Soil desalinization method

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.

4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used for desalinization of saline agricultural lands.

There is a method of desalinization of the soil, implemented using reclamation system for washing heavy saline lands (Ed. St. USSR №1358848, IPC E 02 In 13/00, BI No. 46, 1987)

This method of desalinization of the soil includes a bookmark deep subsurface drainage, cutting fresh elements, gaps and additional trenches located on prezrennyh bands parallel to the drains, the subsequent filing in the supply elements, gaps and additional trench wash water and discharge it along with the dissolved salts in deep drainage. From the drainage of the washing water received in the receiving water. As the latter are specially selected depressions, which formed a lake mineralized water, or rivers, in which the flow of drainage water causes an increase in salt content. This method makes it possible to remove salt from the soil, increasing in this way its fertility. The quality of the desalinization of the soil depends on the amount of fresh water, served in the wash network. Average leaching requirement varies from 20 to 60 thousand m3per hectare.

The disadvantages of this method are the large capital investments for the construction of private drainage and meats from rytoj wash network, the high cost of fresh water for leaching, large areas of land under lake drive, salinization of adjacent lands or increase of water salinity in the rivers of waters.

The closest present invention is a method of desalinization of the soil, including water supply to wash the area, cutting it cracks, the water supply to mislevy strip and subsequent removal of salts from the walls of the slits (Ed. St. USSR №1428297, IPC E 02 In 13/00, BI No. 37, 1988).

This method allows for the desalinization of the soil without the construction of deep subsurface drainage, to reduce the consumption of fresh water for leaching and eliminate the diversion of saline waters.

The disadvantage of this method is the need to supply fresh water to assalaamu site. At the same time, a large number of non-irrigated saline agricultural lands where they receive low yields because of the negative influence of salts. In particular, this applies to pasture, where seasonal precipitation produce movement of salts at some depth and create favorable conditions for growing fodder crops. However, with the onset of the dry season salt lifted to the surface and inhibit plants, reducing their productivity.

The task of the invention is to increase the fertility selskohoziajstvennyiproezd land through desalinization of the soil without the supply of fresh water, with moisture in seasonal precipitation.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that in the method of desalinization of soils, including cutting slits in rasaleela the plot, the flow of wash water to mislevy strip, the removal of salts from the surface of the cracks and filling the last slot is cut to a depth exceeding the depth of seasonal soil drenching rainfall, on mislevy bands form a trough, which is served by screens of hydrophobic waterproof material placed on the Central axis of the perforation and float elements, the edges of the screens are secured in the upper part of the slots, with the help of precipitation produce the desalinization of the soil, after which the screens are removed, salt kill, falling asleep slit, and resolana site make loosening the soil to a depth of seasonal drenching rain.

Economic and ecological importance of this invention is based on the fact that in the world in arid and semi-arid areas there are millions of hectares of saline marginal lands where there are no sufficient for leaching reserves of fresh water, at the same time in the autumn-spring period there is a significant amount of rain.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view assalaamo section; figure 2 is a section along a - a before desalinization; on ih - the section a-a at the time of settlement; figure 4, section a-a after desalinization.

The proposed method of soil desalinization is implemented in the following sequence.

At the end of the summer rasaleela site 1 cut slits 2, mislevy bands form a trough 3, which is served by the screens 4, is provided in the middle part of the culvert perforations 5 and float elements 6. The edges of the screen 4 is fixed at the top of the slits 2. Precipitation rain water flowing down the walls of the gullies, seeps through the perforations 5, fills the bottom portion of the troughs 3, umava salt in the depth of leached soil. Under the influence of capillary forces and evaporation of moisture from the surface of the walls of the slots 2 moisture movement will occur in the side walls of the slots and accumulation of salts on their surface. When the rainfall intensity is higher than the absorbency of the soil, and also when prolonged rainfall rainwater leaked through the perforations, will fill the hollow, forming a moisture content in it to the level of the crests of the hollows. When this float elements 6 will appear above level 7, and most of the water will flow down along the outer surface of the screen 4 and to wash off the salt from the walls of the slots 2 on the bottom, forming a lesion accumulating 8. When filling cracks with water will be wmyv salts from the hearth 8 to great depths. H is the terrain of water, struggling through the perforations, will drain slots 2 through the crests troughs, providing their washing. After cessation of precipitation supply of water from the trough 3 is gradually filtered through midlevel soil, making it drip with the accumulation of salts on the surface of the walls of the cracks. When following precipitation the rinse cycle will repeat. At low temperatures, precipitation will accumulate on the surface of the screen in the form of snow and melting will occur leakage of moisture through the perforations 5 and rinsing the soil on mislevy spaces as described above. The washing process depending on the intensity of the precipitation and concentration of salts can be completed during one or more seasons. After washing assemble screens 4 and the filling of gaps with the disposal of salts in the zone 8, the leveling of the troughs 3 and loosening raskolennoy soil to a depth of seasonal drenching rainfall. The formation of zones 8 below the depth of seasonal wetting of the soil and destruction of capillaries in the deep loosening of the layer 9 provides protection rossolenko layer from the danger of secondary salinization.

Thus, the application of the proposed method leaching of saline soils can improve the fertility of agricultural land in rainfed areas in the absence of sources pre is Noah water and without the construction of expensive power systems.

The method of desalinization of soils, including cutting slits in rasaleela the plot, the flow of wash water to mislevy strip, the removal of salts from the surface of the cracks and filling the latter, characterized in that the slits are cut to a depth exceeding the depth of seasonal soil drenching rainfall, on mislevy bands form a trough, which is served by screens of hydrophobic waterproof material placed on the Central axis of the perforation and float elements, the edges of the screens are secured in the upper part of the slots, with the help of precipitation produce the desalinization of the soil, after which the screens are removed, salt kill, falling into the cracks, and resolana site make loosening soil to a depth of seasonal drenching rain.



 

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