Method for preparing of feeds and apparatus for performing the same
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, preparing of feeds for cattle, in particular, for young animals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing agricultural products and mixing with water; providing hydrodynamic, cavitational and thermal processing thereof; during preparing, directing mixture through system of movable channels having section variable in the course of flow, with energy of collapsing cavitational bubbles being released during passage of mixture through said system of movable channels; directing obtained energy to processable mixture repeatedly movable along closed contour for bringing it to homogeneous state at temperature of 50-70ºC. Apparatus for preparing of feeds has chamber with inlet and outlet branch pipes. Stator and rotor are incorporated in chamber. Apparatus is further provided with preliminary mixing hopper connected through inlet and outlet pipings with chamber branch pipes so as to define closed contour for flowing of mixture. Rotor is furnished with large-sized tangential blades uniformly distributed thereon for dividing it into sections. Small-sized radial curved blades are arranged around the circumference of rotor in sections. Blades, both large-sized and small-sized, have variable height increasing from rotor center toward periphery thereof, and are adapted for defining variable section channels. Stator has nozzle-type channels arranged radially and uniformly around the circumference thereof.
EFFECT: simplified process of preparing feeds and improved quality of resultant feeds.
3 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the field of agriculture, and is intended for the preparation of feeds of high quality and good digestibility for cattle fattening, especially the young.
There is a method of processing of agricultural products, including grinding of the raw materials, mixing it with water, heating and mixing (see Egorenkov M.I. and other Fodder farms. Moscow, Kolos, 1983, p 26-28, 88-90).
The disadvantage of this method is the need for serial execution of these transactions and the use of additional external energy for heating the mixture. In addition, the resulting food is not suitable in its structure for fattening calves.
The known method (see RF Patent №2088336, 02 19/06 from 27.08.1997,) hydroacoustic impacts, in which the raw materials are subjected to simultaneous mixing, grinding to create an intense turbulent flow.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of mixing of the feedstock with water, as well as poor processing efficiency. It is not suitable for feed preparation.
The known method and setting (see speaker of the USSR №115399, 02 19/18 from 03.11.1958,), in which a hydraulic shock generated in the liquid, is provided by mixing and grinding of raw materials.
The disadvantage of this method is the absence of heat and the difficulty is there are designs using two motors for rotation of the rotors.
Known device for shredding fibrous material (see RF Patent №2196859, 02 19/06 from 20.01.2003,), which uses the energy of the jet to the hydrodynamic effects on the material.
The disadvantage is the need for additional energy to supply the material into the processing chamber and the low processing efficiency.
The closest method of feed preparation is a way to synthesize protein and vitamin supplements (RF Patent No. 2050788, IPC And 23 K 1/00 from 27.12.1995 year), according to which component of the raw material is prepared substrate, crushed it and additionally subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation and thermal effects.
Its disadvantage is the limited functionality and the complexity of the technological process. The method is intended for the production of protein-vitamin supplements and may not be used for feed preparation.
The closest technical solution to install is a rotary hydraulic mill (RF Patent No. 2081701, 6 02 7/00, 19/18, 29 17/02 from 13.09.1994,), comprising a housing with inlet and outlet nozzles, the stator and the rotor with alternating depressions and protrusions, impeller and drive, while the stator and the rotor is designed as a removable disk, and the first fixed on the inner wall of the housing, and the second on the impeller.
The disadvantage of the prototype device is the STV is inefficient mills because of the presence of depressions and projections on the disks, between them in the cycle of rotation are formed gaps of various sizes, and only in small periods of time, they form a full height blades. When the rotor disk in the gap can get particles of the source material and cause jamming or destruction of the surfaces of the projections and depressions.
The present technical solutions based on the task of creating a method of feed preparation and installation for its implementation. The present invention solves the problem of simplifying the process of preparation of feed, reducing energy costs, improving feed quality by ensuring homogeneity of the processed mixture, reduction of cellulose content, elimination of toxic fungi.
The problem is solved by the method of preparation of feed processing of agricultural products, including mixing with water, hydrodynamic cavitation and thermal effects, which unlike the prototype, the mixture is passed through a system of mobile channels with variables in the course of its movement sections with providing energy release kropyvysche cavitation bubbles, which is sent on repeatedly moving in a closed loop process the mixture to bring it to a homogeneous state with a temperature of 50-70°C.
Tasked with ResetSystem for feed preparation, containing the camera (body) grinding, heating and mixing with it the rotor and stator, in which unlike the prototype of the rotor with large tangentially of evenly spaced blades, dividing it into sectors, in which the periphery of the rotor are small curved radial blades, and both large and small blades have different height increasing from the center of the rotor to its periphery, and form channels of variable cross-section, and a stator provided with channels in the form of nozzles, which are arranged radially and uniformly over its circumference.
The method for feed preparation and installation for its implementation can improve feed quality, reduce energy costs, reduce the cooking time feed. In the proposed essential features achieved a new quality of feed provided structural change in the raw materials, grinding the particles of the mixture and bringing it to a homogeneous state, the destruction of the fiber and turn it into easily digestible carbohydrates, particularly sugar.
This allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the invention, the criterion of "inventive step".
The method of feed preparation is as follows.
Source agricultural raw materials containing trace elements, alcove, vitamin and mineral components, in a specific proportion diluted with water. The resulting mixture was fed into a special chamber in which due to the geometric profile of the channels, the dynamics of their changes, as well as the frequency of rotation of the rotor creates hydrodynamic conditions for the formation of cavitation bubbles. The mixture is pushed through a channel having a variable cross-section, in which by changing the flow rate there is a change in pressure of the mixture, which leads to the formation of gas bubbles, steam. This process becomes avalanche-like growth of bubbles of steam and gas, which become the nuclei of cavitation. When promoting flow through the channels of the camera in an area of low pressure cavitation bubbles begin to kopyatsya. The collapse is not symmetric and is accompanied by shock commulative microstroke, which produces major destructive effect. This released energy is expended in crushing of the particles of the mixture and heat it. Repeated circulation of the mixture through the chamber in a closed loop leads to a gradual decrease in the size of the particles of the mixture, structural changes, reduction of cellulose content, the destruction of toxic fungi and its gradual heating. As a result of such exposure in a mixture of fully preserve vitamins and minerals. When achievement of the temperatures of 50-70° With the cooking process of the processed amount is completed and after cooling the mass is fed on fodder. Received food has a high quality, soft, good absorbency due to the structural transformation of raw materials and being suitable for feeding young animals.
For feed preparation as a source of raw materials, in addition to cereals, use: silage, straw, herbage, roots and benign food waste, which is subjected to preliminary grinding to particle sizes 10-18 mm.
The proposed method provides the intensification of technological processes of preparation of feed and has a number of advantages:
- lower energy costs;
- continuous cooking process;
- the simplicity of the design of the facility;
- no complicated electronic equipment, etc.
Installation is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 presents a General view of the installation for feed preparation, figure 2 - mixing chamber, grinding and heating, figure 3 presents the context of the rotor, the stator and the camera body.
Installation for feed preparation comprises a hopper 1 for pre-mixing the original feed (particles of different size: the grain, crushed plants, food scraps, etc. with water, input 2 and output 3 piping, shut-off valve 4, a base 5, a sleeve 6, the mixing chamber is of, grinding and heating 7, input 8 and output 9 of the nozzle, the rotor 10 and the stator 11, large blades 12, small blades 13, the channels of the stator 14, the drain valve 15, a motor 16, a temperature sensor 17, the sensor 18.
The hopper 1 is mounted on the base 5 and is provided in the lower part of the output flange, which through inlet pipe 2 connects it to the inlet side 8 of the chamber 7. The outlet 9 of the chamber 7 through the output line 3 is connected with the upper part of the hopper 1. Inside the chamber 7 install the rotor 10, with three large tangential blades 12, which divides the rotor into sectors. Between the blades 12 on the periphery of the rotor evenly in each sector there are five small curved radial blades 13. Large and small blades have different height that increases from the center to the periphery of the rotor. The stator 11 is stationary in the camera body 7 and has a uniformly and radially spaced channels 14 variable cross-section, made in the form of nozzles. Between the stator 11, a rotor 10 and the camera body 7 provide clearances in the axial direction is 0.1-0.2 mm in the radial direction and 0.2-0.25 mm Drive motor 16 through the clutch 6 is fixed on the base 5. The rotor 11 through the clutch 6 is connected to the shaft of the drive motor 16.
The method of processing of agricultural products and installation for its implementation of RA is utaut as follows.
The hopper 1 is filled with water, observing the degree of filling by the transmitter 18, and type of feed components in the required amount, then open the shut-off valve 4 and the unit. Through the inlet pipe 2 mixture enters through the inlet 8 into the grinding chamber 7. The mixture passes through channels of variable cross-section of the rotating rotor 13, is subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation and thermal effects. The channels of the rotor moments of matching channels 14 of the stator to allow the passage of the mixture through the stator in the outlet 9 of the camera, then the output line 3 is returned to the hopper 1. Such a process loop feed preparation is repeated several times. The channels of the rotor have variable cross-section in the radial and in the axial direction, and their geometrical parameters lead to intensive formation of cavitation bubbles. Dynamics of change of the cross sections for these channels, together with the channels 14 of the stator 11 and the rotor's rotation leads to rupture of the flow mixture, creating optimal conditions for the collapse of cavitation bubbles and release energy, which is sent for crushing the solid particles of the dispersion mixture and partial heating. Heat the mixture also contributes to intense friction with stirring and advancing it through the channels of the rotor and stator. The thanks to the continuous circulation of the processed mixture in the hopper the inlet pipe camera mixing, grinding and heat - outlet piping - bunker" is it bringing to a homogeneous state and heated to a predetermined temperature. Upon reaching the desired temperature and particle size of the mixture preparation process is completed. Setting off, close the shut-off valve 4, open the drain valve 15 and poured the finished product. The processed mixture after cooling is provided for feeding the cattle.
For the preparation of food from crops optimum temperature processing of raw materials is 60°C. To prepare 20 kg of feed is poured into the hopper 13 l of water and add 7 kg grain mixture without prior preparation.
Thus, the present invention solves the problem of simplifying the process of preparation of feed, improving feed quality by ensuring homogeneity of the mixture, reduce the contents of cellulose, increasing the digestibility of feed and destruction of toxic fungi.
1. The method of feed preparation processing of agricultural products, including mixing with water, hydrodynamic cavitation and thermal effects, characterized in that the mixture is passed through a system of mobile channels with variables in the course of its movement sections, ensuring energy release kropyvysche KAV is operating bubbles which is sent by repeatedly moving in a closed loop process the mixture to bring it to a homogeneous state with a temperature of 50-70°C.
2. Installation for the cooking of food, comprising a chamber with inlet and outlet nozzles, which has a stator and a rotor coupled to the actuator, characterized in that it further comprises a hopper for pre-mixing, which is connected through input and output pipelines respectively with the inlet and outlet nozzles of the chamber, thus forming a closed path for the movement of the feed, the rotor is equipped with large tangentially evenly spaced blades, dividing it into sectors, in which the periphery of the rotor are small curved radial blades, and both large and small blades have different height increasing from the center of the rotor to its periphery, and form channels of variable cross-section, and a stator provided with channels in the form of nozzles, which are arranged radially and uniformly over its circumference.
FIELD: refrigeration of loose materials with the help of the outside air.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for refrigeration of loose materials by outdoor air. The vortex apparatus for refrigeration of loose materials contains a receiving bin located on the upper air feeding manifold. The refrigerating outdoor air is pumped by the lower air-feeding manifold coupled with a gas-feeding device. Between the air-feeding manifolds there is the upper part of the working chamber shaped as a truncated cone with its height equal to 1/3 of the general height of the working chamber and with an angle at the apex equal to 60°. Under the lower air-feeding manifold there is the lower part of the working chamber shaped as a paraboloid of revolution. At that the bottom of the chamber is made concaved inside in the form of a torus surface. Inside the working chamber there is a spiral. The vortex chamber contains a gas outlet, the lower part of which is made in the form of a truncated cone, and a discharging device made in hew form of a settling chamber with a perforated cover placed above the gas outlet. The invention allows to raise efficiency of refrigerating of different grain-crops, to reduce power inputs and to decrease overall dimensions of the device in height.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of different grain-crops refrigerating, reduced power inputs, decreased dimensions of the apparatus in height.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises purifying, moistening, and softening seeds, passing the seeds through smooth rollers for crushing core, breaking down seed shells and germs, with separating the germ from the core, crumbling the germ, passing the product obtained between rough rollers which rotate with different velocities and are members of a subsequent roller system for simultaneous crushing core, crumbling shells, grinding germs, and separating the germ from the core. The grates mounted downstream of each roller system are used for sorting.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of milling.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: flour-milling industry, in particular, manufacture of barley grinding products by reduced processing pattern.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cleaning barley grain from contaminants; providing moisture-thermal processing by moistening of barley grain to 21-22% moisture content; conditioning for 18-20 hours and frying at temperature of 210-2200C for 2-3 min; grinding grain in roll machine; sorting out barley products by size; returning tailings from sieve having openings of 4.2 mm diameter for repeated grinding procedure.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption owing to elimination of procedure for processing of grain in abrasive grain-cleaning and hulling machines and owing to reduced number of break roll and milling systems.
2 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: flour-milling industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cleaning grain from contaminants; grinding in roll-type mill; sorting by size; providing aspiration; milling grain and sorting out on break rolls and milling rolls for producing of flour; after cleaning procedure, providing thermal-moisture processing of grain to moisture content of 21-22%; conditioning for 18-20 hours and frying at temperature of 210-2200C for 2-3 min. Grain is milled by means of three break rolls and three milling rolls.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and increased flour yield.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: feed production, in particular, commercial production of combined feed for farm poultry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating bulk combined feed and ground pellets into large-sized, average-sized and small-sized fractions with following separating of average-sized fraction as ready product; pelletizing small-sized fraction of bulk combined feed with hot pellets; holding layer of resultant mixture in heat-exchanger; cooling with air and grinding; returning large-sized fraction for additional grinding and discharging small-sized fraction for pelletizing. Mixture of bulk combined feed and hot pellets is held in heat-exchanger and further cooled with air having temperature of 4-7°C. After fractionation, average-sized fraction is coated with 0.5-1.0 mm thick fat layer in blade-type mixer under pressure of 0.3-0.4 MPa by means of nozzles, with fat being preliminarily heated to temperature of 55-65°C. Fat content is provided within the range of 3-5% by volume of resultant average fraction. Before supplying of air for cooling of mixture of bulk combined feed and hot pellets, air is preliminarily cooled in evaporator-cooler of heat pump unit by recuperative heat exchanging between boiling coolant and air. Air in then returned to evaporator-cooler and is newly supplied in closed-cycle mode for cooling said mixture. Heat generated by condensation of coolant in condenser-heater of heat pump plant is utilized for heating of fat before feeding it into blade-type mixer.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready product and reduced power consumed for preparing of combined feed.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: agriculture and feed production, in particular, preparing of bulk feeds in animal houses and feed producing enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating, steaming, drying, cooling and homogenizing bulk feeds. Disinfecting procedure is carried out in two thermal processing steps: first step involving high temperature processing and second step involving low temperature processing. Each step is combined with process of mixing combined feed components in gas-mechanical fluidized bed. At first step, thermally stable components are initially subjected to heating to temperature of 85-110°C and to wetting with steam, followed by slight drying to initial moisture content with hot air, and at second step hot mass is cooled with air to ambient medium temperature. In the process of cooling, when temperature reaches 50°C, thermolabile biologically active components, such as vitamins and enzymes, are added, said components being thoroughly mixed with remaining part of combined feed, with cooling procedure being continued.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of process and reduced costs for effectuating thermal disinfecting of combined bulk feeds.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for preparing of feeds by extruding cereal grains.
SUBSTANCE: discharge head is presented in five embodiments. First most simple embodiment has housing with two internal opposite conical surfaces. Conical left-handed thread nut is positioned at one side in spaced relation with respect to conical surfaces and conical bushing with external right-handed thread is positioned at other side, said nut being fixed on extruder screw shaft. Conical bushing is engaged with thread on cylindrical projection of conical nut and is locked by means of lock nut and locking washer therebetween. Cutting knives are protruding beyond head housing. Upon passage of product under process through two conical annular opposite gaps, screw end is self-centered on said mass. Other embodiments of discharge head, from second to fifth, are modifications of first embodiment. Discharge head of such construction may be used in extruders of any power and modification.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and high operational capabilities.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: extruders for forest industry, food-processing industry and pharmaceutical industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder has body with loading bin and screw feeder located in body. Extruder is also provided with sleeve having holes on its side surface; this sleeve is mounted on body forming treatment chamber. Volume of treatment chamber is constant or variable depending on motion of sleeve. Section of side holes is adjustable and/or blanked-off.
EFFECT: simplified construction; extended technical capabilities; reduced power requirements.
3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, fodder producing machines.
SUBSTANCE: purging boiler-scalder has horizontal vessel with charging throat, discharge hatch with cover and discharge branch pipe with gas ejector. Trough is arranged in lower part of purging boiler-scalder and is communicated through grid with vessel having bottom inclined at an angle to horizontal axis, toward discharge branch pipe. Discharge branch pipe is provided with outlet equipped with locking devices for connecting trough to top part of vessel.
EFFECT: reduced fodder losses owing to return into vessel of lower non-cooked layers of processed fodder.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: peat production, in particular, equipment for manufacture of feed additives from peat.
SUBSTANCE: fermenter has drum positioned for rotation around horizontal shaft and equipped with charging and discharge hatch, and air supply and discharge system. Drum has two truncated pyramids faced to one another with their larger bases and connected with one another through shell. Air supply and discharge system is made in the form of perforated pipe mounted in axially aligned relation with respect to drum. Angular blades are fixed at inner side of drum in the vicinity of hatch. Truncated pyramids have 12 sides.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency of fermenter.
FIELD: agriculture, in industrial feed production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes utilization of full-allowance compound feed and sorbent addition thereto. As sorbent predefecation precipitate together with probiotic microorganisms with titer of 107-109 kl/g in used. Claimed feed product contains (mass %): compound feed 90-95; modified sorbent 5-10.
EFFECT: feed product with improved sorption of mycotoxins, containing additional feedstuffs; increased population productivity and preservation in poultry industry.
1 tbl, 2 ex