Multilayer building wall

FIELD: construction, particularly outer load-bearing walling structures of buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: building wall formed of small building members comprises outer and inner layers and metal inserts. The wall additionally has vertical stiffening diaphragm plates. Metal inserts have Z-shaped cross-sections and are periodically spaced along wall plane. Flanges of the inserts are arranged in inner and outer wall layers correspondingly so that vertical middle face works in shear and folded flanges located on masonry plate work in crush. Metal inserts unite inner and outer wall layers along stiffening diaphragm plates in single structure.

EFFECT: increased wall maintainability and reliability of cooperation between masonry members.

2 cl, 15 dwg

 

Known designs of exterior load-bearing walls with effective insulation (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). The most common solutions used in construction, including high-rise in 12-14 floors, displayed in figure 1, 2. 3.

Vertical cross section of a typical wall solutions are presented in figure 1. where: 1 - site decision-in-principle of the outer wall; 2 - junction of the slab and the structural wall.

Incision options wall, the most complete reflection of the design is given in figure 2:

4 - the outer layer of masonry (cladding, brick);

5 - the inner layer of masonry, load-bearing part of the wall;

9 - slab insulation (foam);

11 - plaster on the inner side;

12 - fastening elements (mesh).

The elements of 4 "lining" and the wall 5 between them is not tightly linked. At least to the extent that it was possible to make a conclusion about sharing their perception of the useful vertical load attributable mainly from the floors of the building. The fastening elements 12 are not intended to transfer loads and to create conditions for "facing" is not detached from the main structure 5.

Quarter of the wall off of its bearing capacity and in fact (from this perspective) is ballast, unnecessary additional load on the foundations of the building.

The wall section (section 3) in place sprage the Oia with the floor slab is not evidence of the collaboration of the entire array of wall as a single supporting structure, perceiving vertical load.

Known elements 4, 5, 9, 10, 11 (from figure 2) amended new (figure 3):

13 - insulation joint (non flammable) separates the layers of foam:

14, 15 - additional cladding material;

16 - insert.

The liner 16 presents the performance may not be similar to the perforated face-console monolithic slabs, and hence the bearing element, transmitting force from overlapping on the bearing walls.

In the perception of the payload involved inside of the wall (minus the "cladding layer"). In the "General data" of the project is usually observed that the outer wall is a three-layer design with bearing layer thickness 380, 510, 640, 770 mm brick-layer insulation of EPS boards PSB thickness of 130, 150 mm and protective and decorative layer thickness of 120 mm from the face of the brick. The connection of the protective and decorative layer from the carrier layer is carried out by stacking the screen every 600 mm in height".

The regulations (Manual on design of masonry and reinforced masonry structures (SNiP II-22-81 "Stone and reinforced masonry structures. Design standards")/ Institute them. Kucherenko Gosstroy of the USSR. - M.: UDPP of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1989) of several types of lightweight walls for the case of a joint work of the external and internal layers of masonry and lusterous most suitable masonry type "a" and "B". Type a (figure 4) presents two brick layers 4, 5, between which is close to the inner wall plate is installed insulation 9. The calculation of the bearing capacity specifies the thickness of the inner layer to 1-2 bricks. Layers of brick walls connected by diaphragms made of brick in range (width at half brick II-II, figure 4), the distance between which is of 1.2 m

To reduce the influence of the diaphragms of "cold bridges" brick and air gap 10 are staggered.

The width of the gap between the brick layers provides the option to install it effective slab insulation.

Between the outer brick layer and insulation, for example, in a series 2.130-1 left a gap of a width not less than 20 mm, which protects the insulation from moisture precipitation. Admitted that if not careful grouting masonry mortar is possible penetration of moisture through the outer layer of the brick wall.

The fixing of the insulation material in the project position is carried out by placing strips, cut from the material of the insulation and installed between the insulation and the outer layer of masonry.

Masonry type B (figure 5) is similar to clutch type a occurs in the form of two brick layers half-brick thick, connected by vertical brick orifice 6, the distance between Ko is that too not more than 1.2 m The width of the gap between the brick layers, fill mineral associated backfill 17. This option is less effective compared to type And, more heavy.

The variants of types of walls lightweight masonry successfully applicable to low-rise buildings. With increasing height the operational reliability of the walls of lightweight masonry decreases (Guide to SNiP II-22-81 "Stone and reinforced masonry structures", M.: Institute imbucare, Lamba, 1982). The reason is the possible termination of the collaboration, for example, thin-walled outer faces ROWLOCK masonry. In this case, the cross-section calculation section of the wall ceases to be uniform, and therefore, the carrying capacity is reduced.

The proposed solution is (6, 7, 8) refers to the outer bearing non-load-bearing constructions (walls) of buildings and structures and is an event that improves the reliability of the joint work of masonry elements to reduce the possibility of delamination of the outer thin-walled face, which increases the operational reliability of the walls. The technical solution has the feature of well-known layout fine elements in wall thickening 7 external 4 (7) and 5 internal wall faces directed toward each other and interconnected metal inserts (8, 7). Complex numerical experiments the deposits shows the installation of metalbestos enough on the plot 1/3 upper part of the intermediate height of each floor of the building when installed in increments of 300-600 mm For the front of metalloscope can be placed in a checkerboard pattern, while structurally metalloscope can be performed in a variety of configurations (Fig.9, 10, 11, 12, 13).

Variants of metalbestos (figures 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) is in fact much more, and they can be represented not only plate elements, but also tubular, I-and others. So, for example, the metal insert (Fig, 13) Z-shaped cross-section can be manufactured and T-shaped form of a rectangular metal sheet by two vertical incisions in the upper part placed on the long edge of the rectangular sheet and the subsequent bend the middle part to one side, and two at another. The remaining nenalezena vertical middle line is triggered to cut and bent shelves form at the laying of the site collapse and their sizes are accepted according to the calculated data. Practice has shown that the builders on the real object is not confused by the complexity of varying configuration metalloscope bent, welded, or any combination. Recognized as the most technologically advanced configuration metalloscope, similar to that shown in Fig, but Tauri is ecene.

The idea of "inserts" uniting for collaboration as a whole the main bearing brick and "facing" of masonry, known for a long time. Hence the variety of different solutions, including lightweight masonry types a and B. Known attempts at radical dilution of the diaphragm (figure 4 II-II) by the actual replacement diaphragms separate bricks, located at an altitude of some step, but such decisions on the results of numerical studies and tests in the laboratory to them. Kucherenko not give satisfactory results. Experiments confirmed the results of numerical studies and lead to the necessity of increasing the strength parameters of the inserts between the outer and inner layers of masonry. Required parameters has a metal insert, encarama in the brickwork. Anchoring is taken for the calculation and possible:

1. conventional masonry using anchor rods 18 (Fig);

2. reinforced masonry (brick higher grades) in the placement of metalbestos, thickening, broadening 7 (Fig):

3. reinforced masonry (concrete liners cushion) in the placement of metalbestos, thickening, broadening 7 (Fig).

In General, metalloscope can push the outer and inner layers of masonry on not multiples of "brick" sizes. the thickness of the wall can be arbitrary, determined by thermal insulation properties: 510; 512; 513; 514 ... 640; 641; 642; 643 and so on. Itself a metal insert is not strictly along the plane of the wall in its middle layer.

Multilayer wall with insulation of expanded polystyrene plates, for example, PSB-s-35 fully complete solution, but it does not exclude the possibility of application and other no less effective materials, such as penoizol (numerous materials from the Internet), the most suitable for walls with metalloscopie.

Penoizol is made directly on the construction site, followed by pouring in standard and any thickness of the hollow profiles sandwich walling, where it cures and dries in normal conditions. Initial curing penoizol occurs in 10-15 minutes after release of the foamed composition of the foam formed sleeves, the next cure - for 4-6 hours, and the material becomes elastic. Final curing and drying penoizol happen in 2-3 days. The production takes the lack of penoizol - its fragility. The result is provided a low cost building envelope (walls) at a relatively high quality insulation and reducing turnaround time is approximately 3 times. Penoizol tightly fills voids and eliminates the prob is the possibility of an arbitrary flow of rain water on the insulation material, the water saturation of load-bearing brickwork elements, the supply of moisture to the metal insert.

Durability

(Here and further on the results of testing the research Institute of building physics (NIISF):

Time penoizol as the curtain of the middle layer of three-layer structures of buildings and structures under all operating conditions investigated range of temperatures from -30°C to 40°C and a relative humidity of 75% at a temperature of +40° (C) unlimited.

Heat-insulating, sound-insulating characteristics:

Plate of penoizol absorbs up to 95% of sound vibrations. The material is resistant to the action of microorganisms, fungi, and the most aggressive environments.

Technical specifications:

coefficient of thermal conductivity, W/°With, at a density of 15 kg/m30,0289 W/°C
the coefficient of permeability, mg/(MCPA)0,247
the ratio teplousvoenija, W/(m2°)0,225
operating temperature range, °from -50 to +120
bulk density, kg/m315-20
compressive strength at 10% linear strain, MPadepends on
density
water absorption for 24 hours, % by volumeon average 10
moisture sorption, mass%no more than 20

Fire safety

Penoizol not capable of self-burning after switching off the source of the fire. He belongs to the group of Flammability of not less than G2, the group Flammability not lower than B2, with moderate smoke-forming ability is not less than D1, the group toxicity T2.

Multi-layered building wall of the fine elements containing the inner and outer layers and the metal insert, characterized in that it further comprises a vertical stiffening diaphragms, metal inserts have a Z-shaped cross-section and installed periodically along the plane of the wall and shelf inserts are located respectively in the inner and outer layers of the wall to ensure the work of the average vertical faces of the inserts are cut and bent shelves at the laying site crushing, with metal inserts combine the inner and outer wall layers on the diaphragm in a single unitary structure.



 

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