Air turborefrigeration plant

FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly refrigerators including turbo-expanders operating within wide range of cooling temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: turborefrigeration plant comprises turbo-expander, multi-compartment dynamic heat-exchanger, user of refrigeration, power source and centrifugal turbocompressor. Centrifugal turbocompressor is divided into low-pressure and high-pressure centrifugal stages. Low-pressure stage is mechanically linked with power source. High-pressure stage is mechanically connected to turboexpander. The first heat-exchanger compartment inlet communicates with outlet of user of refrigeration through channel, outlet thereof communicates with atmosphere. The second heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to low-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet and outlet thereof is linked with high-pressure turbocompressor stage inlet. The third heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to high-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet, outlet thereof is linked with turbo-expander inlet.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration performance, increased reliability of plant actuation and operation, simplified structure, increased operational economy.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of refrigeration equipment and can be used to create replacement of machines operating in a wide interval of temperatures.

Known air turbomolecular installation comprising an expander, a heat exchanger, the consumer is cold, the energy source and centrifugal turbocharger (see IPC F 25 11/00, EN 2206028 C1, 10.06.2003, Air turbomolecular installation.).

The separation of the turbocharger on the cascade low pressure cascade high pressure ensures the rotation of the cascades with different number of revolutions, and their connection through the channel increases the number of revolutions of the cascade high pressure compared to the speed of the cascade low pressure, and the cascade high pressure is driven by an electric motor. However, the industry does not produce motors with a high rotational speed (20000 rpm), which limits the efficiency of the installation as a whole, and the use of the multiplier between the motor and a compressor cascade high pressure complicates its design.

Compressor cascade low pressure transmitting a greater volume flow compared to the cascade high pressure, its overall larger compressor high pressure stage. Therefore, to facilitate high-speed rotor of the turbo-expander is advisable to combine the latter with a compressor cascade high pressure with a view to its transfer to the gas lubrication.

Known installation has a number of disadvantages:

structural complexity of the installation due to the presence, in addition to the main heat exchanger, additional heat exchanger, cooler and radiator;

- significant dimensions and weight of the turbocharger due to use as a cascade of low-pressure turbocharger cascade axial type;

- inability to use the installation for cooling and freezing of food products due to the possibility of falling into food products, intermediate coolant - antifreeze, as a highly toxic substance.

Closest to the claimed air Turkological installation is installation comprising a turboexpander, multi-dynamic heat exchanger, the consumer is cold, the energy source and centrifugal turbocharger (a Method of obtaining cold. RU, Patent 2054146 C1, M6 CL. F 25 B 9/00. Publ. 1996.02.10).

For effective operation of such Turkological installation single-stage compressor should provide a degree of increase of pressure of not less than two, which is limited to a high rotational speed of the motor unit includes a multiplier, which has a complex structure and higher costs. Rotor installation has considerable weight, may not be transferred to gas lubrication and Tr which require lubrication and cooling oil to the bearings and gears multiplier.

When a single-stage compressor air is heated to high temperatures (above 100 degrees. Celsius) and fed to a heat exchanger in which the air is supplied after the consumer cold with minus temperatures (below minus fifty degrees. Celsius).

During the rotation of the heat exchanger his constructive work in conditions of variable temperature, significant gradient, condensation and evaporation of moisture and have different coefficients of linear expansion. Under the influence of centrifugal force and the above factors is a bundle of corrugated ribbons and the formation of cracks in the polymer composition of the nozzle of the heat exchanger. In addition, the known device has a number of disadvantages:

low reliability of the start of the installation due to the need to rotate simultaneously turbocharger and turbo-expander;

- complex design due to the need to use anti-surge means when the pressure of gas or air in the turbocharger.

The aim of the invention is the creation of air Turkological installation, high efficiency and reliable starting and operation of the plant while simplifying the structure.

The solution is achieved by the fact that air turbomolecular installation, containing the I turboexpander, multi-dynamic heat exchanger, the consumer is cold, the energy source and centrifugal turbocharger, divided into cascades of low and high pressure centrifugal type, with a cascade of low pressure is mechanically connected to the energy source, and the cascade high-pressure mechanically connected to the expander and heat exchanger chamber, and the entrance into the first chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel with the release of the consumer's cold out - with the atmosphere, the entrance into the second chamber of the heat exchanger with the output of the cascade of a low-pressure turbocharger, the output to the input of the cascade high-pressure turbocharger, the entrance to the third chamber of the heat exchanger with the output of the cascade high-pressure turbocharger, the exit - entrance to the turboexpander.

The proposed solution has significant differences from the prototype:

the turbocharger is divided into a cascade of low and cascade high pressure;

- cascade high pressure centrifugal type mechanically connected to the expander;

- cascade low pressure centrifugal type mechanically connected to a source of energy;

- heat exchanger trilocular;

- entrance into the second chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel with the output of the cascade of a low-pressure turbocharger;

- exit the second chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel to the input of the helmet is a high pressure turbocharger;

- the entrance to the third chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel with the output of the cascade high-pressure turbocharger;

output from the third chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel entrance to the turboexpander.

Therefore, the proposed solution meets the criterion of "novelty."

The introduction of additional centrifugal compressor stage and camera exchanger, their mutual connection to provide two-stage cooling of compressed air.

A cascade of low-pressure turbocharger is connected by a channel through the second chamber of the heat exchanger with a cascade of turbocharger high pressure, it reduces the temperature of compressed air, which reduces the peak positive air temperatures cooled in the heat exchanger, to reduce the required capacity of the energy source and increasing cooling rate. The reduction peak of positive air temperatures cooled in the heat exchanger, leading to increased durability and reliability of the heat exchanger.

The separation of the turbocharger on the cascade low pressure cascade high pressure will provide rotation of the cascades with different number of turns, which gives an increase in upornosti gas or air on the speed of the turbocharger, and will be used to rotate the cascade high-pressure energy turbo is yandere, while reducing energy costs from the energy source (electric motor) to run, resulting in improved starting characteristics and increase cooling factor, and with it the cooling installation. The same technical result provides a mechanical connection of the expander with a cascade of high pressure, and the relationship of stages of low and high pressure through the channel increases the number of revolutions of the cascade high pressure compared with the speed of a cascade of low pressure that eliminates costly multiplier requiring lubrication and cooling, and to simplify the rotor of the expander and switch to gas lubrication and cooling his bearings. In addition, the separation of the turbocharger on the cascades of low and high pressure will not apply anti-surge means when the degree of pressure increase in turbocharger > 4.

In the proposed solution, all the hallmarks are interrelated and in combination with other features allow you to obtain a new technical result is to increase the cooling capacity of the installation, improve reliability of starting and operation while simplifying the structure.

Therefore, the proposed solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where the a figure 1 presents the structural layout of the installation; figure 2 - side view on three dynamic heat exchanger.

Air turbomolecular the installation includes (1) a turboexpander 1, three dynamic heat exchanger 2, the consumer cold 3, the energy source (electric motor) 4, cascades low 5 high pressure 6 centrifugal type, with a cascade of low pressure 5 is mechanically connected to the energy source 4, and the cascade high-pressure 6 is mechanically connected to the expander 1, and the entrance into the first chamber 7 of the heat exchanger 2 (figure 2) connected by a channel 8 with the release of the consumer cold 3, exit - with the atmosphere, the entrance into the second chamber 9 of the heat exchanger 2 is connected by a channel 10 with the output of the cascade low pressure 5 turbocharger, the output of the associated channel 11 to the input of the cascade high-pressure 6 turbocharger, the entrance to the third chamber 12 of the heat exchanger 2 is connected by a channel 13 with the output of the cascade high-pressure 6 turbocharger, the output of the associated channel 14 to the input of the expander 1, the output cone of which the pipe 15 is connected with the consumer cold 3.

Air turbomolecular installation operates as follows. Gas or air from the surrounding atmosphere enters the cascade low pressure 5 driven in rotation by an electric motor 4, which is compressed to a certain (specified) pressure. The compressed gas or air in the cascade low pressure 5 implements process the rotation of the rotor of the expander with high speed and high degrees of pressure. Then the compressed gas or air through the channel 10, passing through the second chamber 9 of the heat exchanger 2, is cooled by contact with chilled turning part of the heat exchanger 2 and enters the cascade high-pressure 6, driven in rotation due to the accumulation of mechanical energy of the turboexpander. Occurs subsequent compression of gas or air through the channel 13 is fed to the input into the third chamber 12 of the heat exchanger 2, is cooled by contact with chilled turning part of the heat exchanger 2 and then flows through the pipe 14 into the expander 1, where expanding, reducing to a predetermined temperature, and then flows through the pipe 15 to the user cold - cooling chamber 3. The heated gas or air enters the cavity of low pressure to the first chamber 7 of the heat exchanger 2, where the air is further heated by heat transfer from turning and heated high-pressure second and third chambers 9 and 12 of the rotating heat exchanger 2 with the subsequent blowing out.

The use of the invention will increase the cooling capacity of the installation, improve reliability run, to simplify the design, to improve the reliability and efficiency of operation.

Operational tests of the installation, carried out by JSC "STBR", showed the competitiveness of prototypes, and increased reliability in the system Ho is vodosnabzhenie refrigeration plants.

Air turbomolecular installation comprising a turboexpander, multi-dynamic heat exchanger, the consumer is cold, the energy source and centrifugal turbocharger, characterized in that the centrifugal turbocharger is divided into cascades of low and high pressure centrifugal type, with a cascade of low pressure is mechanically connected to the energy source, and the cascade high-pressure mechanically connected to the expander and heat exchanger chamber, and the entrance into the first chamber of the heat exchanger is connected by a channel with the release of the consumer's cold out - with the atmosphere, the entrance into the second chamber of the heat exchanger with the output of the cascade of a low-pressure turbocharger, the output to the input of the cascade high-pressure turbocharger, the entrance to the third chamber of the heat exchanger with the output of the cascade high-pressure turbocharger, the exit - entry into the turboexpander.



 

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