Method of heating liquid

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying methane-containing gas to the cavitation liquid (water), bringing the gas into contact with the cavitation liquid to produce exothermic reactions, withdrawing heat, and removing oxygen-organic compositions, highest hydrocarbons, and unreacted gases from the cooled liquid, and rising pressure of the purified liquid. The reaction between the methane-containing gas and cavitation liquid is carried out in the presence of catalyzers that contain carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals. The unreacted gases are supplied to the methane-containing gas.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl

 

The invention relates to heat engineering, in particular for heating liquids without the use of heat transfer surfaces. It can be used in all industries. Primary use is the supply of heat energy systems for the collection, preparation and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, and production of chemical and petrochemical industries.

The known method (see RF patent №2045715, IPC6F 25 29/00, publ. 10.10.95,, bull. No. 28) heating the liquid, including the injection of fluid circulation pump, the acceleration of its movement and the creation of a vortex flow, followed by a deceleration of the fluid, making it linear motion, heat and fluid supply to the inlet of the circulation pump. Heat is generated by changes in physical and mechanical parameters of a liquid medium, in particular changes in its pressure, velocity and direction of motion. I.e. by converting the energy introduced into the fluid flow circulating pump with its discharge.

The disadvantage of this method is to reduce the intensity of heating the liquid by reducing its speed by the length of the vortex flow.

Intensify the transformation of the energy of the fluid pressure in the heat by changing its physical-mechanical parameters by cavitation (see RF patent №2153131, IPC7F 24 N 1/00, F 24 D 3/02, epubl,, Bull. No. 20).

When changing the parameters of the liquid in the cavitating flow, such as pressure, volume, density of the liquid medium, the latter is heated. The quantity of generated heat per unit of time (heat output) is equal to the amount of electrical energy required to discharge liquid.

However, at the enterprises of gathering, processing, hydrocarbon processing, chemical, petrochemical, etc. when performing technological processes periodically requires an increased amount of heat. The use of peak thermal loads blowers fluid with a constant supply of high power is technically and economically not feasible.

The aim of the present invention is to increase the amount of produced heat without increasing the cost of electric energy on the change of physical and mechanical properties of a liquid medium.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the method of heating the liquid, including the transformation of the energy of its pressure into heat by changes in physical and mechanical parameters of the liquid by cavitation, a selection from the heated fluid to heat the consumer and the supply of chilled fluid injection, in the cavitating liquid (water) serves metanosoderzhashchie gas, spend the contact of this gas and the cavitating fluid passage copies thermal reactions of synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and / or higher hydrocarbons, after heat-cooled liquid clear from kislorodolechenie compounds, higher hydrocarbons and unreacted gases increase the pressure of the purified liquid.

To improve the efficiency of supply mechanostrider gas in the cavitating liquid and the conducting contact between them produce many times.

In order to intensify exothermic reactions for the synthesis of higher hydrocarbons contact mechanostrider gas and the cavitating fluid is carried out in the presence of catalysts containing carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals of group IV of the Periodic system of elements.

In order to intensify the exothermic reactions of synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds serves metanosoderzhashchie gas which includes oxygen.

In order to intensify the exothermic reactions of synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds and higher hydrocarbons contact mechanostrider gas which includes oxygen, and the cavitating fluid is carried out in the presence of catalysts containing zinc, chromium, metals of group VIII of the Periodic system of elements (Nickel, cobalt, iron containing aluminum oxide, thorium oxide, zirconium, titanium and others) and sverkhvysokochastotnye synthetic zeolites of type ZSM promoted by metal salts (potassium, lead, calcium, cesium, silver, is icela and others).

To improve the efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process of heating the liquid unreacted gases are served in metanosoderzhashchie gas (recycle).

According to the patent and technical literature not found a similar set of distinctive features, which allows to judge about the inventive step of the proposed method of heating the liquid.

When submitting mechanostrider gas in the cavitating liquid - water and their contact is very fast compression of cavitation bubbles and their subsequent disappearance, i.e. collapse. The process of compression and collapse of cavitation bubbles occurs under the action of pressure of the gas phase. The compression speed of cavitation bubbles is very high and depends on the pressure of supplied gas phase. The larger the value of this pressure, the higher the speed of compression and collapse of cavitation bubbles. According to the high-speed filming it reaches 5·102-1·103m/S. In this regard, the time compression of the bubble disappears completely insignificant. For example, for a cavitation bubble radius of 1 mm at a pressure of 1·105PA is 1·10-7c and P=1·106PA value τ=3·10-8C. In connection with the fact that the time compression cavitation bubble is very small, the whole process of compression and collapse occurs without th the exchange with the environment, i.e. o adiabatically. Therefore, in the final stage of compression and collapse of a cavitation bubble within it increases the pressure to values of the order of 108PA and increases the temperature up to 104°With (see kN. Physics. Great encyclopedic dictionary/ editor-in-chief Amerkhanov): Great Russian encyclopedia 1999, p.236-237).

High-speed compression cavitation bubble and a lot of pressure inside it are superimposed on the velocity of the molecules, fluctuating under the action of thermal energy. This causes heavy traffic last, from which break intermolecular bonds. Water is decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen

At high temperatures, the electrons of the atoms are in the excited state. They occupy the highest energy levels, where the protons have extremely weak. In this regard, there is separation of electrons with their high levels of free atoms. Of destroyed molecules and atoms ionized gas is formed. This gas negatively charged electrons are willing to enter into communication with the free protons. And positively charged protons are ready to enter in connection with free electrons or free neutrons. Thus, the liquid substance is chemically active.

When interaction is the influence of cavitation bubbles with mechanostrider gas is the introduction of chemically active substances of cavitation bubbles in the gas phase. Implementation is influenced by the impact of cumulative jets, resulting in cavitation bubbles when they are non-spherical compression. In nature there is almost no material that could withstand the impact of these cumulative jets.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of interaction of cavitation bubbles 1 with the formation of cumulative jets 2 at a meeting with bubbles 3 mechanostrider gas.

During the shock of contact of a cavitation bubble and mechanostrider gas transfers energy to cavitation bubble mechanostrider gas. When this is heated mechanostrider gas to temperatures of the order 350-1200°and the local pressure at the shock reaches more than 10.0 MPa.

In these conditions between the chemically active ionized gaseous substance cavitation bubbles and mechanostrider gas occur following exothermic synthesis reaction kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons:

- direct synthesis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from methane CH4and 2N hydrogen from water molecules decomposed in cavitation bubbles, with evolution of heat (Q)

nCH4+2N → aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons +Q (2)

synthesis coloradorockies.com compounds - methanol CH3HE by direct oxidation of methane CH4/sub> oxygen from water molecules decomposed in cavitation bubbles with heat

- a synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen H2by oxidation of methane CH4oxygen from water molecules decomposed in cavitation bubbles with heat

- get the carbon dioxide CO2and hydrogen H2the reaction of carbon monoxide with chemically active molecules of water of cavitation bubbles with heat

synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen H2heat

synthesis of higher hydrocarbons FromnH2n+2and CnH2nfrom methanol CH3HE heat

synthesis of higher hydrocarbons with heat

Thus, when the ache in the cavitating liquid (water) mechanostrider gas and holding the contact of this gas and the cavitating fluid passage exothermic reactions synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and (or) higher hydrocarbons allocated additional heat, which increases the total quantity of generated heat without increasing the cost of electric energy on the change of physical and mechanical properties of a liquid medium.

Multiple submissions mechanostrider gas in the cavitating liquid and the contact between them increase the efficiency of processes of heat exchange and, consequently, increase the amount of unreacted methane in exothermic reactions of synthesis, which ultimately leads to an increase of heat received.

Conducting contact mechanostrider gas and the cavitating fluid in the presence of catalysts containing carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals of group IV of the Periodic system of elements, allows to intensify for two - three order exothermic reaction (2) direct synthesis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from methane CH4and 2N hydrogen from water molecules decomposed in cavitation bubbles, and thereby increase the amount of heat produced per unit time.

Submission mechanostrider gas in the cavitating liquid, which consists of oxygen, allows to increase the output of synthetic kislorodolechenie compounds by reactions(3), (7)-(13), synthesis gas by reactions (4), (5) and, consequently, higher uglevodorov the s by reaction (15), (16)that eventually can increase the amount of heat emitted.

Contact mechanostrider gas which includes oxygen, and the cavitating fluid in the presence of catalysts containing metals: zinc, chrome, VIII group of the Periodic system of elements (Nickel, cobalt, iron containing aluminum oxide, thorium oxide, zirconium, titanium and others), allows to intensify several times the passage of exothermic reactions:

- (4) and (5) oxidation of methane CH4oxygen from water molecules decomposed in cavitation bubbles, to produce synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen H2;

- (7)-(13) synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen H2;

- (15), (16) synthesis of higher hydrocarbons;

sverkhvysokochastotnye synthetic zeolites of type ZSM promoted by metal salts (potassium, lead, calcium, cesium, silver, Nickel and others), accelerates the reaction (14) synthesis of higher hydrocarbons FromnH2n+2and CnH2nfrom methanol CH3HE.

This ultimately leads to the formation of the reacted methane 78% paraffin and 15% of aliphatic, aromatic hydrocarbons, normal structure, 3% branched paraffin and olefin hydrocarbons, and 4% coloradorockies the connection with the allocation of an additional amount of heat.

The amount of heat generated from the exothermic reactions of synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds and higher hydrocarbons, is about 401 kJ/mol unreacted methane.

Recirculation of unreacted gases mechanostrider gas allows to increase the number of the reacted methane, 30-40% and, consequently, to increase the amount of heat obtained and to improve the sustainability of the process by reducing (eliminating) waste gases.

After heat-consumer-liquid cooled - water clear of kislorodolechenie compounds by evaporation of the latter or by distillation. The cleaning liquid from the condensed higher hydrocarbons and unreacted gases perform separation or filtration. Then the cleaned liquid is fed to the injection (recycling).

The proposed method is implemented in the plant, the concept of which is presented in figure 2. The apparatus comprises a pump 1, the reactor 2, the heat exchanger 3, the three-phase separator 4, the rectification unit 5, the pipes 6, 7, 8, the ejector 9.

Installation (figure 2) works as follows. Pump 1 pump fluid is water. Pressure energy is transformed into the reactor 2 into heat by changes in physical and mechanical parameters of the liquid by cavitation. From the heated fluid away heat in the heat exchanger 3. By pipeline is the wires 6 into the reactor 2 through the pipe 6 serves metanosoderzhashchie gas 22. Contact mechanostrider gas 22 and the cavitating liquid 21 are exothermic synthesis reaction kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons. The result of this is allocated an additional amount of heat, which heats the liquid. After selection of heat in the heat exchanger 3 liquid cooled purified in three-phase separator 4 from higher hydrocarbons and unreacted gases and in the rectification unit 5 from kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols). Purified liquid serves to line 7 on the injection pump 1.

Unreacted gases from the three-phase separator 4 through the pipeline 8 served with ejector 9 in metanosoderzhashchie gas and, thus, recycle.

In multi-stage reactor 2, a schematic diagram of which is shown in figure 3, produced repeatedly filing mechanostrider gas 22 in the cavitating liquid 21 and the conducting contact between them.

The multistage reactor (figure 3) contains several consecutive steps 10-12. Each stage consists of a Venturi nozzle 13 and the separator 14. The Venturi nozzle 13 has a nozzle 15 input mechanostrider gas 22 and the outlet 16 of the input fluid. The separator 14 is supplied by a pipe 17 o mechanostrider gas and socket 18 of the output fluid. While the nozzles 18 of the output fluid of each prex is adusei stages are connected by a pipe 19 to the pipe 16 input fluid subsequent stage, and the pipe 17 o mechanostrider gas each subsequent stage is connected by a pipe 20 to the pipe input 15 of gas in each of the previous stage.

The liquid is fed sequentially through the stages 10, 11, 12, and metanosoderzhashchie gas 22 - with each subsequent stage in the previous, i.e. in the reverse order of the steps 12, 11, 10.

EXAMPLE. In this installation, the heating fluid is as follows:

Pump 1 (2) pump the liquid - water reactor 2 (figure 2). In the reactor 2 (Fig 3) Venturi nozzles 13 each of its steps 10-12 (3) the fluid accelerates to a speed of about 30 m/s, at which cavitation occurs. In the cavitating liquid 21 serves on the pipe 15 natural metanosoderzhashchie gas 22. In the cone 23 of the Venturi nozzle 13 is conducted to the contact mechanostrider gas 22 and the cavitating fluid 21 to the passage of exothermic reactions synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons.

Without the use of catalysts the conversion efficiency of methane in coloradorockies compounds (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons is about 5-7% at each stage of the reactor. Therefore, to make full methane conversion step applies the reactor, in which the liquid is pumped to a pressure of 10.0 MPa.

The efficiency of the process of methane conversion in coloradorockies connect the FL (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons in each stage is increased to 16-18% in the presence of mechanostrider gas up to 2-8% vol. oxygen and in the presence in the liquid of powder catalysts contains:

carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals of group IV of the Periodic system of elements;

- metals: zinc, chrome, VIII group of the Periodic system of elements (Nickel, cobalt, iron containing aluminum oxide, thorium oxide, zirconium, titanium and others);

- sverkhvysokochastotnye synthetic zeolites of type ZSM promoted by metal salts (potassium, lead, calcium, cesium, silver, Nickel and others).

When the efficiency of the process of methane conversion 16-18% used six-reactor, in which the liquid is pumped to a pressure of 25 MPa.

Movement mechanostrider gas with each subsequent stage in the previous is performed by ejection through actuation energy of the fluid pressure at cavitation.

When the change of physico-mechanical parameters of the liquid medium due to cavitation, the pressure energy is converted into heat energy. Due to the passage of the exothermic reactions of synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and higher hydrocarbons allocated additional heat about 401 kJ/mol unreacted methane.

After selection of heat in the heat exchanger 3 (2) liquid cooled clear of higher hydrocarbons and unreacted gases in three-phase separator 4. This unreacted gases supplied from the three phase separator 4 through ejector in metanosoderzhashchie gas. From kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) liquid clear in the rectification unit 5. Purified liquid serves to line 7 (figure 2) in the pump 1, which again increase its pressure.

Higher hydrocarbons and alcohols, the resulting methane conversion in exothermic reactions and separated from the liquid in the three-phase separator 4 and the rectification unit 5, are used as liquid fuels and raw materials for the chemical industry.

1. The method of heating the liquid, including the transformation of the energy of its pressure into heat by changes in physical and mechanical parameters of the liquid by cavitation, a selection from the heated fluid to heat, characterized in that the cavitating liquid (water) serves metanosoderzhashchie gas, spend the contact of this gas and the cavitating fluid passage exothermic reactions synthesis kislorodolechenie compounds (alcohols) and / or higher hydrocarbons, after heat-cooled liquid clear from kislorodolechenie compounds, higher hydrocarbons and unreacted gases increase the pressure of the purified liquid.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the supply of mechanostrider gas in the cavitating liquid and the conducting contact between them produce many times.

3. The method according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the contact mechanostrider gas and the cavitating fluid is carried out in the presence of catalysts, containing carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals of group IV of the Periodic system of elements.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cavitating fluid serves metanosoderzhashchie gas which includes oxygen.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the contact mechanostrider gas which includes oxygen, and the cavitating fluid is carried out in the presence of catalysts containing metals: zinc, chrome, VIII group of the Periodic system of elements (Nickel, cobalt, iron containing aluminum oxide, thorium oxide, zirconium, titanium, etc.) and (or) sverkhvysokochastotnye synthetic zeolites of type ZSM promoted by metal salts (potassium, lead, calcium, cesium, silver, Nickel and others).

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the contact mechanostrider gas which includes oxygen, and the cavitating fluid is carried out in the presence of catalysts, including sverkhvysokochastotnye synthetic zeolites of type ZSM promoted by metal salts (potassium, lead, calcium, cesium, silver, Nickel and others).

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the unreacted gases are served in metanosoderzhashchie gas (recycle).



 

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4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying methane-containing gas to the cavitation liquid (water), bringing the gas into contact with the cavitation liquid to produce exothermic reactions, withdrawing heat, and removing oxygen-organic compositions, highest hydrocarbons, and unreacted gases from the cooled liquid, and rising pressure of the purified liquid. The reaction between the methane-containing gas and cavitation liquid is carried out in the presence of catalyzers that contain carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals. The unreacted gases are supplied to the methane-containing gas.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl

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