Device for client receipt of digital tv broadcasting, providing protection of viewer from harmful psychic and physiological influences from tv programs

FIELD: television.

SUBSTANCE: device has scaling block, two delay registers, block for forming pixel blocks, buffer register, block for calculating movement vectors, two subtracters, demultiplexer, enlargement block, pulsation filtering block, mathematical detectors block, multiplexer, reverse scaling block, as a result of interaction of which it is possible to detect and remove some series of TV frames from programs, which cause harmful effect to viewer, specifically pulsations of brightness signals and color signals with frequency 6-13 Hz.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for television, in particular to a device of a subscriber signal receiving digital television broadcasting, and can be used in the implementation of digital television broadcasting in Russia, as the application of this invention allow the viewer protection from harmful physiological effects from programs TV broadcast.

What is happening in the world in recent years, the technological revolution in the field of digital and computer tools of the formation programs of TV broadcasting, including, in particular, the widespread use of computer graphics, computer animation and non-linear editing, greatly increases the likelihood of the presence in the composition of the signals of television broadcast images and sequences, creating an unacceptable level of impact on the visual system and the human psyche. Such, in particular, are change video and audio with a frequency greater than the inertia of video and audioanalyzer brain, and the presence of video and audio signals of frequencies close to the frequency of the alpha rhythm of the EEG of the human brain, which is especially dangerous. These effects can cause physiological injury to the viewer in a very wide range - from mild feelings interfere with the effects or discomfort to direct the time the texts of the psyche and nervous system. A famous example of this destruction is taking place in 1997 in Japan, the incident involving the occurrence of epileptic syndrome in several hundred children who viewed television animated film (so-called ″effect ″Pokemon″). It should be emphasized that this incident occurred, as shown by the subsequent investigation of the effect in full compliance with all technical standards on the parameters and characteristics of the signal from the TV broadcast and the high quality of all equipment units and components of complex training programs, as well as channel and transmitting equipment.

It is known that the human visual system is extremely sensitive to flicker, and for some frequencies (8-10 Hz) observed maximum sensitivity. According to psychologists, it is at this frequency range have a so-called primary alpha rhythm of the EEG, reflecting the presence of the main neuropolicy in neurons. Thus, the presence of external stimuli in the form of flickering in the specified frequency range leads to resonance phenomena in neurons, which affects the human body and leads to an extremely sharp violation psihoemotsianalnogo condition of viewers, especially children. Obviously, in that case the discomfort disappear harmful effects.

the results of research programs have shown a correlation of subjective ratings of discomfort television plots for the viewer with the values of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the integral brightness of the television image. It was found that uncomfortable for the viewer are stories that contain a particular sequence of fields. The fields in this sequence are separated from each other at 4-8 mirolevich intervals, i.e. the frequency sequence is 6-12 Hz. However, changing the brightness of each of the fields of the sequence relative to the previous field, this sequence is more than 30% of the white level.

Scenes containing similar sequences, uncomfortable to view, generally were videos and commercials. Some of these uncomfortable flickering was a shooting flashing light sources, and some were deliberately introduced during installation by periodically inserting the black fields in the scene with high integral brightness.

In connection with these circumstances the problem occurs special ″ecological″ protect the viewer from the harmful physiological effects from programs in both analog and digital broadcasting.

Due to the fact that the suppression of signals that cause negative mental and physical effects at the stage of their formation apparatus and Studio complexes is not always possible, the best way to combat these effects, especially with the transition to digital TV broadcasting, it seems to detect the s and the suppression of these signals directly to the subscriber's receiving devices.

To ensure environmental safety broadcast, uncomfortable and dangerous for the viewer sequence comprising the TV signal can be removed by the introduction of the subscriber's Set-top box (STB) digital TV broadcasting special hardware for performing the detection of these sequences and blocking their display on the screen of TV receiver. These funds must conduct continuous monitoring of the TV image and its elements and, in case of detection of pulsations image with depth of modulation of the luminance signal of more than 30% of the white level in the frequency range of 6-12 Hz, automatically block the image on the screen of the TV receiver, replacing it with a static image from the memory of the STB, or switch to another channel on the repetition period of the harmful pulsation. Possible is also operative adjustment of the TV image, carried out with the help of a software implemented filter working is equivalent to a low pass filter. View the frequency response of such a filter must be chosen in such a way as to ensure the destruction of pulsations or decrease the depth of these pulsations at frequencies of 6-12 Hz to some safe for spectator value. The maximum decrease of the modulation depth should be at a frequency of 10 Hz.

Usage: when digital televisio the nom broadcasting.

Known subscriber device receiving signals of digital terrestrial broadcasting, including the Central processor, system bus, bus controller, a tuner, a demultiplexer, a video decoder and audio decoder.

Data about the specified device are contained in the book: Baiocchi. Digital broadcasting - from the Studio to the viewer, the publishing company ″Cyrus System″, Moscow, 2001, str, RES.

In the process of receiving digital TV signals broadcast by using this device, the adopted multi-program signal of the digital TV broadcasting output from the tuner is fed to the demultiplexer emitting from the structure of multi-program signal digital TV broadcast selected by the subscriber TV program. Selected TV program is decoded to video decoders and audio decoder performing decompression of image signals and audio, compressed for transmission in accordance with the MPEG-2 standard. Next decompensirovanny digital video / audio signal fed to the input of a digital TV receiver, or, after analog-to-digital conversion on the analog TV receiver. All of these units operate under the control of the Central processor and communicate with the Central processor through the system bus. The exchange of signals between the units is also determined by the CPU is performed by using a bus controller, running CPU.

A disadvantage of the known device is that this device does not provide detection and removal from the TV programs of the constituent sequences of TV frames that have a negative physiological impact on the viewer, namely pulsations of the luminance signal and chrominance frequency 6-13 Hz.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed technical solution is a subscriber device receiving signals of digital terrestrial broadcasting, including the Central processor, capable of managing all blocks of the device, the controller system bus that converts control commands received from the Central processor, the signals transmitted block device on the system bus, as well as managing the procedures for the exchange of signals on the system bus between the blocks of the device, as well as between the Central processor and the device's blocks, the input connected to the output of the Central processor, the demultiplexer engaged in the selection of the composition obtained from the output of the tuner multi-program signal digital TV broadcast selected by the subscriber A television program, a video decoder performing decompression of image signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transmission, the I the d through which the system bus is connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus, and the audio decoder performing decompression of audio signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transfer, entrance through which the system bus is also connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus.

The disadvantages of this device are related to the inability to identify and remove from the TV programs of the constituent sequences of TV frames that have a negative physiological impact on the viewer, namely pulsations of the luminance signal and chrominance frequency 6-13 Hz.

The basis of the invention is to obtain the subscriber device receiving the signals of digital TV broadcasting, enable the identification and removal from the TV programs of the constituent sequences of TV frames that have a negative physiological impact on the viewer, namely pulsations of the luminance signal and chrominance frequency 6-13 Hz.

The implementation of this invention means ensuring environmental protection of subscribers to digital TV broadcasting by identifying and removing from the TV programs of the constituent sequences of TV frames that have a negative physiological impact on the viewer, namely pulsations of the luminance signal and chrominance frequency 6-13 Hz. Specified the identification and removal will osushestvljali is in the subscriber receiver for digital TV broadcasting.

It should be noted features of this task for digital TV broadcasting, compared with the same task for analog TV broadcast. In terms of analog broadcasting, the audience was transported a small number of TV programs, the formation of which was carried out, as a rule, within the same television station (for example, in Russia - the Ostankino television center in Moscow). Therefore, environmental control of TV programs in many cases it was possible to provide on the stage of Studio formation programs. In terms of multi-program digital TV broadcast package, obtained by the subscriber, consists of a large number of TV programs that were created in different telecentres and often in different countries, so the Studio, in which forming of TV programs, in most cases, are not available and are under the jurisdiction of foreign authorities, which makes it impossible or extremely difficult with the legal and organizational point of view, the implementation of environmental control at the stage of Studio formation programs. In addition, methods of environmental control of TV programs on the stage of Studio formation also does not have absolute reliability and the cost of failure in this case is very high, because the lack of effectiveness of environmental control can cause serious damage to health is through the audience. This raises the challenge of implementing effective environmental control of TV programs directly to subscriber receivers for digital TV broadcasting.

This problem is solved by using the subscriber device receiving signals of digital terrestrial broadcasting, including the Central processor, capable of managing all blocks of the device, the controller system bus that converts control commands received from the Central processor, the signals transmitted block device on the system bus, as well as managing the procedures for the exchange of signals on the system bus between the blocks of the device, as well as between the Central processor and the device's blocks, the input connected to the output of the Central processor, the demultiplexer engaged in the selection of the composition obtained from the output of the tuner multi-program signal digital TV broadcast selected by the subscriber television program, a video decoder, performing decompression of image signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transmission, the entrance of which is through a system bus connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus, and the audio decoder performing decompression of audio signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transmission, the entrance of which cher is C the system bus is also connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus, interface unit providing interface bus signals brightness fields per frame, characterized in that the device additionally introduced a scaler, forming the original image dimension 720×488 image dimensions of 90×61, whose input is via a system bus connected to the output of the video decoder, the first register of the delay, the entrance of which is through a system bus connected to the output of the video decoder, the set of blocks of pixels forming the image dimension 90×61 24 unit dimensions 15×15, an input connected with the output of the scaler, the buffer register, the input connected to the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the second register delay, the input connected to the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the unit for computing the motion vectors carrying out the detection of image blocks, which are the pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz, the first input connected to the output of the buffer register and the second input with the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the first myCitadel, the first input connected to the output of the computing unit motion vectors and the second input with the output of the second register delay, the demultiplexer engaged the formation of the signals separately for each of the 24 BC the Cove dimension 15× 15 in the image dimension 90×61, an input connected to the output of the first myCitadel, block escalations, performing the summation of the signals of every four adjacent blocks of dimension 15×15 and forming, thus, six signals for the six zones of the image, twenty four inputs which are connected with the corresponding twenty-four outputs of the demultiplexer, the ripple filter unit, performing the selection of the pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz for each of the six zones of the image, six inputs which are connected with the corresponding six outputs of the unit consolidation, unit amplitude detectors, providing reset pulses of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz in the case, if the depth of the ripple is less than 30%, six inputs which are connected with the corresponding six outputs of the filter block pulsations, multiplexer that combines six parallel signals zones of the image, six inputs which are connected with six outputs of unit amplitude detectors, block of the inverse scaling, restoring the original dimension of the image 720×488, an input connected to the output of the multiplexer, the second myCitadel performing subtraction from the original image pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz and a depth of 30% and above, the first input of which the CSO is connected with unit output reverse scaling, the second input is connected to the output of the first register delay, and the output from the system bus.

The proposed device operates as follows.

The luminance component of each field per frame, has dimension 720×488 pixels, hereinafter referred to as the original image fields per frame, comes in a scaler, where it is subjected to a scaling factor of 1:8 by a threefold application of thinning treatments filtering by the formula

The result is consistently obtained monochrome image with dimensions of 360×244, 180×122, 90×61. All these transformations are made in order to further reduce the amount of calculations performed on the luminance components of fields per frame. The resulting image dimension 90×61 is used for further processing.

Parallel to the luminance component of each field EB of the frame received at the input of the first register delay.

From the output of the block image scaling low (90×61) dimensions come to block the formation of blocks of pixels, where they are divided into 24 units with a dimension of 15×15 pixels.

From the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels of the received image small (90×61) dimensions, divided into 24 units arrive at the buffer register. This is necessary on which I carried out further searching motion vectors, when each of the 24 units will be compared with each of the 24 blocks in the previous field.

In parallel with the output processing unit blocks of pixels of the received image small (90×61) dimensions, divided into 24 units, enter the unit for computing the motion vectors. The calculation of the motion vectors is necessary in order to exclude false positive block device, which filters the ripple brightness harmful physiological effect on the viewer. Such false alarms can occur when moving in the plane of the frame of image slices having ″striped″ structure. If, for example, on the screen moves the Zebra, or the image is formed by the television camera moving along a fence or palisade, then, in relation to the fixed part of the frame, change the black and white stripes Zebra or change the stakes of the palisade on the gaps between them will be perceived by the relevant units as ripple brightness, and, as a result, will be removed significant elements of the image, not having a harmful effect on the viewer. To prevent such false alarms should the calculation of motion vectors in TV frames (fields), in order to remove pulsations were carried out with respect only to those portions of the image, where not fixed vector magic cube MOV is I with non-zero values, occur when moving in the plane of the frame ″striped″ details of the image.

In the computing unit of the motion vectors each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image of a small (90×61) dimension is compared with all possible blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image of a small (90×61) the dimension of the previous field stored in the buffer register (including a block having the same position as himself). Each of the 24 blocks as a template, move to the pixel row and then by column, as would be applied in all possible positions to image small (90×61) the dimension of the previous field stored in the buffer register. This is done for finding motion vectors, i.e. the detection of displacements of image detail from field to field. For each block is the motion vector (only 24 of the vector). Vectors are the standard method according to the criterion of minimality of the sum of absolute values of differences of brightness of pixels in adjacent frames (fields).

where:

Calculates the difference between pixels in adjacent frames (fields). The difference within each of the 24 blocks are added. In the future this amount is called the norm.

From the output of the computing unit of the motion vectors of values norms do at first is the input of the first myCitadel. Simultaneously to the second input of the first vicites through the second register delay receives blocks of dimension 15×15 images small (90×61) dimensions output processing unit blocks of pixels. It blocks in the image small (90×61) the dimension of the current field, i.e. those which were performed comparing each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 located in the buffer register storing blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image of a small (90×61) the dimension of the previous field. The second register delay has a volume corresponding to the duration of processing units in a computing unit of the motion vectors, so that the subtraction was carried out in the correct phase. First myCitadel consistently produces the subtraction of the relevant provisions of the pixel values within each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image of a small (90×61) the dimension of the current field.

With the release of their first vicites difference arrive at the demultiplexer. Since the input of the first vicites sequentially receives the pixels of each of the 24 blocks and the corresponding norms, and the output of the first vicites consistently appear to the difference for each of the 24 blocks. The demultiplexer has 24 outputs, each of which are formed temporary difference signals corresponding to each of the 24 b the shackles.

If for a block dimension of 15×15 had no ripple, no effect ″Zebra″, time function obtained difference for this block at the output of the demultiplexer will have the characteristics of a random process.

If there was effect ″Zebra″, the temporary function of the difference for this unit will be practically zero.

If there was a ripple of brightness, the time function of the difference for this block would be the same ripple.

Psychophysiological studies have shown that harmful effects on the viewer can have a ripple brightness picture elements, occupying at least one third of the screen width and not less than one-half of the height of the screen. Therefore, the signals from the 24 outputs of the demultiplexer is coming to the unit consolidation. In this block there is an integration on the basis of zones in the image small (h) dimensions, located as follows:

+++
+++

In block escalation fold difference signals for the adjacent four (2×2) blocks of dimension 15×15 (found in the same zone.

From the output of the block escalation six of the obtained difference signals simultaneously arrive at b is OK filter ripple, containing six recursive digital filters frequencies from 6 to 15 Hz, each of which has a transfer function:

where a0=0,54726;

a1=0;

and2=-0,54726;

b1=0,08919;

b2=0,09452

As a result, if in any of the 6 zones of the image took place dangerous for the health of the brightness fluctuations with frequencies from 6 to 15 Hz, these oscillations are highlighted and appear at the output of the corresponding filter.

From the output of the filter block of six pulsations received signals simultaneously arrive at the unit of amplitude detectors containing six amplitude detectors, each tuned to a modulation depth of 30%because, according to the results of psychophysiological research, pulsation of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz are dangerous to humans when the depth of these pulsations above 30%. If any of the six signals are ripple depth of 30% and above, the unit of amplitude detectors transmits this signal to the output. Otherwise, the signal is set to zero.

From the output of unit amplitude detectors six signals simultaneously arrive at the multiplexer carrying out the procedure in reverse, carried out by the demultiplexer, i.e. integrating six signals in one unit of dimension 2×3.

From the output of the multiplexer nl is to dimension 2× 3 is supplied to block reverse scaling, shaping full (720×488) image containing six zones dimension 90×61, each of which includes pixels with the same value, equal to the value at the output of the corresponding digital recursive filter unit filters the ripple.

With unit output reverse scaling the image dimension 720×488 routed to the first input of the second myCitadel. To the second input of the second vicites output of the first register of the delay comes in the original image of the field of TV frame. In the result of the subtraction are removed from the original image fields per frame harmful to human health pulsations of the luminance signal.

All these blocks are implemented on a programmable industrial modules, mass-produced by many companies. Thus, the units of the scale, the formation of blocks of pixels, calculating motion vectors, consolidation, reverse scaling can be implemented on a programmable processor modules AT90S8535-8PI, manufactured by Atmel, blocks multiplexer and demultiplexer, block filters, ripple, unit amplitude filters and myCitadel - based chip programmable logic (e.g., K Altera), buffer register, the first and second registers of the delay - based Mick is Oshima random access memory device (for example, MTS company Micron). All of these units have their own software, included in the kit and is able to fully perform the set of functions specified above for each of the blocks.

The drawing shows a block diagram of subscriber device receiving the signals of digital TV broadcasting, providing the viewer protection from harmful physiological effects from TV programs broadcasting. The device shown in the drawing, includes a CPU 1, capable of managing all blocks of the device, the controller system bus 2, converts a control command received from the Central processor, the signals transmitted block device on the system bus, as well as managing the procedures for the exchange of signals on the system bus between the blocks of the device, as well as between the Central processor and the device's blocks, a demultiplexer 3, that the selection of the composition obtained from the output of the tuner multi-program signal digital TV broadcast selected by the subscriber television program, a video decoder 4, performing decompression of image signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG standard-2 transmission, the audio decoder 5, performing decompression of audio signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 N. the transfer, interface unit 6 providing with the bus system signals brightness fields per frame, a scaler 7, forming the original image dimension 720×488 image dimensions of 90×61, the first register delay 8, block the formation of blocks of pixels 9, forming part of the image dimension 90×61 24 unit dimensions 15×15, a buffer register 10, the second register delay 11, the computing unit motion vectors 12 performing detection of image blocks, which are the pulsations of the luminance signal with frequency of 6-12 Hz, the first myCitadel 13, the demultiplexer 14 which forms signals separately for each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image dimension 90×61, block the enlargement 15, performing the summation of the signals of every four adjacent blocks of dimension 15×15 and forming, thus, six signals for the six zones of the image, the ripple filter unit 16 performing the selection of the pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz for each of the six zones of the image block of the amplitude detectors 17, performing the reset pulses of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz in the case, if the depth of the ripple is less than 30%, the multiplexer 18, which brings together six parallel signals zones of the image block of the inverse m is staurogyne 19, restoring the original dimension of the image 720×488, and a second myCitadel 20 performing subtraction from the original image pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz and a depth of 30% and above.

The proposed device operates as follows.

Output interface unit 6, providing front-end bus luminance fields per frame, these signals are input to the scaler 7, which is generated from the original image dimension 720×488 image dimensions of 90×61 and passes it to the input of the first register delay 8 and to the input of the shaping unit blocks of pixels 9, which forms a part of the image dimension 90×61 24 unit dimensions 15×15 and transmits the received blocks to the input buffer register 10 and to the input of the second delay register 11. The computing unit motion vectors 12 carries out the detection in the image of the current field per frame of image blocks, which are the pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz, by comparing this image with the image in the composition of the previous fields per frame. The calculated motion vector received at the first input of the first vicites 13, to the second input of which simultaneously receives the image signal dimension 90×61, divided into 24 units dimension 15×15, in the course of the second register delay. The calculated difference signal is supplied to the demultiplexer 14 engaged in the formation of the difference signals separately for each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image dimension 90×61. Received 24 parallel signal received on 24 input block enlargement 15, performing the summation of the signals of every four adjacent blocks of dimension 15×15 and forming, thus, six signals for the six zones of the image. Formed 6 signals simultaneously arrive at 6 input ripple filter unit 16, which selects pulses of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz for each of the six zones of the image. The unit of amplitude detectors performing the reset pulses of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz in the case, if the depth of the ripple is less than 30%, six inputs which are connected with the corresponding six outputs of the filter block pulsations, multiplexer that combines six parallel signals zones of the image, six inputs which are connected with six outputs of unit amplitude detectors, block of the inverse scaling, restoring the original dimension of the image 720×488, an input connected to the output of the multiplexer, the second myCitadel performing subtraction from the original image pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 612 Hz and a depth of 30% and above, first input connected to the output of the inverse scaling, a second input connected to the output of the first register delay, and the output from the system bus.

Industrial usefulness of the proposed device is to ensure the environmental protection of subscribers to digital TV broadcasting by identifying and removing from the TV programs of the constituent sequences of TV frames that have a negative physiological impact on the viewer, namely pulsations of the luminance signal and chrominance frequency 6-13 Hz.

The subscriber device receiving the signals of digital interactive TV broadcasting, including the Central processor, capable of managing all blocks of the device, the controller system bus that converts control commands received from the Central processor, the signals transmitted block device on the system bus, as well as managing the procedures for the exchange of signals on the system bus between the blocks of the device, as well as between the Central processor and the device's blocks, the input connected to the output of the Central processor, the demultiplexer engaged in the selection of the composition obtained from the output of the tuner multi-program signal digital TV broadcast selected by the subscriber television program, the video decoder performing decompression of the signal is in the image, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transmission, the entrance of which is through a system bus connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus, and the audio decoder performing decompression of audio signals, compressed in accordance with MPEG-2 transfer, entrance through which the system bus is also connected to the output of the demultiplexer and output controller system bus, characterized in that the device additionally introduced a scaler, forming the original image dimension 720×488 image dimensions of 90×61, whose input is through the system the bus is connected to the output of the video decoder, the first register of the delay, the entrance of which is through a system bus connected to the output of the video decoder, the set of blocks of pixels forming the image dimension 90×61 24 unit dimensions 15×15, an input connected to the output of the scaler, the buffer register, the input connected to the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the second register delay, the input connected to the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the unit for computing the motion vectors carrying out the detection of image blocks, which are ripple signal brightness with a frequency of 6-12 Hz, the first input is connected to the output of buffer register, and the second input with the output of the shaping unit blocks of pixels, the first myCitadel, the first input connected to the output of the computing unit motion vectors and the second input with the output of the second register delay demultiplexer which forms signals separately for each of the 24 blocks of dimension 15×15 in the image dimension 90×61, an input connected to the output of the first myCitadel, block escalations, performing the summation of the signals of every four adjacent blocks of dimension 15×15 and forming, thus, six signals for the six zones of the image, twenty-four inputs which are connected with the corresponding twenty-four outputs of the demultiplexer, the ripple filter unit, performing the selection of the pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz for each of the six zones of the image, six inputs which are connected with the corresponding six outputs of the unit consolidation, unit amplitude detectors performing the reset pulses of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz in the case, if the depth of the ripple is less than 30%, six inputs which are connected with the corresponding six outputs of the filter block pulsations, multiplexer that combines six parallel signals zones of the image, six inputs which are connected with six outputs of the block Ampl cudnih detectors, block reverse scaling, restoring the original dimension of the image 720×488, an input connected to the output of the multiplexer, the second myCitadel performing subtraction from the original image pulsations of the luminance signal with a frequency of 6-12 Hz and a depth of 30% and above, the first input connected to the output of the inverse scaling, a second input connected to the output of the first register delay, and the output from the system bus.



 

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The invention relates to an electronic audiovisual processing

The invention relates to the field of entertainment programs, in particular to a custom rendering entertainment

The invention relates to a system for broadcasting and receiving, in particular to systems for digital interactive satellite television for mass consumption, as well as to the receiver/decoder, which includes a decoder and a means for interacting with a credit or Bank card user, containing a microprocessor and means for communication with said microprocessor, when a credit or Bank card is installed in operating position in said receiver/decoder in order to provide a readout of the information contained in the above-mentioned credit or Bank card, and enter data in the above-mentioned microprocessor contained in a linked credit or Bank card

The invention relates to radio engineering and is intended for the discharge of compressed clock signal to a device for separating signal and the clock signal, essentially agreed with a synchronizing signal encoding device
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