and vanes rotate around an axis concentric with the axis of the cylindrical body, and form multipockets constant volume. The housing has an outlet for tablets, remote from the inlet, and inlet / outlet vents for air flow, communicating with the opposite ends of the housing airlock. The flow of air passing through the housing, carries the tablets of solid carbon dioxide and takes pills from the airlock IU is the use or storage.

Another additional objective of the invention is to provide apparatus for obtaining tablets WITH2, which tablets are unloaded from a node tablet pressing under the action of gravity, liquid CO2expands in the tube, displacing the dry ice in pockets in the compressor, and gaseous CO2is collected for later use.

Another additional objective of the present invention is to provide apparatus in accordance with the above purpose in which the compressor rotor rotates around the Central axis, and the compressor has an internal eccentric space, interacting with the rotor and blades for pressing dry ice (CO2in tablets.

Another very important aim of the invention is to provide apparatus for obtaining tablets of carbon dioxide that would be light weight, small dimensions, which could be easily transported, which would be cheap to manufacture and operate, simple and quick to start and work, and would receive a large amount of carbonic acid tablets for effective fire-fighting and other applications.

These and other objectives and advantages which will become apparent, are in the details of construction and operation described and claimed in more detail below, with reference to the accompanying drawings, which show the part I of the invention, on which the same numeric designations refer to the same parts.

The above objective is achieved in that the device for making pellets of solid carbon dioxide, comprising a housing having a partially cylindrical inner surface, a cylindrical rotor mounted in the housing and rotatable about an axis offset from the Central axis specified partially cylindrical inner surface of the case, the node feed and expansion of liquid CO2communicated with the specified case and the rotor, in which liquid carbon dioxide is supplied from a source under pressure and in which the liquid CO2turns into a gaseous phase and the phase of the dry ice, dry ice is discharged into the rotor, and gaseous carbon dioxide is produced, and the specified rotor has a number of radially movable blades passing between the rotor and partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing, forming a series of pockets into which is fed the dry ice from a node to filing and extensions, the rotation of the rotor around its axis these pockets and dry ice are displaced around the circumference and volume of the pockets decreases, and dry ice is then pressed into tablets, and the specified body has a discharge zone associated with pockets, when they were minimal, to unload hard pressed tablets from the chassis. The specified node is the La feed and expansion has a channel for flow of the liquid carbon dioxide, an elongated reservoir for receiving liquid carbon dioxide, a number of nozzles in the manifold to provide unloading and expansion of carbon dioxide, the number of square compensatory pipe for receiving the expanding liquid carbon dioxide from the nozzles with a mixture of carbon dioxide and dry ice, and mentioned square compensatory pipes have discharge ends near the rotor for uniform discharge of dry ice over the entire area of the pockets formed by the vanes of the rotor, and gaseous carbon dioxide.

The unit contains a lock chamber for the reception of tablets of carbon dioxide from the rotor housing, and airlock includes a cylindrical housing, a rotor in said cylindrical housing, rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned cylindrical body, and the said rotor in a rotary chamber with a radially acting and spring-loaded blades that interact with the cylindrical housing, limiting pockets open top, in which are received the tablets of solid carbonic acid and transferred to isolated pockets in the discharge area, and the inlet and outlet for air at opposite ends of the cylindrical body airlock reported with isolated pockets in the discharge zone for discharging tablets from isolated pockets. Mentioned Qili the shape of the housing has an outlet for air, located at a distance from the discharge zone of tablets, which serves to remove residual air from the pockets in the rotor in the cylindrical housing before the pockets will be on the same line with an opening for the discharge of solid tablets of the rotor, forming tablets.

Specified housing has opposite side walls, with each wall has a circular cavity, the center of which coincides with the center of the partially cylindrical inner surface and offset from the axis of rotation of the rotor, and the ends of the mentioned blades are in the cavity, so that the outer edges of the blades are held in position adjacent to the partially cylindrical inner surface during rotation of the rotor, reducing the volume of pockets and compression of dry ice in the pockets as the rotor moves from the position in which the pockets are consistently in line with the site for feeding and expansion and have a maximum volume position in line with the discharge zone, where the pockets have a minimum volume and dry ice particles in each pocket compressed into a tablet. In each blade made a number of longitudinal slits, located at a distance from each other, reaching to the outer edge of the scapula, and mentioned partially cylindrical body contains a number of parallel divide the oil, located at a distance from each other on said inner surface, and the said separators are included in the above-mentioned slit and cut the pill in each pocket on the number of tablets of the same size as the blade pockets and dry ice moving along the circumference of the partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing. Each separator has an arched shape and has its outer edge, which groove is coincident with the inner surface mentioned partially cylindrical surface, and the inner edge coincident with the outer surface of the above-mentioned rotor. The said casing has a front wall and a back wall, and each of the said separators has a lower end located on one straight line with the inner surface of the upper end of the said rear wall, with the lower end of the said partially cylindrical body is connected with the inner surface of the upper end of the said rear wall and lies on the same line with this surface, and mentioned partially cylindrical body terminates in an upper edge, spaced less than 180° from the lower end to the upper part of the rotor is left open and engaged with the upper rotor blades forming an open top pockets for receiving dry ice particles of the site for submission and is rasshireniya. The top edge has an inner surface oriented so that it is close to the trajectory of the outer edges of the blades as they move up to the host to feed and expansion, and mentioned the front wall has a series of parallel ribs located at a distance from each other on the inner surface and received in slots in the blades to prevent movement of dry ice down from the site for feeding and expanding past the rotor to the discharge area. At least one of these side walls has an input for air, located on one straight line with a closed pocket containing a tablet of solid CO2when closed pocket passes the lower end of the partially cylindrical body, and the said inlet for air is adapted to receive compressed air at a rate sufficient to displace tablets of solid CO2pockets, passing the lower end of the separator and a partially cylindrical body and for discharging the above-mentioned tablets in the lock chamber. Mentioned front wall of the housing provided on the front surface of a camera to collect, and mentioned the camera provides a close upper end section of the above-mentioned walls of the casing to collect all gaseous CO2released from host to feed and expansion, and mentioned Luggage collection has e the wall outlet. Mentioned the site to feed and expansion goes up at an angle to the rotor and the housing to reduce the size of the apparatus and increase the aggregation of small particles of dry ice in larger flakes and unloading them under the action of gravity in opening up the pockets between adjacent blades on the rotor. Mentioned opening up pockets, limited adjacent blades, in their upward movement of the rotor form a continuous pockets with continuous surfaces of the walls, and the lower ends of the compensatory pipes are of the form that dry ice is unloaded during all phases of each pocket opening upwards. Mentioned airlock includes a cylindrical housing, a rotor in said cylindrical housing, rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned cylindrical body, and the said rotor in a rotary chamber with a radial spring-loaded blades that interact with a cylindrical body, forming an opening up pockets for the reception of tablets of solid carbon dioxide and move them in isolated pockets to the discharge zone, and inlet and outlet for air at opposite ends of the cylindrical body airlock, communicating with isolated pockets in the discharge zone for discharging the tablets of izolirovani the x pockets. Mentioned cylindrical housing has an outlet for air, located at a distance from the zone of discharge tablets, to release the residual air from the pockets in the rotor in the cylindrical housing before the pockets will be in line with the area for unloading of solid tablets of the rotor, forming tablets.

In the above-mentioned partially cylindrical housing has a transverse retaining strap, which closes the lower ends of the above-mentioned grooves and serving as a stop for area of the lower end of each divider in said grooves.

Each divider has a beveled upper end, a radially passing over the entire length of each slit in each blade, so that the tablet is in each pocket is cut into tablets of a smaller size.

The mentioned site for feeding and extension provided with a nozzle passing through the side wall of the said casing and the said nozzle communicates with a source of CO2under pressure and provides the extension of CO2in the above-mentioned pockets in the form of dry ice for further pressing into tablets and unloading of the body.

The above objective is achieved in that the apparatus for compressing compressible material during movement of the material around the circumference, comprising a housing having at least partially cylindrical inner surface having a center is inuu axis, a cylindrical rotor rotating around an axis located at a distance from the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical inner surface, and the said rotor has a series of radial slots, and a radially movable vane in each slot communicates with the rotor and partially cylindrical surface and forms a radial pockets for receiving the compressible material in the input area when the pockets are in direct alignment with the input area and to compress the material, the motion of the material in the pockets circumferentially compressed as the volume of the pockets decreases when moving to the discharge zone near the end of the said partially cylindrical body located closer to the axis the mentioned rotation of the rotor than the end of the said pockets adjacent to the input area, resulting eliminates radial extrusion compressible material through the aperture.

Each said blade has a number of slits passing to the outer edge of the scapula, and at the said partially cylindrical surface has a series of arcuate blockers, each having an inner edge part of one of these cracks, and thus prevents leakage of gaseous CO2through the aforementioned slots in the blades. The said housing has side walls, and the inner surface is of resti each side wall has a circular cavity, moreover, each of the said blades have end edges included in the above-mentioned cavity, as in the guides, and said cavities have a Central axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical surface so that the said blades are moved radially relative to the rotor during its rotation around said axis, located at a distance from the Central axis of the above-mentioned cavities and partially cylindrical inner surface of the said housing. The said body is equipped with a cutting plate towards said rotor close to the said discharge zone for removal of compressed material of the aforementioned pockets.

The above objective is achieved in that the apparatus for compressing compressible material during movement of the material around the circumference, comprising a housing having at least partially cylindrical inner surface having a Central axis, a cylindrical rotor rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical inner surface, and in the above-mentioned rotor made a number of radial slits, and radially moving the blade in each slot communicates with the rotor and partially cylindrical surface, forming a radial pockets for receiving the compressible material in the proto the area, when the pockets are in direct alignment with the input area, and the said body has a surface that is located eccentrically and closer to the axis of rotation of the above-mentioned rotor than a cylindrical surface, for pressing the material into tablets as the volume of material in the pockets and the amount of own pockets decreases pockets on the eccentric surface to the discharge zone in said casing at a distance from the above-mentioned entry zone for discharging compressed tablets under the action of gravity.

In the above-mentioned input area includes a nozzle through which a liquid CO2and extends to form dry ice particles, krupneyshaya in said pockets when the blades interact with the partially cylindrical surface of the said body.

A brief description of the drawings.

The figure 1 shows a partial vertical section of the apparatus along the axis of the rotating rotor for forming pellets of carbon dioxide according to the invention.

The figure 2 shows a partial vertical section along the line 2-2 on figure 1, illustrating components of the apparatus for expanding carbon dioxide and pressing of the tablets according to the invention.

The figure 3 shows a detailed horizontal section of the rotor blades and the casing along the axis of rotation of the rotor.

The figure 4 shows an enlarged vertical is owned by the projection of one of the movable blades of the rotor, used site for pressing tablets.

Figure 5 shows a longitudinal section of a reservoir for liquid CO2illustrating the construction of the expansion nozzle.

The figure 6 shows the bottom view of the manifold illustrating the position of the expansion nozzle.

Figure 7 shows a partial side view of the upper end of the square compensatory pipe.

The figure 8 shows a partial view of the front wall of the supporting body, illustrating ribs on its surface facing the rotor.

Figure 8A shows a side view of the front wall of the supporting body, illustrating the configuration of the ribs.

The figure 9 presents detailed schematic drawing illustrating the relationship between the rotor blades and ribs.

The figure 10 presents a schematic drawing of one of the pockets for receiving dry ice particles and gaseous CO2.

In figure 11 detailing one of the separators mounted on a partially cylindrical housing.

The figure 12 shows a separator with a beveled upper end to split the tablets formed in the pocket, decreasing volume pills smaller size.

The figure 13 shows a partial section illustrating the connection of the inlet for air from the rotor pockets to remove the tablets from the rotor.

The figure 14 shows the vertical the actual incision airlock for receiving compressed tablets of solid CO 2discharged from the pockets of the rotor, and control the discharge of tablets from the device.

Figure 15 shows a horizontal section of the airlock for the reception, which shows the input and output openings for air flow.

The figure 16 shows a longitudinal vertical section similar to figure 1 illustrating another implementation of the apparatus using a nozzle for the introduction of CO2in the compressor.

The figure 17 shows a cross-section of execution of the invention, presented in figure 16.

Figure 18 illustrates in greater detail the cutting mechanism used in this embodiment of the invention.

Figure 19 shows a longitudinal vertical section, illustrating another embodiment of the invention.

The figure 20 shows a longitudinal vertical section, illustrating another embodiment of the invention in which the rotor rotates around the Central axis, and an inner cavity of the body is deflected from alignment.

Description of the preferred versions.

Although described only two preferred versions of the invention, it should be borne in mind that these options are given only as illustrations. Scope of the invention is not limited to details of construction and arrangement of the components set forth below in the description or shown in the drawings. D is I clarity in the description of the preferred embodiments of the invention will use a special terminology. It should be borne in mind that each specific term includes all technical equivalents that operate in a similar manner to achieve similar goals.

Apparatus for quickly generating a large number of tablets of carbon dioxide according to the invention shown in the drawings and generally designated position 10. The apparatus includes a housing 12 that supports a rotating compressor 14 CO2which is connected with the node 16 to the feed and expansion of liquid CO2on his entrance area which is connected with a rotary chamber 18 at its output zone for regulating the discharge of tablets compressed solid CO2formed by the compressor 14.

The housing 12 includes a horizontally disposed support plate 19, a pair of vertical, parallel side walls 20, located at a distance from each other, each of which has a rectangular configuration and is rigidly connected with the support plate 19. Vertical front wall 22 are rigidly connected to the support plate 19, passes upward between the side walls 20 and terminates at the upper edge 24 below the upper edges of the side walls 20, as shown in figure 2. Partial back wall 26 located at a distance from the front wall 22 and parallel to it, passes vertically from the base plate 19 between the side walls 20 and rigidly connected with them at a distance from the back of the edges of the side walls 20. The upper end of the rear wall 26 is located below the upper edge 24 of the front wall 22 and is rigidly connected with a curved, partially cylindrical body of the rotor 28, the edge 30 of the lower end of which is located on one straight line with the front surface of the rear wall 26 and is rigidly connected with the upper edge of the rear wall 26. Partially cylindrical body 28 is held between the side walls 20, is rigidly connected to these walls 20 and includes an edge 32 of the upper end of which is shifted sideways to the rear edge of the side walls relative to the flange 30 of the lower end of the housing 28, as shown in figure 2.

Ahead of the front wall 22 is closed, the camera 34 for collecting gaseous CO2as described below. Luggage collection 34 includes a front wall 36, located at a distance from the front wall 22, bottom wall 38, side walls 40 and tilted up to the top wall 42 extending from the top edge of the front wall 36 to a point between the upper corners of the side walls 20, located at a distance from the upper edge 24 of the front wall 22, as shown in figure 2. The front wall 36 of the chamber for collecting 34 includes a tubular element 44 that pass through adjacent, but spaced from bottom wall 38, to release gaseous CO2from the chamber 34 to the atmosphere or in a vacuum recovery system.

Node 16 for submission and is rasshireniya liquid CO 2includes the supply pipe or hose 46 is provided with a sealed tank, fitted with a valve (not shown)containing a supply of liquid CO2that can pass through the pipe 46 located in the transverse manifold 48. As shown in figures 5 and 6, the manifold 48 includes a top wall 50 with an opening 52 that communicates with the feed pipe 46. The manifold 48 includes a Central longitudinal channel 54 formed by a bottom wall 56 and the upper wall 50. Horizontal channel 54 terminates at a distance from one end of the manifold and provided with a plug 58 at the other end of the collector. Bottom wall 56 includes a series of longitudinally spaced threaded holes 60, passing from channel 54 to the lower surface of bottom wall 56. The nozzle 61 is installed in each of the holes 60 for controlling the flow of liquid CO2. Each of the side edges of the manifold has a flange 62. Between the flanges 62 is mounted a series of square compensatory pipes 64, each of which has an upper end 66 with a reduced cross-sectional area on the outer surface, as shown in figure 7, to the upper end 66 is able to telescopically apart between the flanges 62 on the manifold pipe 64 can be rigidly attached to the manifold 48.

Compensation pipe 64, which CO2comes from the nozzles 61, limit zone expansion, in which the s liquid CO 2passing through the limiting flow rate in each of the nozzles 61, can expand and achieve its triple point, where the formed particles of dry ice, and gaseous CO2subject to release through the square tube 64.

The lower ends of the compensating pipe 64 telescopically extended between inclined, spaced apart, parallel walls 68 and 70, which are held between the side walls 20 of the housing 12 and is rigidly attached to the side walls 20. Walls 70 and 68 are directed upward along the lower part of the opposite surfaces of the pipes 64 and pipe 64 is rigidly attached to the walls 70 and 68. As shown in figure 2, the walls 68 and 70 are held between the side walls 20 near the upper corner, and a lower edge of the wall 70 is located on one straight line with the top edge 24 of the front wall 22, but is separated from it vertically. The top wall 42 of the closed chamber 34 is connected to the bottom edge of the wall 70. Another wall 68 passes downwards and inwards between the side walls 20 at a greater distance than the wall 70, and has a lateral flange 72 in the form of a plate with turned up edge 74 attached to the bottom edge of wall 68, and the end portion of the flange 76, which lies on the top edge and in contact with the upper edge of the partially cylindrical body 28 of the rotor, as shown in figure 2.

Node 16 for feeding and expanding the Jew is Oh CO 2passes from the housing 12 up not vertically but at an angle, and to reduce the overall height of the apparatus, as well as to facilitate adhesion of the particles of dry ice into larger particles and flakes as moving down the expanding CO2collides with the surface of the bottom wall square tube 64. Dry ice, and gaseous CO2move downwards at an angle in the area of housing 12 above the compressor 14, as shown by arrows 78. Gaseous CO2is separated from the dry ice particles and discharged into the chamber 34 through the space between the upper edge 24 of the front wall 22 and the bottom edge of the wall 70 so that the gas can pass down into the chamber 34, as shown by arrows 80, and drained therefrom through the tubular outlet channel 44.

The compressor 14 includes a cylindrical rotor 82 located between the side walls 20 of the housing 12 and is provided at each end of the trunnion 84, which passes through the side wall 20 and is supported in bearings or bushings 86. One swivel pin 84 is longer than the other, connected with a drive motor (not shown) in any well known manner. The drive motor can be an electric motor of small power, gasoline or diesel engine, or other source of energy, torque rotor at different speeds.

The rotor 82 is made of radial school and 88, equidistant from each other around the perimeter of the rotor and passing through the inside of the rotor at equal distance from its outer surface. In each slit 88 is movable rectangular blade 90. The blades 90 are able to move radially in the slots 88. Blade 90 is slightly longer than the distance between side walls 20, and the ends of each blade are part of the internal cavity 92 in the opposite inner surfaces of the side walls 20, as shown in figures 1 and 3. As shown in figure 2, the outer periphery of each cavity 92 tangential inner surface of the upper part of the front wall 22 and the outer periphery of the cavities 92 coincides with the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 28 of the rotor. Thus, the motion of the ends of the blades 90 in a circular motion to the outer edges of the blades come into contact with the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 28 of the rotor and the inner upper surface of the cavity 92. The rotor 82 rotates around an axis that is offset from the center of the round cavities 92 and the Central axis of the partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing 28 of the rotor. This is called radial movement of the blades 90 inward from the extended position when the blade is turned to the compensation pipe 64 and the plate 72, the rotor 82 during their movement along the inner surface casticin the cylindrical body 28 to the place of unloading, limited rear edge 30 of the partially cylindrical body 28. The blades 90 are moving on a circular path, the center of which is offset from the center of rotation of the rotor 82 during rotational movement of the rotor blades 82 and 90.

The outer edges of adjacent blades 90 and the outer surface of the rotor 82 to form pockets 94 along the rotor, when the outer edges of the blades 90 come into contact with the casing 28. Pockets 94 are separated by several, preferably nine, separators 96 which is rigidly mounted in a shallow grooves 97 in the housing 28 and are inside of the partially cylindrical surface of the partially cylindrical body 28 of the rotor. Each separator 96 has an arcuate outer edge 98, the corresponding partially cylindrical grooves 97 in the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 28, and a circular inner edge 100, which is eccentric relative to the edges 98 and coincides with the cylindrical outer surface of the rotor 82. The center of the circular surface of the rotor 82 does not coincide with the center of the cylindrical surface bounded cavities 92 and the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 28. Each separator 96 has a discharge end 102 that corresponds to the edge 30 of the partially cylindrical body 28 and lies on the same line with it. Each divide the 96 also has a top edge 104, which is beveled on each side to the center point and lies on the same line with the top edge 32 of the partially cylindrical body 28. As a result, the tablet in each pocket 94 on eight tablets 95 smaller, essentially the same size, and then unloaded from each of the pocket 94. The discharge end 102 of each separator is in contact with the retainer plate 103, which promotes the retention separators 96 in the groove 97 in the partially cylindrical housing 28, as shown in figure 3.

In each blade 90 has a series of slits 106, including separators 96 along the blade at a distance from each other until its outer edge in a straight line. When the blades 90 are transferred from a position in direct alignment with the upper edge 32 of the partially cylindrical body 28 in position on a straight line with the lower edge 30 of the partially cylindrical body 28 and the retaining plate 103, the pockets 94 are closed as soon as a pair of adjacent blades 90 pass by edges 32 partially cylindrical body 28. Closed pockets gradually decrease in size as long as they do not pass by the edges 30 of the partially cylindrical body 28 and the retaining strap 103 and particles of dry ice in the pockets 94 will not be compressed and will not harden when the volume of the pockets 94. Then pressed particles of dry ice are unloaded from the pocket of the 94 down along the surfaces, limited front wall 22 and rear wall 26 through the opening 108 in the base plate 19 and are received in the lock chamber 18.

The inner surface of the front wall 22 has a series of parallel ribs 110 located at a distance from each other, as shown in figures 2, 8, 8A and 9. These ribs go into the slots 106 in the blades 90, when the blades are moving up past the ribs 110. Ribs 110 in the slots 106 prevent the loss of dry ice in a relatively wide open slit 106 in the blades 90 to the camera tablets bounded by side walls 20, a rear wall 26 and front wall 22, and mixing with tablets 95 discharged from the rotor 82.

Because dry ice particles and gaseous CO2discharged from the square of the compensation pipe 64, the square shape of pipes significant because the pockets 94, limited external edges of the blades 90, which extend beyond the outer surface of the rotor 82 includes a parallel surface, limited by adjacent blades, and straight longitudinal surface bounded by the outer surface of the rotor. Accordingly, when the dry ice particles and gaseous material are in the pockets 94, the direction of the flow of gaseous material is inverted, and a part of the gaseous material extends through slots 106 in the blades. As a result all essentially rectangular F. the PMA pockets 94 more evenly filled with dry ice. Gaseous CO2captured with dry ice, even after the passage between the lower edges of the compensation pipe 64 into the pockets 94, can move through slots 106 in the reverse flow, as shown in figure 10, and the pockets will be completely filled with dry ice.

As shown in figure 13, to eliminate compacted and hardened tablets 95 carbon dioxide from the pockets 94 after pill is fully pressed, each of the side walls 20 are supplied or both side walls 20 is provided with inlet 114 for air, located on one straight line with each pocket 94 as soon as it passes the discharge edge 30 of the partial cylindrical body 28 and the retaining bracket 103. The inlet 114 for air communicated with the source of compressed air so that when the blade 90, i.e. the front shovel pocket 94, passes by the edge 30 of the housing 28 and the retaining strap 103, the air pressure provides unload all tablets2with the passage of tablets beyond the edge 30 of the housing 28, the edges 102 of the separators 96 and the retaining strap 103. So all tablets CO2will be forced out of the pockets 94 into the chamber for tablets through the discharge hole 108 in the lock chamber 18. As shown in figures 14 and 15, airlock 18 includes a cylindrical housing 116 with the rotor 118, rotating specified in the housing around the axis, concentric with the housing 116. The rotor 118 has a series of radial blades 120, which are radially moved in the grooves 122 and speak of them in the rotor 118, coming into contact with the inner surface 124 of the housing 116. The rotor 118, the blade 120 and the inner surface 124 of the housing 116 form a series of pockets 126, located on a circle. A cylindrical housing 116 has an arcuate inlet opening 128 in the upper quarter, situated on one straight line with the discharge hole 108 in the base plate 19, through which the corps accepted tablets 136. Guide or plate 130 moves away from the base plate 19 tangentially to the housing 116 at the lower edge of the inlet 128 to hold the tablets in the pockets 136 126 during rotation of the rotor 118 counterclockwise, as shown by the arrow 132. As shown, the rotor 118 there are six slots 122 and six blades 120, and each vane is rejected to the outside and communicates with the inner surface 124 of the housing 116 by means of curved or zigzag flat springs 134 between the lower parts of the slots 122 and the inner edges of the blades 120. Thus, adjacent blades 120 in combination with the outer surface of the rotor 118 and the inner surface 124 of the housing 116 to form oriented around the circumference of the pockets 126. The rotor 118 can be driven in rotation by a small motor or a motor that Pref is the CIO of the rotation of the rotor 82 of the compressor 14.

During rotation of the rotor 118 is compressed tablets 136 discharged from compressor 14, fall under gravity into the pockets 126 and consistently fill them in when the pockets are in line with the holes 108 and 128. Moving from a position in direct alignment with the hole 128 to the lower part of the housing 116, the pockets 126 are isolated. As shown in figure 15, in the lower part of the housing 116 one end wall has an inlet opening 138 for air, which is connected with the source of compressed air, and at the opposite end of the housing 116 has an outlet opening 140 for air and tablets, is somewhat larger than the inlet 138. The air flow through the housing 116 from the inlet 138 to the outlet 140 picks up and unloads tablets, brings them to the place of use, storage, etc. If air under pressure is trapped in the pocket 126 when the latter is in direct alignment with the inlet 138 and outlet 140, the air exits through the exhaust hole 142 in the housing 116 when the pockets 126 are in direct alignment with the outlet 142 before these pockets 126 are in line with the hole 128, during their displacement and filling tablets 136 solid carbon dioxide.

In figures 16-18 shows a second variant of the invention, in which the liquid is legislatu CO 2enter in a rotary compressor 210 having a housing 212, through an expanding nozzle 214 in one of the side walls 216, or both side walls 216. The nozzle 214 has a ledge 218 mounted in the hole 220 in the side wall 216, and the aperture 222 of small diameter through which the liquid CO2passes, expands and reaches the state of the triple point of the phase diagram. Dry ice particles and gaseous CO2discharged into the chambers or pockets 224, similar to the pockets 94, shown in figures 1-12. The compressor 210 includes eccentrically mounted rotor 226, provided with radially moving vanes 228 with the radial outer edges communicating with the internal space of the housing 212, forming a closed chamber 224 for pressing dry ice particles in long blocks of CO2during rotation of the rotor in the same manner as shown in figures 1-12. In the outer edges of the blades 228 are slit 230, which includes arcuate blockers 232. Blockers 232 are held at a distance in an arc greater than the distance between adjacent blades 228. As a result of this slit 230 is closed and rapid release of gaseous CO2the atmosphere does not occur. The set of blockers 232 located on opposite sides of the nozzle 214, and blockers 232 associated with the blades 228, approaching the nozzle 214, longer blockers 232, connected what's with the blades 228, receding from the nozzle 214 and moving to a great area 234 discharge tablets in the housing 212. Thus, the dry ice particles are held, and the flow of gases into the atmosphere is limited.

Area 234 discharge extends from the position diametrically opposite the nozzle 214, to approximately 135° around the perimeter of the housing 212 so that the tablet could fall under the force of gravity of the rotor blades and the housing. Near zone 234 unloading is the cutter 236, made in the form of a rod with the tabs 238 and 240 that are fixed in the grooves 230 in the blades 228. This cutter is used for cutting the compressed blocks on the tablet, as shown in figure 18. Can be used, as shown in figure 13, and nevmerzhytska compressed tablets chamber 224 in the area 234.

Apparatus for quickly generating a large number of tablets of carbon dioxide according to this invention, is shown in figure 19, the indicated position 310. The apparatus has a housing 312, which has a rotating compressor rotor CO2314 which is connected to the node 316 to feed and expansion of liquid CO2on the inlet and outlet of the housing, and the output 318 to unload into the lock chamber in the same manner as shown in figure 2.

The body 312 has a horizontally disposed support plate 319, a pair of vertical, spaced at a distance from each other, parallel Boko what's walls 320, each of which has a rectangular configuration and is rigidly connected with the support plate 319. Vertical front wall 322 is rigidly connected with the support plate 319, passes upward between the side walls 320 and ends at the top edge 324 below the upper edges of the side walls 320, as shown in figure 19. Partial back wall 326, located at a distance from the front wall 322 and parallel to it, passes vertically from the base plate 319 between the side walls 320 and rigidly connected with them at a distance from the rear edges of the side walls 320. The upper end of the rear wall 326 terminates flush with the top edge 324 of the front wall 322 is rigidly connected to the arcuate, partially cylindrical housing 328 of the rotor, which end edge 330 lies on the same line with the bottom wall 326 and rigidly connected with the upper edge of the rear wall 326. Partially cylindrical housing 328 is held between the side walls 320 and is rigidly connected to these walls 320. Body 328 has an end edge 332, offset from the end edge 330 of the housing 328, as shown in figure 19.

Ahead of the front wall 322 is closed, the chamber 334 to collect gaseous CO2. Luggage 334 has a front wall 336, located at a distance from the front wall 322, a bottom wall, which is part of the bottom wall 319, side walls 340 and the top wall 342, passing from the upper edge of the front wall 336 of the housing 328 near the end edge 332, between the side walls 320, located at a distance from the top edge 324 of the front wall 322. The front wall 336 chamber 334 to collect supplied by a tubular element 344 passing through it in the neighborhood, but at a distance from the bottom wall 319, for the release of gaseous CO2from the chamber 334 in the atmosphere or in a vacuum recovery system, or apparatus for use gaseous CO2when fighting fire.

Node 316 to feed and expansion of liquid CO2there is a supply pipe or hose 346 which is connected with a sealed tank, fitted with a valve (not shown)containing a supply of liquid CO2that can be carried in an elongated manifold 348 and compensation pipe or pipes 350, supported or supported by the bracket 352 mounted on the bottom plate 319. Collector 348 equipped with a diaphragm or diaphragms (not shown), similar to that shown in figures 5 and 6.

Compensation pipe or the compensation pipe 350 limit zone expansion CO2that CO2expands to reach a state triple point of the phase diagram, where the formed particles of dry ice, and gaseous CO2and then unloaded to the edge 332 of the housing 328 of the rotor through the chamber 334 to collect the gas is shaped CO 2. Gaseous CO2is separated from the particles of dry ice and is discharged into the chamber 334, and the gas passes down into the chamber 334 and discharged through the tubular element 344.

A cylindrical rotor 314 compressor passes between the side walls 320 and has a radial slit 354, equidistant from each other around the perimeter of the rotor and passing through the inside of the rotor at equal distance from its outer surface. In each slot 354 is movable rectangular shoulder 356. The blades 356 able to move radially in the slots 354. The blades 356 is slightly longer than the distance between side walls 320, and the ends of each blade are in the inner cavity 358 in the opposite inner surfaces of the side walls 320, as shown in figures 1 and 3. The outer periphery of each cavity 358 is an internal surface of the partially cylindrical body 328 of the rotor. Therefore, when the ends of the blades 356 move in a circular path, the outer edges of the blades come into contact with the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 328 of the rotor and the inner upper surface of the cavity 358. The rotor 314 is rotated around an axis that is offset from the Central axis of the partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing 328 of the rotor. This is called radial movement of the blades 356 inward from the extended position when the lop is TCI cavity 356 and 358 facing the expansion area and entrance, limited edge 332 of the housing 328 and the edge of the wall 324 322, and move inwards towards the rotor 314, during their movement along the inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 328 to the unloading area bounded by the trailing edge 330 partially cylindrical body 328. The blades 356 move in a circular path, the center of which is offset from the center of rotation of the rotor 314 during rotational movement of the rotor 314 and the blades 356.

When the outer edges of the blades in contact with the housing 328, the inner surface of the housing 328 adjacent blades 356 and the outer surface of the rotor 314 is formed pockets 359 along the rotor 314 and the blades 356. Cavity 359 separated by delimiters 360, which is rigidly mounted in shallow grooves in the housing 328 and act inside of a partially cylindrical inner surface of the partially cylindrical body 328 of the rotor, as shown in figures 1-12. This embodiment of the rotor blades and body works in the same way as in figures 1-18, and contains structures similar to the structures for discharging tablets down to the exit 318.

In the embodiment of the invention, presented in figure 20, is used compressor for the formation of tablets2indicated by the position 410, which includes a housing 412 of the rotor cylindrical configuration, but has a flat plate or a straight line segment 414, opposite (or p is otepaeae) the center of the cylindrical inner surface 416, located around the greater part of the body 412. The rotor 418 is mounted on an axis in end walls 420 of the housing 412, and rotates around its Central axis coincident with the center cylindrical section 416 of the housing 412. In the housing 412 has an input 422, communicated with the node 424 to supply CO2with the plate 426 with a nozzle or aperture 428 through which liquid CO2passes and expands. Obtained particles of dry ice, and gaseous CO2.

Gaseous CO2may extend, as shown by the position 430, between the plate 426 and plate 432, which has one edge connected to the housing 412 and forms one edge of the input 422. Gaseous CO2can also extend, as shown by the position 434, between the edge 424 of the plate with nozzle and the outer surface of the housing 412 near the entrance 422.

Dry ice particles, resulting from the expansion of liquid CO2pass through the entrance 422 in pockets 436 formed by radial vanes 438 installed in the slots 440 rotor 418. In the end walls of the housing 412 includes a cavity 413 formed similarly to the inner surface 416 of the housing 412 and the inner surface of the flat plate 414, serving to control the movement of the blades 438 in the slots 440. Radial slits 440 allow the blades 438 to move so that the outer edges of the blades 438 are always close to the inner surface is t 416 cylindrical section of the housing 412, and a straight inner surfaces 442 flat plate 414, similarly, end cavities on the figures 1-19.

In the housing 412 has a discharge hole 444, located diametrically opposite the inlet 422. The discharge hole 444 is provided with a discharge pipe 446 with the upper end of 448 in the form of a socket that is connected to the hole 444 to facilitate unloading tablets2under the action of gravity from the pockets 436 of the rotor with the passage of the blades above the hole 444. This design is simpler because the outer edges of the radial vanes 438 interact with the external surfaces 416 and 442 and regulate the position of the blades 438 and the size of the pockets 436. The size of the pockets 436 does not change when the blades 438 interact with a partially cylindrical surface. However, due to the fact that the inner rectilinear surface 442 eccentric relative to the axis of rotation of the rotor 418, volume pockets 436 decreases as the blades pass by the center of the plate 414, resulting in a dry ice particles in the pockets 436 compressed. As the rotor continues to rotate clockwise, the blades 438, passing the center of the plate 414 to the discharge hole 444, cause an increase in the volume of pockets 436, so tablets free fall through the hole 444 in the discharge tube 446. The junction between the cylindrical surface 416 and the eccentric surface 442 may include a curved transient is th section 443 to achieve smoother movement and less wear of the blades 438 and surfaces 442 and 443.

This invention allows the use of tablets of carbon dioxide as a replacement agent fire suppression system halon or other chemicals, ozone depleting, bad for the environment. This invention also removes restrictions on the use of carbon dioxide due to the fact that previously known devices are not allowed to reach the fire burning at a large distance from the source of carbon dioxide. This invention provides an immediate generate large volumes of solid pellets of carbon dioxide to the high density of liquid carbon dioxide under pressure without the use of hydraulic plungers or other large and heavy equipment for pressing dry ice in solid tablets and eliminates the need for the use of the extruder for making dry ice pellets.

The design of the device according to the invention is small in weight, the unit can move, and he can work effectively from the motor of small capacity. The performance of the device can be doubled or tripled by increasing the length of the compressor rotor and other structures, and the density of the tablets 136 can be changed by varying the speed of rotation of the rotor.

As is well known, for burning need three elements: fuel, oxygen and heat. Reducing the temperature and displacing the oxygen, tablet and carbon dioxide eliminate two of the three components, it is vitally important to maintain combustion. Film-forming foam can displace oxygen, but it does not reduces the temperature of the flash, as do tablets of carbon dioxide. Other chemicals separate the oxygen from the fire, without reducing the temperature of the flash, and in cases of high-temperature flame chemical products can create toxic conditions and to impoverish the ozone layer.

Some previously known devices are relatively heavy, their weight can reach about 3000 pounds, and they produce approximately 200 pounds of pellets of carbon dioxide per hour after running for 10-15 minutes. Another previously known apparatus that weighs 8000 pounds, produces from 500 to 600 tablets per hour after launch. These large previously known machines for the production of the above quantities tablets require motors with power up to 20 horsepower. Such previously known machines are heavy, bulky stationary units, and they were not economically justified or effective enough to combat fires or pollution of the environment. The apparatus according to the invention can weigh about 60-100 pounds or less, its height is less than 3 feet, the width is about 12 inches and a thickness of 6 inches. The device is powered by a small engine capacity of less than 1 horsepower, it can be highly mobile and manufactures OK the lo 800 pounds of pellets of carbon dioxide per hour acceleration time of about 3 seconds. Therefore, the apparatus according to the invention is very important and less expensive means of fighting fires.

The shelf life of the solid carbon dioxide is very short even under refrigeration. Therefore it cannot be prepared in advance, and then use to fight fires, environmental pollution or other purposes. But this disadvantage is eliminated thanks to the present invention, since it becomes possible to manufacture a large amount of tablets of carbon dioxide at a small startup time of the apparatus. For example, due to the small size and weight of the apparatus and the speed of production of carbonic acid tablets "on the spot", the device according to the invention or several units can be mounted on the chopper with a tank of liquid carbon dioxide under pressure and to obtain an effective delivery system tablets CO2for fighting forest fires.

As an alternative to the larger unit can be permanently installed on-site, remote from the scene of a fire, and tablets CO2to transport and unload in place of fire from a helicopter from a large bucket or container. This invention can also be used to extinguish large chemical fires, fires in high-rise buildings and fires, which cannot be reached by other conventional means. With this invention you can quickly do is to eliminate spills of dangerous chemicals and neutralize the noxious fumes, for example, a pair of ammonia, etc., utilities and chemical plants. Due to the small size and weight of the apparatus according to the invention can be mounted on a small trailer, pickup truck or even on the back of a person for the purpose of fighting fires and pollution. Even if burning occurs on the surface of the water when burning oil or fuel floating on the water surface, this invention will solve this problem, as tablets will float on the water and extinguish the fire.

In addition, the invention is not limited to fire fighting, since various well-known problems can be solved immediately by freezing or hardening liquids into a solid mass, which is then quickly repair and restore process before the staff or the environment caused serious damage. This invention is particularly useful when used on oil tankers and cargo vessels, offshore drilling platforms, oil, petrochemical and refineries, as well as in many other places where there may be fires, oil spills and excretion of toxic substances.

All the above should be considered only as an illustration of the principles of the invention. Because professionals can easily come up with many changes, it is undesirable to restrict this and the finding shown and described the exact construction and operation mode. Accordingly, it is possible to use all suitable modifications and equivalents without going beyond the scope of the invention.

1. Apparatus for the manufacture of tablets of solid carbon dioxide, comprising a housing having a partially cylindrical inner surface, a cylindrical rotor mounted in the housing and rotatable about an axis offset from the Central axis specified partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing, the site for feeding and expanding liquid CO2communicated with the specified case and the rotor, in which liquid carbon dioxide is supplied from a source under pressure and in which the liquid CO2turns into a gaseous phase and the phase of the dry ice, dry ice is discharged into the rotor, and gaseous carbon dioxide is produced, and the specified rotor has a number of radially movable blades passing between the rotor and partially cylindrical inner surface of the housing, forming a series of pockets into which is fed the dry ice from a node to filing and extensions, the rotation of the rotor around its axis these pockets and dry ice are displaced around the circumference and volume of the pockets decreases, and dry ice is then pressed into tablets, and the specified body has a discharge zone associated with pockets, when they were minimal, to unload hard pressed tablets from the case.

2. AP is Arat according to claim 1, wherein said node to filing and extensions has a channel for flow of the liquid carbon dioxide, an elongated reservoir for receiving liquid carbon dioxide, a number of nozzles in the manifold to provide unloading and expansion of carbon dioxide, the number of square compensatory pipe for receiving the expanding liquid carbon dioxide from the nozzles with a mixture of carbon dioxide and dry ice, and mentioned square compensatory pipes have discharge ends near the rotor for uniform discharge of dry ice over the entire area of the pockets formed by the vanes of the rotor and gaseous carbon dioxide.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 in combination with a lock chamber for reception of tablets of carbon dioxide from the rotor housing, and airlock includes a cylindrical housing, a rotor in said cylindrical housing, rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned cylindrical body, and the said rotor in a rotary chamber with a radially acting and spring-loaded blades that interact with the cylindrical housing, limiting pockets open top, in which are received the tablets of solid carbonic acid and transferred to isolated pockets in the discharge area, and the inlet and outlet for air in the opposite ends of the cylindrical body airlock reported with isolated what armaname in referred to the discharge zone for discharging tablets from isolated pockets.

4. The apparatus according to claim 3, in which the mentioned cylindrical housing has an outlet for air, located at a distance from the discharge zone of tablets, which serves to remove residual air from the pockets in the rotor in the cylindrical housing before the pockets will be on the same line with an opening for the discharge of solid tablets of the rotor, forming tablets.

5. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said housing has opposite side walls, with each wall has a circular cavity, the center of which coincides with the center of the partially cylindrical inner surface and offset from the axis of rotation of the rotor, and the ends of the mentioned blades are in the cavity so that the outer edges of the blades are held in position adjacent to the partially cylindrical inner surface during rotation of the rotor, reducing the volume of pockets and compression of dry ice in the pockets as the rotor moves from the position in which the pockets are consistently in line with the site for feeding and expanding and have the maximum amount, in the position in line with the discharge zone, where the pockets have a minimum volume and dry ice particles in each pocket compressed into a tablet.

6. The apparatus according to claim 5, in which each blade made a number of longitudinal slits, located at Russ is in nformation from each other, reaching the outer edges of the blades, and mentioned partially cylindrical body contains a series of parallel separators located at a distance from each other on said inner surface, and the said separators are included in the above-mentioned slit and cut the pill in each pocket on the number of tablets of the same size as the blade pockets and dry ice moving along the circumference of the partially cylindrical inner surface of the shell.

7. The apparatus according to claim 6, in which each separator has an arched shape and has its outer edge, which groove is coincident with the inner surface mentioned partially cylindrical surface, and the inner edge coincident with the outer surface of the above-mentioned rotor.

8. The apparatus according to claim 7 in which the said housing has a front wall and a back wall, and each of the said separators has a lower end located on one straight line with the inner surface of the upper end of the said rear wall, with the lower end of the said partially cylindrical body is connected with the inner surface of the upper end of the said rear wall and lies on the same line with this surface, and mentioned partially cylindrical body terminates in an upper edge, spaced less than 180° from the bottom the first end, to the upper part of the rotor is left open and engaged with the upper rotor blades forming an open top pockets for receiving dry ice particles from a node to filing and extensions.

9. The apparatus of claim 8, in which the upper flange has an inner surface oriented so that it is close to the trajectory of the upper edges of the blades as they move up to the host to feed and expansion, and mentioned the front wall has a series of parallel ribs located at a distance from each other on the inner surface and received in slots in the blades to prevent movement of dry ice down from the infeed and extending past the rotor to the unloading area.

10. The apparatus according to claim 9, in which at least one of these side walls has an input for air, located on one straight line with a closed pocket containing a tablet of solid CO2when closed pocket passes the lower end of the partially cylindrical body, and the said inlet for air is adapted to receive compressed air at a rate sufficient to displace tablets of solid CO2pockets, passing the lower end of the separator and a partially cylindrical body and for discharging the above-mentioned tablets in the lock chamber.

11. The apparatus of claim 10, in which the mentioned front wall of the housing is nubeena on the front surface of a camera to collect, and mentioned the camera provides a close upper end section of the above-mentioned walls of the casing to collect all gaseous CO2released from host to feed and expansion, and mentioned Luggage collection has in its wall outlet.

12. The apparatus according to claim 11, in which the said site to feed and expansion goes up at an angle to the rotor and the housing to reduce the size of the apparatus and increase the aggregation of small particles of dry ice in larger flakes and unloading them under the action of gravity in opening up the pockets between adjacent blades on the rotor.

13. The apparatus according to item 12, in which the mentioned opening up pockets, limited adjacent blades, in their upward movement of the rotor form a continuous pockets with continuous surfaces of the walls, and the lower ends of the compensatory pipes are of the form that dry ice is unloaded during all phases of each pocket opening upwards.

14. The apparatus according to item 13 in combination with a lock chamber for reception of tablets of carbon dioxide from the rotor housing, and mentioned airlock includes a cylindrical housing, a rotor in said cylindrical housing, rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned cylindrical body, and the said rotor in a rotary chamber fitted very near to the radial and spring-loaded blades, interacting with a cylindrical body, forming an opening up pockets for the reception of tablets of solid carbon dioxide and move them in isolated pockets in the discharge zone, and inlet and outlet for air at opposite ends of the cylindrical body airlock, communicating with isolated pockets in the discharge zone for discharging tablets from isolated pockets.

15. The apparatus 14, in which the mentioned cylindrical housing has an outlet for air, located at a distance from the zone of discharge tablets, to release the residual air from the pockets in the rotor in the cylindrical housing before the pockets will be in line with the area for unloading of solid tablets of the rotor, forming tablets.

16. The apparatus of claim 8, where in said partially cylindrical housing has a transverse retaining strap, which closes the lower ends of the above-mentioned grooves and serving as a stop for area of the lower end of each divider in said grooves.

17. The apparatus according to claim 6, in which each separator has a beveled upper end, a radially passing over the entire length of each slit in each blade so that the tablet is in each pocket is cut into tablets of a smaller size.

18. The apparatus according to claim 1 in which the said node to filing and extensions provided with nozzles is m, passing through the side wall of the said casing and the said nozzle communicates with a source of CO2under pressure and provides the extension of CO2in the above-mentioned pockets in the form of dry ice for further pressing into tablets and unloading of the body.

19. Apparatus for compressing compressible material during movement of the material around the circumference, comprising a housing having at least partially cylindrical inner surface having a Central axis, a cylindrical rotor rotating around an axis located at a distance from the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical inner surface, and the said rotor has a series of radial slots, and a radially movable vane in each slot communicates with the rotor and partially cylindrical surface and forms a radial pockets for receiving the compressible material in the input area when the pockets are in direct alignment with the input area and to compress the material, the motion of the material in the pockets circumferentially compressing it as the volume of the pockets decreases when moving to the discharge zone near the end of the said partially cylindrical body located closer to the axis of rotation of the above-mentioned rotor than the end of the said pockets adjacent to the input area, resulting eliminates Adelina extrusion compressible material through the aperture.

20. The apparatus according to claim 19 in which each said blade has a number of slits passing to the outer edge of the scapula, and at the said partially cylindrical surface has a series of arcuate blockers, each having an inner edge part of one of these cracks, and thus prevents leakage of gaseous CO2through the aforementioned slots in the blades.

21. The apparatus according to claim 20, in which the said housing has side walls, and in the inner surface of each side wall has a circular cavity, and each of the mentioned blades have end edges included in the above-mentioned cavity in the guides, and said cavities have a Central axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical surface so that the said blades are moved radially relative to the rotor during its rotation around said axis, located at a distance from the Central axis of the above-mentioned cavities and partially cylindrical inner surface of the said body.

22. The apparatus according to claim 19, in which the said body is equipped with a cutting plate towards said rotor close to the said discharge zone for removal of compressed material of the aforementioned pockets.

23. Apparatus for compressing material in the movement of this material in OCD is gnosti, comprising a housing having at least partially cylindrical inner surface having a Central axis, a cylindrical rotor rotating around an axis coinciding with the Central axis of the aforementioned partially cylindrical inner surface, and in the above-mentioned rotor made a number of radial slits, and radially moving the blade in each slot communicates with the rotor and partially cylindrical surface, forming a radial pockets for receiving the compressible material in the input area when the pockets are in direct alignment with the input area, and the said body has a surface located unicentric and closer to the axis of rotation of the above-mentioned rotor than a cylindrical surface, for pressing material in tablets as the volume of material in the pockets and the amount of own pockets decreases pockets on the eccentric surface to the discharge zone in said casing at a distance from the entrance zone for discharging compressed tablets under the action of gravity.

24. The apparatus according to item 23, which in the above-mentioned input area includes a nozzle through which a liquid CO2and extends to form dry ice particles, krupneyshaya in said pockets when the blades interact with the partially cylindrical surface upomyanutoj the body.



 

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of cryogenic technique.

SUBSTANCE: it may be used with cryogenic gas machines working according to Sterling's feedback cycle and at making garage stations for receiving condensed natural gas for motor-car transport. The installation for liquefaction of natural gas for a garage refueling station has a source of natural gas, a gaseous natural gas feed line from the source of gas with located on it a control valve, an arrangement for lowering gas pressure, capacity for natural gas of low pressure. The feed line connects the source of natural gas with the condenser of the Sterling's cryogenic machine. The discharge line of condensed gas connects the condenser of Sterling's cryogenic machine with capacity for storing condensed gas. A strait arch with an unidirectional restrictor valve connects the gas hollow of the capacity for storing condensed natural gas with the condenser of the cryogenic machine.

EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce mass and dimensions characteristics of the installation for liquefaction of gas, reduce the cost of capital expenditures at making installation for liquefaction of gas and provides possibility of applying the installation for liquefaction as of natural gas of high pressure so of gas of low pressure.

1 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of liquefaction of a flow of compressed gas rich in methane.

SUBSTANCE: at the first stage of the process the first fraction of the flow of the compressed fed gas is set aside preferably at the pressure more than 11000 kPa and its entropic expansion until to more lower pressure is made for cooling and at least to partial liquefaction of the set aside first fraction. The multistep expansion of the second fraction is made until to more lower pressure. At that at least partially the second fraction of the gas flow is liquefied. The liquefied second fraction is removed out of the process as a flow of compressed air at the temperature of more than -112°C and the pressure equal to the pressure at the point of beginning of boiling and higher.

EFFECT: the invention allows to improve the mode of liquefaction of natural gas.

24 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: equipment for gas liquefaction.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating gas flow from gas pressure reducing plant inlet into two streams; feeding one stream to expansion turbine of expansion-and-compression apparatus; supplying another stream to compressor of above apparatus; directing cold gas from turbine outlet into tube space of one of two switchable freezing heat-exchangers and then to gas pressure reducing plant outlet. Pressurized gas from gas compressor outlet is also separated into two parts. The first part is fed in one of two switchable freezing heat-exchangers and then in recuperative heat-exchanger. Then the first part is divided into two streams. Each stream is expanded and one stream is fed to moisture collector means, another one is mixed with low-pressure gas exiting from moisture collector. The second part of compressed gas flow is directed from gas compressor outlet to vortex tube which generates low pressure hot gas for heating freezing heat-exchanger removed from operation and cold gas used for additional cooling of compressed gas flow moving through operative preliminary freezing heat exchanger.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

1 dwg

Compression device // 2246078

FIELD: applicable for compression of gaseous refrigerant for use in the cooling system of the liquefaction plant.

SUBSTANCE: the cooling system has an inlet, first outlet for refrigerant at low pressure, second outlet for refrigerant at intermediate pressure, third outlet for refrigerant at high pressure, and the fourth outlet for refrigerant at a pressure exceeding the high pressure. The device has the first and second compressors. The first compressor includes the main inlet connected to the first outlet, side inlet connected to the third outlet, and the outlet connected to the inlet of the cooling system. The second compressor includes the main inlet connected to the second outlet, side inlet connected to the fourth outlet, and the outlet connected to the inlet of the cooling system.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of construction and method of operation of a device for cooling the gas with the use of vortex tubes as halotherapy elements

Compression device // 2246078

FIELD: applicable for compression of gaseous refrigerant for use in the cooling system of the liquefaction plant.

SUBSTANCE: the cooling system has an inlet, first outlet for refrigerant at low pressure, second outlet for refrigerant at intermediate pressure, third outlet for refrigerant at high pressure, and the fourth outlet for refrigerant at a pressure exceeding the high pressure. The device has the first and second compressors. The first compressor includes the main inlet connected to the first outlet, side inlet connected to the third outlet, and the outlet connected to the inlet of the cooling system. The second compressor includes the main inlet connected to the second outlet, side inlet connected to the fourth outlet, and the outlet connected to the inlet of the cooling system.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: equipment for gas liquefaction.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating gas flow from gas pressure reducing plant inlet into two streams; feeding one stream to expansion turbine of expansion-and-compression apparatus; supplying another stream to compressor of above apparatus; directing cold gas from turbine outlet into tube space of one of two switchable freezing heat-exchangers and then to gas pressure reducing plant outlet. Pressurized gas from gas compressor outlet is also separated into two parts. The first part is fed in one of two switchable freezing heat-exchangers and then in recuperative heat-exchanger. Then the first part is divided into two streams. Each stream is expanded and one stream is fed to moisture collector means, another one is mixed with low-pressure gas exiting from moisture collector. The second part of compressed gas flow is directed from gas compressor outlet to vortex tube which generates low pressure hot gas for heating freezing heat-exchanger removed from operation and cold gas used for additional cooling of compressed gas flow moving through operative preliminary freezing heat exchanger.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of liquefaction of a flow of compressed gas rich in methane.

SUBSTANCE: at the first stage of the process the first fraction of the flow of the compressed fed gas is set aside preferably at the pressure more than 11000 kPa and its entropic expansion until to more lower pressure is made for cooling and at least to partial liquefaction of the set aside first fraction. The multistep expansion of the second fraction is made until to more lower pressure. At that at least partially the second fraction of the gas flow is liquefied. The liquefied second fraction is removed out of the process as a flow of compressed air at the temperature of more than -112°C and the pressure equal to the pressure at the point of beginning of boiling and higher.

EFFECT: the invention allows to improve the mode of liquefaction of natural gas.

24 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of cryogenic technique.

SUBSTANCE: it may be used with cryogenic gas machines working according to Sterling's feedback cycle and at making garage stations for receiving condensed natural gas for motor-car transport. The installation for liquefaction of natural gas for a garage refueling station has a source of natural gas, a gaseous natural gas feed line from the source of gas with located on it a control valve, an arrangement for lowering gas pressure, capacity for natural gas of low pressure. The feed line connects the source of natural gas with the condenser of the Sterling's cryogenic machine. The discharge line of condensed gas connects the condenser of Sterling's cryogenic machine with capacity for storing condensed gas. A strait arch with an unidirectional restrictor valve connects the gas hollow of the capacity for storing condensed natural gas with the condenser of the cryogenic machine.

EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce mass and dimensions characteristics of the installation for liquefaction of gas, reduce the cost of capital expenditures at making installation for liquefaction of gas and provides possibility of applying the installation for liquefaction as of natural gas of high pressure so of gas of low pressure.

1 dwg

FIELD: processes or apparatus for liquefying.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises flowing gas through one or two recuperative heat exchangers connected in series where the gas cools and low-boiling components are condensed and frozen, flowing the gas through a gas-expansion machine and/or an air throttle to the cold receiver. A part of the straight gas flow is branched into the cold and hot flows inside the energy separator made of, e.g., a two-flow vortex pipe. The cold flow is mixed with the return flow at the inlet to the heat exchanger. The hot flow is directed to the straight passage of the nonoperating recuperative heat exchanger-freezer.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: cryogenic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises source of natural gas, pipeline for supplying natural gas from the source of natural gas provided with a valve, device for reducing gas pressure, tank for low-pressure gas, Stirling cryogenic machine, and pipeline for discharging the liquefied gas. The discharging pipeline connects the condenser of the Stirling cryogenic machine with the tank for storing liquefied gas. The freezer of the admixtures in the natural gas is connected with the condenser of the cryogenic machine through the pipeline for purified dry natural gas. The by-pass provided with a check valve connects the gas space of the tank for storing liquefied natural gas with the condenser of the cryogenic machine through the freezer. The pipeline for discharging liquefied gas passes through the freezer.

EFFECT: reduced sizes and mass and expanded functional capabilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: cryogenic engineering; liquefaction of natural gas and low-boiling multi-component gases.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of natural gas for liquefaction, increasing the pressure of natural gas for forming direct flow which is cooled in at least one cooling stage where liquid phase of high-0boiling components is separated and throttling it into reverse flow. Direct flow is throttled after cooling stage, thus forming gas-and-liquid mixture which is separated in separator into target liquid and vapor phase forming the reverse flow; target liquid is directed to consumer. Reverse flow is directed for cooling the direct flow and mixing with starting natural gas. Prior to delivery of direct flow to cooling stage, it is cooled, working flow is separated from direct flow, pressure of direct flow is decreased, thus forming vapor-and-liquid mixture before separation of liquid phase of high-boiling components. After separation of liquid phase of high-boiling components, pressure of direct flow is increased by means of ejector due to energy of expansion of working flow; vapor-and-liquid flow escaping from ejector is divided into vapor which is directed to direct flow and liquid forming circulating flow which is throttled and mixed with reverse flow. Preliminary cooling of direct flow is performed due to cold of reverse flow.

EFFECT: increased coefficient of liquefaction; low cost of procedure.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: cryogenic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to process of liquefaction of natural gas for automobile gas-filling compressor. According to proposed method, natural gas from mean pressure mains at pressure of (p≤7.6 MPa) is compressed in high-pressure of p≤25 MPa and then is successively cooled in first and second recuperative heat exchangers, throttled and delivered into service storage where gas is separated into liquid and gaseous phases. Gaseous phase is returned to compressor inlet through second and first heat exchangers. Gas of high pressure, (p≤25 MPa), additionally cooled in first heat exchanger by cold flow from preliminary cooling circuit in which at least one stage is used as additional refrigerating source. Said stage consists of recuperative heat exchanger and vortex tubes operating on high pressure gas,(p≤7.5 MPa)getting from inlet of gas-distributing station. "Cold" flow of first vortex tube is fed to mean pressure line of heat exchanger of preliminary cooling circuit. High pressure gas,(p≤7.5 MPa), cooled in said heat exchanger is supplied to inlet of second vortex tube, its "cold" flow is mixed with reverse flow of gas non-liquefied in cycle from outlet 0f second heat exchanger and is directed to inlet of mean pressure line(p≤1.6 MPa) of first heat exchanger where direct flow of high pressure gas(p≤25 MPa) is cooled to temperature T<245 K) and then gets into second and following recuperative heat exchangers. "Hot" flows of vortex tubes are united and directed into outlet mains of gas-distributing station.

EFFECT: improved reliability and reduced cost of process of liquefaction.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises body with inner partially cylindrical surface, cylindrical rotor installed into the body and rotating around an axis offset from central axis of inner body surface. Apparatus also has feeding unit for liquid CO2 supplying and expanding communicated with the body and rotor. Liquid CO2 is supplied from high-pressure source to feeding unit and turns into gas and dry ice. Gas is then discharged. The rotor has a row of blades movable in radial direction and extending between rotor and inner body surface so that pockets for dry ice receiving from feeding unit are formed. During rotor rotation about its axis pockets and dry ice are circumferentially displaced, pocket volumes decrease and dry ice is pressed to form tablets. The body has unloading zone communicated with the pockets having minimal volumes to unload solid tablets from the body.

EFFECT: increased output along with reduced time for solid carbon dioxide tablet production, increased density of the tablets, reduced power inputs, possibility of in-situ solid carbon dioxide tablet production.

23 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: gas-filling compressor stations for automobiles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-filling compressor station includes natural gas compression system for filling the automobile reservoirs with natural gas. Part of high-pressure air compressed in compressor is directed through preliminary recuperative heat exchanger. Then gas is additionally cooled in heat exchanger-evaporator by evaporating coolant, Freon or propane for example and is divided into two flows after low-temperature recuperative heat exchanger in vapor compression refrigerating machine. One flow is fed through throttle valve to receiver-separator where finished product-liquefied natural gas- is separated in form of liquid phase and then to storage reservoir and technological reservoir. Second flow after passing the throttle valve is combined with cold vapor escaping from receiver-separator in form of return flow giving cold to direct flow in recuperative heat exchangers and returns to compressor suction end to which vapor of liquefied natural gas is fed from drainage lines of storage reservoir and technological reservoir. Both reservoirs are equipped with individual supercharging systems for supercharging the reservoirs from compressor.

EFFECT: maximum loading of equipment.

2 cl,, 1 dwg

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