Photo-luminescent emitter, semiconductor element and optron based on said devices

FIELD: spectral-analytical, pyrometric and thermal-vision equipment.

SUBSTANCE: emitter has electro-luminescent diode of gallium arsenide, generating primary emission in wave length range 0,8-0,9 mcm, and also poly-crystal layer of lead selenide, absorbing primary emission and secondarily emitting in wave length range 2-5 mcm, and lead selenide includes additionally: admixture, directionally changing emission maximum wave length position as well as time of increase and decrease of emission pulse, and admixture, increasing power of emission. Photo-element includes lead selenide layer on dielectric substrate with potential barrier formed therein, and includes admixtures, analogical to those added to lead selenide of emitter. Optron uses emitter and photo-elements. Concentration of addition of cadmium selenide in poly-crystal layer of emitter is 3,5-4,5 times greater, than in photo-element. Open optical channel of Optron is best made with possible filling by gas or liquid, and for optimal synchronization and compactness emitter and/or photo-element can be improved by narrowband optical interference filters.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 6 dwg

 

The technical field.

Group of inventions relates to semiconductor devices, generating and converting infrared radiation in the spectral range of 0.5-5 μm. It is intended for use mainly in the spectral analysis, pyrometric and thermal imaging equipment.

The level of technology.

Because the proposed application contains a group of inventions forming the overall creative concept - photoluminescent emitter, semiconductor solar cell and the optocoupler, a review of the prior art carried out separately for each named object.

A) Photoluminescence emitters

Known semiconductor structures in which infrared radiation in the spectral range 2.0-5.0 µm is created as a result of electroluminescence. As the emitting material they apply a complex multicomponent semiconductors, for example As In Sb/In As SbP/InAs. Radiation in such structures is related to the flow through the p-n junction large operating currents. These structures are distinguished by a low temporal stability, high cost and high complexity in manufacturing. In addition, in some cases, they require deep cooling (Stoyanov N Optoelectronic devices for environmental monitoring in the spectral range of 2-5 microns, I WRFRI, abstracts, 2000, page 52, Century Matvee et al "As In SbP /InAs LEDs for the 3.3-5.5 μ m spectral range," IEE Proceedings, Optoelectronics, Vol 145 (5) pp 254-256, 1998).

Known another type of luminescence - photoluminescence, when shortwave radiation is absorbed by the semiconductor material, and then re-emitted, but in the form of longwave radiation. An example of such structures can be layers radiating material which is CdHgTe with additives, Geneva, Al. (Ivanov-Omsk and other "Luminescence implanted layers Cd0,38Hg0,62Those and structures based on them", semiconductor Physics and technology, volume 25, issue. 6, 1991). However, for excitation of photoluminescence in these layers must be applied as the primary source of the laser based on Nd:YAG with a flux density of 500 W/cm2that completely eliminates the possibility of their practical application.

It is also known solution, in which the radiation from the led on the base of GaAs is converted into radiation with a wavelength that is different from the primary radiation (Geusic J.E et al. "Efficiencey of Red. Green and Blue infrared-tu-ViasibI Conversion Soures" J. Appl. Phys., 42, 1971). But it is the option of turning the near-infrared radiation in the visible, but not in the longer-wavelength infrared.

In the patent RU 2000119620 (published 2002.06.20) described an infrared semiconductor emitter consisting of a semiconductor diode, emitting short-wave radiation, and striped alternately 2-20 layers of oxide and semiconductor with the OEB with different bandgap. The layered structure allows us to extend the bandwidth of the emission spectrum, but at the same time reduces its effectiveness due to multiple reflections at the boundaries of materials with very different refractive indices.

Best known emitters, which have found practical application, contains the electroluminescent diode of gallium, emitting in the spectral range of 0.7-0.9 μm, and photoluminescent coating in the form of a polycrystalline layer of selenide. The emitter generates secondary radiation of a single wavelength interval with a maximum of 3.8 μm and has a low power and force of radiation (12 µw/SR). Such emitters are utilized in the production (IL, ADBC 432228 TO, PCO 63 4950 7571, group A, 1991) and used in industry. This solution is the closest analogue of the claimed photoluminescent emitter, i.e. a prototype.

The review shows that for a number of applications known decision not suitable. In particular, the practice requires a series of photoluminescent emitters for different intervals of wavelengths, for example with peaks corresponding to the absorption bands of substances which are the object of study of spectral and analytical equipment. An important issue is the ability to control bystrodeistvie the m emitter. And, of course, always up to date the search for new ways to increase the power and strength of the photoluminescent radiation emitters, especially in the wavelength range of 2-5 microns.

B) Semiconductor solar cells

Known semiconductor solar cells that convert radiation into electrical energy. General modern principles of construction of these solar cells is described in the books: T.J Coutts "Current Topics in Photovoltaics" Acadendemic Press, London, Orlando, Tokio 1985, and Roger Messenger "Photovoltaic systems Engineering, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, 2001.

Most prevalent among them received solar cells based on semiconductor material is silicon in the form of amorphous or polycrystalline films with a thickness of 0.5-1.0 μm, deposited on a glass substrate formed with them in p-i-n or p-n junctions (Kroon M.F. et al "Study of the Design of the α-Si:H Transverse Junction Solar Cell - Proc.of the 2ndWorld Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solor Energy Conversion"). However, the low mobility of carriers is not possible to implement such structures required diffusion length, which ultimately leads to underestimated values of the conversion efficiency of light energy into electrical energy.

There is a technical solution, when a similar transformation of energies is carried out in layers on the basis of CuGaSe2deposited on a glass substrate (M Matin, "Photovoltaics: materials, techno is age, prospects", electronics, No. 6, 2000). Considering all the potential of this material is related to its high adaptability, the maximum efficiency achieved to date, is 2.3%.

Well-known and widely used are the converters in the form of a semiconductor solar cell based on selenium: f-32S - FS (Medicineno and Melburnian "detectors of optical radiation Handbook, Radio and communication). These solar cells are multilayered structures with p-n junction of selenium p-type and of cadmium selenide n-type. Current sensitivity of such devices - 0.35 a/W, but small warranty life gap of only 1000 hours, limited operating temperature range (-20°C to +45°C)the effect of fatigue significantly narrow the scope of their practical application.

All of the above-described solar cells field of the spectral sensitivity is limited by the wavelength interval of 0.5-1.1 µm.

Known technical solution, when the spectral range of the converted radiation corresponds to 1.5 to 5.5 μm (Infrared Detectors, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Solid State Division, Japon 1997, nov. 2001). Describes photovoltaic detectors based on semiconductor material InSb, made in the form of layers of the n and p-types. The recalculated integral current responsivity is 0.5 a/is so However, these parameters are provided only at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, which does not allow the use of such converters in most of the possible industrial applications.

You know the description of the planar semiconductor structures on the basis of the Schottky barrier, in which a semiconductor material is used selenide lead to p-type. Material in the form of a monocrystalline epitaxial layer on a dielectric substrate of high resistivity silicon sublayer of calcium fluoride. Ohmic contact is made of gold, and nonohmic - from lead selenide n-type sublayer lead. The irradiation can be carried out through the substrate, when this is exposed as part of the layer below rectifying electrode and the portion adjacent thereto within a diffusion length. A directional change of the position of the wavelength of maximum spectral sensitivity and the long-wave boundary of the spectral sensitivity from 5 to 12 μm was carried out by introducing into the selenide of lead additives selenide tin at a concentration of 0-5 mol.%. In these structures was implemented photovoltaic effect and implemented the conversion of infrared radiation with a wavelength of 2 to 12 μm in the photo-EMF. However, this conversion could be performed only when the cooling structure of the liquid nitrogen, and the way the s belong to the category of laboratory (.Zogg. J. John, A. Fach "Photovoltaic lead-chalcogenide on silicon infrared focal plane array" Phin Film Phisics Group. Institute of Quantum Electronics, Zurich. pp 67-75, 2001). This solution is the closest analogue of the claimed solar cell, i.e. its prototype.

The review shows that of the conventional semiconductor solar cells either do not work in the wavelength range of 1.1 μm or very difficult and expensive for the vast majority of practical applications. The practice requires a series of solar cells for different intervals of wavelengths with maxima, in particular, corresponding to the absorption bands of substances which are subject to research infrared spectral and analytical equipment, as well as the corresponding spectra of radiation practically significant sources of radiation in the spectral range of 0.5-5 μm. An important issue is the ability to control the performance of the solar cell. Always up to date ways of increasing the sensitivity of the photocell.

In) Optocouplers

Known technical solutions, when functionally integrated and optically connected between an emitter and a radiation receiver, under the General title "optocoupler". (Urosev, Assidere "Optocouplers and their applications", Moscow, Radio I Svyaz, 1981). A special place among them is occupied by optocouplers, in which the optical communication between the emitter and receiver is carried out on the open optical channel. All known optocouplers operate in the spectral range of 0.5 to 1.1 μm, and there is space between them allows you to place or move there opaque movable objects. Thus you can make the expense of the parts on the conveyor, to determine the moment of their appearance or to record sizes. One variation of the optocoupler is one in which the emitter and two control sensor is located in the same plane, and the radiation from the emitter falls on the photodetector due to the reflecting mirror (Viewnov, Amoxin, Ahiabenu "Semiconductor optoelectronic devices", Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1984, page 162). These optocouplers have found application in industry and serialized (AURA, AORTA, specifications aaot). The composition of the optocoupler consists of an electroluminescent emitter in the form of emitting electroluminescent photodiode and two photoresistor, operating in the spectral range of 0.5-0.8 μm. The radiation from the emitter falls through the open optical channel on the concave mirror, is reflected from it and evenly illuminates both photoresistor so that their resistances are equal. By changing the position of the mirror relative to the elements of the optocoupler or any heterogeneity in the optical environment of the open channel mastersounds on each of the photoconductive and emerging difference in resistance is proportional to the magnitude of this change. Such design of the optocoupler allows in principle to commit changes in the optical density of the medium in the open optical channel, but due to the limited spectral range (0.5 to 1.1 µm) cannot be used for the spectral analysis, as it requires you to carry out optical communication in the longwave spectral range, for example 2-5 microns. This solution is the closest analogue of the claimed optocouplers, its prototype.

Provides an overview of known optocouplers showed that the most serious obstacle to their widespread use in the spectral analysis is not wide enough frequency range, which is limited to 1.1 microns.

Objectives of the invention.

A) the Objective of the invention in respect of photoluminescent emitter - to create a series photoluminescent emitters for different intervals of wavelengths with peaks corresponding to the absorption bands of substances which are the object of study of spectral and analytical equipment. The second task is to provide the ability to control the speed of the emitter. The third task is to increase the capacity and strength of the photoluminescent radiation emitters operating in the wavelength range of 2-5 microns.

B) the Objective of the invention in respect of semiconductor solar cells - the creation of a series of solar cells for different intervals of wavelengths with maximums corresponding to the absorption bands of substances which are subject to research infrared spectral and analytical equipment, as well as the corresponding spectra of radiation practically significant sources of radiation in the spectral range of 0.5-5 μm. The second task is to provide the ability to control the performance of the solar cell. The third task is to improve the sensitivity of the photocell. The fourth task is the creation of compact, low-cost, high-performance solar cell capable of operating in the spectral range of 0.5-5 μm without deep cooling.

C) the Objective of the invention in respect of the optocoupler extension of the spectral range optical communication in an open optical channel optocoupler to 5 μm, which will provide an opportunity for spectral analysis in the open space optical channel.

The essence of the invention.

Already mentioned, is hereby declared a group of three inventions (emitter photocell and the optocoupler based on them), connected by a common creative idea.

A) Objectives of the invention in respect of photoluminescent emitter solved by the fact that in the known photoluminescent emitter comprising an electroluminescent diode of gallium arsenide, the generating of the primary radiation in the wavelength interval of 0.8 to 0.9 μm, and caused the config on the dielectric substrate of the polycrystalline layer of lead selenide, absorption of the primary radiation and re-emitting in the wavelength interval of 2-5 μm, made significant changes and additions, namely:

in the lead selenide collectively entered: additive, directionally altering the position of the wavelength of the emission maximum, rise time and fall times of the pulse, and additive increasing the radiation power. Supplement directionally altering the position of the wavelength of the emission maximum, rise time and fall times of the pulse, consists of cadmium selenide in an amount of 0.1-20 mol.%, and additive increasing the radiation power, consists of bismuth, chlorine (iodine) in an amount of 0.005-0.05 at.% and oxygen in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, and these elements are introduced in a ratio of 1:1:2.

B) Objectives of the invention in relation to a semiconductor solar cell is solved by the fact that in the known n/p solar cell that converts radiation with a wavelength in the range of 0.5 to 5 μm, comprising a layer of lead selenide on a dielectric substrate formed within it a potential barrier, introduced significant changes and additions, namely:

as a semiconductor material that converts the radiation energy applied selenide lead collectively entered: additive, directionally changing field of the spectral sensitivity, the value of the wavelength of the maximum spectral case is reality, the rise time and the decay of the photo-EMF, and the additive, increasing the current sensitivity and photo-EMF of the cell. Supplement directionally changing field of the spectral sensitivity, the value of the wavelength of maximum spectral sensitivity, rise time and fall of the photo-EMF consists of cadmium selenide in an amount of 0.1-20 mol.%, and additive increasing the current sensitivity and photo-EMF consists of bismuth, chlorine (iodine) in an amount of 0.005-0.05 at.% and oxygen in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, and these elements are introduced in a ratio of 1:1:2. To improve the efficiency selenide of lead additives are preferably used in the form of a polycrystalline layer, a potential barrier in the form of a p-n junction, and a region with p-type conductivity is obtained by introducing sodium, and the region of n-type conductivity is due to the introduction of India. Sodium is better to enter in the amount of 0.005-0.02 at.%, and indium in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, the concentration of India must be more than twice as much sodium concentration.

C) the Objective of the invention in respect of the optocoupler is solved by the fact that in the known optocoupler, comprising an infrared emitter and an infrared detectors made significant changes and additions, namely:

as the emitter is applied in this stated photoluminescent emitter described in subsection (a) of this is the section of this application, and as detectors of radiation - stated semiconductor solar cells described in subsection (B) of this section of the application.

To further enhance the effectiveness of the optocoupler, the concentration of the additive of cadmium selenide in polycrystalline layer of photoluminescent emitter should be 3.5-4.5 times greater than the concentration of this additive in the polycrystalline semiconductor layer of the solar cell.

In addition, to provide spectral analysis of outdoor optical channel optocoupler can be made with the possibility of filling gaseous or liquid substance.

Moreover, for optimal optical alignment and compactness photoluminescent emitter and/or semiconductor solar cell can be provided with a narrow-band optical interference filters.

Disclosure of the invention.

Reveal the essence of each of the three inventions consistently.

A) the invention photoluminescent emitter explain below: figure 1 - example of design photoluminescent emitter, figure 2 - dependence of the radiation spectra of the inventive emitter on the content of cadmium selenide layer selenide of lead containing bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen and table 1 - dependence of the power, the light intensity, rise time and decay radiation and testing the response of wavelengths, corresponding to the maxima of the radiation on the content of cadmium selenide layer selenide of lead containing bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen.

In figure 1 the following notation: 1 - base, 2 - layer adhesive for attaching the conductive plate with base, 3 - heat conducting plate made of silicon with conductive tires; 4 - metal contact group; 5 - radiating structure based on GaAs; 6 - layer adhesive for attaching the polycrystalline layer of lead selenide on a dielectric substrate with a radiating structure, 7 - polycrystalline layer of lead selenide with additives; 8 - dielectric substrate made of silicate glass layer selenide of lead additives, 9 - pin wire; 10 - conclusions corps, 11 - cap; 12 - interference filter.

Photoluminescent emitter performed as follows. To the base of the housing 1 glue 2 glued dielectric thermally conductive plate of the high resistance silicon with conductive tire 3. Taking into account the topology of the conductive tires on the silicon wafer is mounted radiating structure 5 based on GaAs. Conductive bus on the silicon wafer end metallized contact groups 4, which are connected to the contact wires 9 with the conclusions of the housing 10. On the surface of the radiating structure 5 of GaAs adhesive 6 is rikleen layer of lead selenide with additives 7, deposited on a dielectric substrate of the silicate glass 8. Glass thickness not greater than 120 μm, which provides a passage through it of an infrared radiation without appreciable absorption. Mounted on the base of the radiating structure 5, containing the electroluminescent emitter of the photoluminescence of GaAs and the emitter of the selenide of lead additives, is closed by a cap 11 with pasted it interference filter 12. Final sealing effected by welding the base 1 with the cap 11.

The emitter operates as follows. When a voltage is applied to pin 10 of the casing and the flow of DC or pulsed current through a radiating structure 5 from the surface is continuous or pulsed radiation with a wavelength of 0.8 to 0.9 μm. This radiation is absorbed in the layer 7 selenide of lead additives, which starts to emit continuous or pulsed radiation with a wavelength in the range of 2-5 microns.

Manufacturer of radiators is carried out using standard techniques adopted in microelectronics. This vacuum deposition on a dielectric substrate of polycrystalline films of semiconductor materials, traditional methods of doping during synthesis of the material or the doping formed of polycrystalline layers from the vapor or liquid phase, the group method is the manufacture of photosensitive and emitting elements, their Assembly, sealing and measurement of parameters. In particular, the synthesis of lead selenide and the introduction of additives of cadmium selenide and bismuth are carried out by the method of fusion of pure source elements in vacuum in a confined space with pre-treatment of the source material by the method of zone melting. At the same time, doping with oxygen, chlorine or iodine polycrystalline layer of lead selenide with the addition of cadmium selenide and bismuth is carried out from the gas phase at high temperature decomposition of the corresponding chlorine - and iodine-containing compounds and doping of sodium and indium - diffusion from the substrate and liquid phase, respectively.

Concentrations of cadmium selenide and bismuth can be controlled, for example, by the method of emission spectral analysis, the content of the main component is selenium and lead - method x-ray fluorescence analysis, and quantitative estimates of the concentrations of chlorine, iodine and oxygen by electron spectral chemical analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

As you know, lead selenide relates to semiconductor materials, in which the extrema of the conduction and valence band correspond to the same value of the impulse (direct bandgap semiconductor), and therefore the possible direct interband transitions with emission of a photon with energy is her close to the width of the forbidden zone. This is an essential prerequisite for the realization of this effect semiconductor photoluminescence. With the introduction of a selenide of lead additives of cadmium selenide changes the width of the forbidden zone, which means, you can directly change in the spectral range of 2-5 microns wavelength of maximum emission, the lifetime of carriers, and hence the rise time and fall times of the pulse and increase the power radiated by a photoluminescent emitter. All this is essential when using these emitters in the spectral and analytical equipment. The introduction of the admixture of bismuth, oxygen, and chlorine or iodine) in the selenide of lead with the addition of cadmium selenide leads to the appearance of a small isoelectronic centers. Capture the last of the excited due to the primary radiation of the electron and the subsequent direct recombination with a hole is an additional cause of photon and as a consequence, growth of secondary radiation. In addition, when the mechanism of recombination with participation of isoelectronic impurities softened material on promozionali, which may be disturbed due to the introduction of the selenide of lead additives of cadmium selenide.

Thus, the only comprehensive introduction to semiconductor material additives selenide to DME, oxygen, bismuth and chlorine or iodine) has allowed to realize sverhsummarny effect from their application and to solve the problems set forth above.

The stated limits of the concentrations of additives due to the following factors: concentration of cadmium selenide is less than 0.1 mol.%, the variation of the band gap semiconductor material slightly and slightly changing the position of the wavelength of maximum radiation is smaller than the half width of the bandwidth used interference filters. Because of the limited solubility of cadmium selenide in the selenide of lead additive in excess of 20 mol.%, is impractical, because such concentrations are not already formed solid solutions of these compounds and change the width of the forbidden zone. Limiting concentrations of bismuth, oxygen, chlorine, or iodine) by small concentrations associated with small exercise effect, and by large concentrations noticeable disruption of the structure of the crystal lattice, the growth rate of nonradiative recombination and the effect of photoluminescence. The stated concentration ratio was determined experimentally and is caused, apparently, by the structure of the isoelectronic center.

Figure 2 shows the spectra of the radiation declared emitter, and in Table 1 are summarized the I on the dependence of the power and force of radiation, rise time and decay radiation and values of the wavelengths corresponding to the emission maximum on the content of cadmium selenide layer selenide of lead containing bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen. From figure 2 and Table 1 it is evident that the introduction of additives selenide, cadmium selenide, lead with the simultaneous introduction of additives of bismuth, oxygen, and chlorine (iodine) allows you to change the position of the wavelength of the emission maximum, rise time and decay radiation, and the resulting power and the power of the radiation in 3-3,5 times higher than the radiation power of the prototype.

Table 1.

The dependence of the power, the light intensity, rise time and decay radiation and values of the wavelengths corresponding to the maxima of the radiation on the content of cadmium selenide layer of lead selenide with the addition of bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen.
The content of cadmium selenide, mol.%IL prototype
0,151020
The wavelength of maximum radiation, mcm4,03,73,43,24,0
The radiation power in the constant current mode, µw100200 30035035
The radiation power in the pulse mode, mW24670,7
The power of radiation in the constant current mode, µw/cf408012014012
The rise time and decay radiation, ISS3610153
Measuring conditions: Consumption mode DC 75 mA; consumption mode pulse current - 1.5 a; a pulse duration of 100 μs, duty cycle 20.

B) the inventive semiconductor photocell explain below: figure 3 - example of a photosensitive patterns, figure 4 - example of design of solar cells, figure 5 - relative spectral characteristics of the photo-EMF of cells depending on the concentration of cadmium selenide in the selenide of lead containing bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen and table 2 - values of the wavelength of maximum spectral sensitivity, rise time and fall of the photo-EMF of the cell, the short circuit currents and voltage idling, the field of the spectral sensitivity at various concentrations of cadmium selenide layer of lead selenide simultaneous centuries the Denia additives, bismuth, chlorine (iodine) and oxygen.

Note: here and further it was assumed that the photo-EMF was measured at idle and was equal to the open circuit voltage and the current sensitivity was measured in the mode of short circuit current.

Figure 3-4 the following notation: 13 - dielectric substrate made of silicate glass with additives of sodium oxide and potassium, 14 - polycrystalline layer of lead selenide with the addition of cadmium selenide, bismuth, oxygen, chlorine, or iodine), 15 - ohmic contact of gold, 16 - nonohmic contact from India, 17 - metallized contact group, 18 - pin wire technology, 19 - case base, 20 - sitallovye plate 21 is a layer of adhesive 22 is a layer of glue, 23 - photosensitive structure, 24 - input window 25 - contact wire; 26 - conclusions corps, 27 - cap, 28 - interference filter 39, the p - n junction.

Photosensitive structure of the semiconductor solar cell is performed as follows. On the dielectric substrate 13 of the silicate glass with additives of sodium oxide and potassium deposited polycrystalline layer 14 selenide lead with the addition of cadmium selenide, bismuth, oxygen, chlorine, or iodine). During high-temperature heating of the layer it diffuses sodium, providing p-type conductivity layer. As the material nonohmic contact use the EN of the Indies, which the high-temperature diffusion forms in podcastalley part of the layer region of n-conductivity and p-n junction 39. Ohmic contact 15 is made of gold. Ohmic and nonohmic contacts are connected to metallized contact groups 17 to which is welded a mounting wire 18. The set of positions 13-17 form a photosensitive structure of a semiconductor solar cell.

For the formation of semiconductor solar cell to the base of the housing 19 through the adhesive layer 21 is attached insulating sitallovye plate 20, through which the adhesive layer 22 is attached photosensitive structure 23. Metallic contact group 17 through the contact wires 25 connected to the housing 26. Mounted on the base of the photosensitive structure 23 is closed by a cap 27 with pasted it interference filter 28. Final sealing is carried out by welding the base 19 with a cap 27.

The photocell operates as follows. Radiation with a wavelength of 0.5 to 5 μm through the entrance window 24, the interference filter 28 and the substrate 13 of the silicate glass falls on the p-n junction 39 and the portion of the photodetection areas adjacent to the transition within a diffusion length L. the Resulting pair of electron - hole are separated by the field of a p-n perekhoda on contact groups 17 photosensitive patterns and conclusions housing 26 occurs, the photo-EMF. It is also possible to irradiate the structure from the side of the semiconductor layer 14, but in this case, the radiation will be perceived only a one-dimensional area within a diffusion length L adjacent to the p-n junction, and the effect will be very critical to the diffusion length. Most effectively converted to a photo-EMF radiation with a wavelength of 2-5 microns.

From figure 5 it is seen that the introduction of cadmium selenide shifts the long-wave boundary of the spectral sensitivity in the wavelength region of the spectrum while increasing the sensitivity. This allows you to optimize the composition of the material depending on the requirements of the relevant spectral equipment.

Admixture of bismuth, oxygen, chlorine, or iodine), as well as in the case of photoluminescent emitter, determine the radiative recombination mechanism, but for the media, already excited by radiation with a wavelength of 0.5 to 5 μm. For the process of converting the radiation to the photo-EMF this is important because this is the maximum possible time, and hence the maximum diffusion length, the value of which is determined from the relation L=√μt, where L is the diffusion length, μ - the mobility of carriers, and t is the life time of carriers. Thus, as in the case of photoluminescence, t is like comprehensive introduction to semiconductor material additives of cadmium selenide, oxygen, bismuth and chlorine or iodine) allows you to implement sverhsummarny effect from their application and to solve the problem of providing high performance semiconductor photocell for the spectral range of 2-5 microns. In addition, the possibility of formation of effective p-n junction in a thin polycrystalline layer and the subsequent construction of the photocell standard methods adopted today in industrial microelectronics, led to high profitability and productivity of the manufacturing process and, as a consequence, the low cost of the final product. Particular techniques are common for both solar cells and photoluminescent emitter.

The stated concentration of the introduced additives due to the following factors: concentration of cadmium selenide is less than 0.1 mol.%, the variation of the band gap semiconductor material slightly and slightly changing the position of the wavelength corresponding to the red border of sensitivity. Because of the limited solubility of cadmium selenide in the selenide of lead additive in excess of 20 mol.%, is impractical, because such concentrations are not already formed solid solutions of these compounds.

Limiting concentrations of bismuth, oxygen, chlorine (iodine) from the scarlet concentrations associated with small exercise effect and by large concentrations noticeable disruption of the structure of the crystal lattice, the growth rate of nonradiative recombination and, consequently, to reduction of lifetime and mobility of carriers. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in the diffusion length and to reduce the photo-EMF. Similarly, large concentrations of indium and sodium lead to a decrease in the mobility of carriers and the decrease in the diffusion length and low values of concentrations does not allow to form a sharp p-n junction. Control methods concentrations of admixtures are identical to those which were used in the analysis of materials photoluminescent emitter.

To improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the photocells may have a built in optical interference filters placed at the location of the entrance window.

Table 2

The parameters of the solar cells depending on the concentration selenide
cadmium in the semiconductor material layer.
CdSe,Typeλ12λmaxT ISSCs, MCAUxx, mV
%Fehmcmmcmno more thannot less than
20FA-1of 0.5-3.52,6±0,2306050
5FA-1of 0.5 to 4.23,2±0,2154034
0.01FA-10,50-4,73,7±0,252525
0.01FE-1T with TEB1,5-5,04,2±0,273550
Feh - semiconductor solar cell, λ12the region of spectral sensitivity, λmaxthe wavelength of maximum sensitivity, KS - short-circuit current, Uxx - open circuit voltage, t is the performance, TEB - single-stage thermoelectric battery. The measurements were performed at the density of the energy flow of 40 mW/mm2
The temperature of the blackbody emitter (black body) - 1000°

C) the invention of the optocoupler for the wavelength range 2-5 μm explain below: Fig.6 is an example of the design of the optocoupler and table 3 - characteristics of the claimed optocoupler.

Figure 6 the following notation: 29 - photoluminescent emitter; 30 - cell interference with Phi is trom for the working channel; 31 - photocell with an interference filter for the reference channel; 32 - case PV side of the optocoupler, 33 - case optical part of the optocoupler, 34 - intake box, 35 - reflecting mirror; 36 - PV part of the optocoupler; 37 - optical part of the optocoupler; 38 - connecting ring 26 to the external terminals of the solar cells 10 to the external terminals of the emitter.

The optocoupler is implemented as follows. In the base 32 of the photovoltaic part of the optocoupler 36 mounted photoluminescent emitter 29 and solar cells work 30 and base 31 channels. In the case 33 of the optical part of the optocoupler 37 mounted intake box 34 and the reflecting mirror 35. The photovoltaic part of the optocoupler and the optical part bonded to the connecting ring 38. In the manufacture of the first optocoupler assembles its photovoltaic part, then the optical part and, finally, their connection with the connecting ring. The relative mutual position of the above elements of the optocoupler, the number, dimensions and features reflective optics and the spectral characteristics of the emitters, solar cells and interference filters are taken into account in the design of the optocoupler individually for each specific type of spectral analysis device. However, some of the optical elements, such as OTP is distorting mirror, can be shared as for the spectral analysis device, and the optocoupler.

Optocoupler operates as follows. Through the intake box 34 in the open space of the optical path is referenced matter, subject to spectral analysis. If the optocoupler operates, for example, in spectral-analytical instrument designed to determine the concentration of methane in the atmosphere of the ambient air, the spectrum of the photoluminescent radiation emitter 29 and the bandwidth of the interference filter of the semiconductor solar cell in the working channel 30 of the selected spectral agreed among themselves and with the band the absorption spectrum of methane (λmax=3,23±0.05 microns). At the same time for semiconductor solar cell of the reference channel 31 of the interference filter is selected so that its bandwidth coincides with the spectrum of the photoluminescent radiation emitter 29, but did not coincide with the absorption band with any possible component of air or other gaseous component (for example, λmax=3,03±0.02 mm). It is obvious that the spectrum width of the emitter must be broad enough to include bandwidth as the primary conduit and the secondary. Setting the electronic measuring circuit is such that in the absence of methane in the air is uravnoveshivaetsia the photo-EMF of the primary and reference channels, thus any change in the status of the environment, not associated with a change in its optical characteristics, such as temperature change, should not lead to an imbalance of the photo-EMF. And only appearance in the air methane increases the absorption in the spectral range of the transmittance of the interference filter photocell main channel and, consequently, reduces the photo-EMF, while the photo-EMF of the reference channel remains unchanged. Registered imbalance EMF should be proportional to the concentration of methane in the air.

Thus, outdoor optical channel claimed optocoupler is used to analyze the optical characteristics of the environment in the open channel. When spontaneous or forced filling of the analyzed substance having in the spectral range of 2-5 microns characteristic absorption bands, and due to the introduction in the design of the radiation detector or emitter narrowband optical filters, the bandwidths of which correspond to the absorption bands included in the open channel of the substance, it is possible, firstly, to confirm the presence of it in a controlled environment and, secondly, to determine its concentration. The spectral range of 2-5 microns is extremely informative. Here are the absorption spectra of most gaseous organic compounds is, for example methane, propane, butane. Here are the absorption spectra of fluorine-containing compounds, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases, water vapor and other

The use of the optocoupler as optical elements described above photoluminescent semiconductor emitters and solar cells can be used as the main functional element in small-sized detectors. However, preliminary optical alignment between receivers and emitters by selecting the appropriate concentration of cadmium selenide in the selenide of lead. First, according to figure 2 and Table 1, taking into account characteristics of the absorption spectra of the identifiable substance is selected concentration of cadmium selenide material layer intended for photoluminescent emitter, and then installed the concentration of cadmium selenide layer, intended for solar cells, which should be 3-4 times less. In this case, good agreement working spectral ranges of the light receiver and emitter. Table 3 shows the values of the main parameters of the optocoupler at various concentrations of cadmium selenide in the layer of photoluminescent emitter (upper range value) and in the layer of the solar cell (bottom row values): the ratio of output voltage to the voltage noise at the output of the optocoupler to the inlet to the controlled substances performance of optocoupler in the form of rise time (fall) output voltage and the wavelength of maximum transmittance in the open channel optical communication optocouplers.

Industrial applicability.

Declared photoluminescent emitter, semiconductor photocell and designed with their use optocoupler, studied by the applicant in the laboratory and mastered them in serial production. In particular, this semiconductor solar cells to work in different regions of the spectral range of 0.5-5 μm: Feh 722-1, 2, FE-1, 2, FE-1, 2, PE-2-So This is a photoluminescent emitter, the wavelength of maximum radiation are consistent with the spectra of absorption of various substances: ILA-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ILB-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. This optocouplers, which entered above the emitters and solar cells and use of which are designed and manufactured by industry analyzers type GAA, PGA, OGA, DDE, C2000. These compact analyzers determine the concentration of carbon dioxide in the range from 10 to 200,000 ppm, propane and butane from 100 to 200,000 ppm, methane from 500 to 1000000 ppm. This high performance enable their use in harsh industrial conditions at the enterprises of gas, oil, metallurgical and mining industry Stated option photoluminescent emitter has the following main parameters and characteristics:

- Performance solar cell 5-15 ISS.

Gamma-percent time to failure when the γ=95% - 50,000 hours.

- Working temperature range - minus 60° plus 80°C.

Emitter can be placed in the enclosure-5, weight not more than 3,

- Power value and the light intensity for different wavelengths in the region of 2-5 μm are shown in Table 1.

The stated option semiconductor solar cell has the following main parameters and characteristics:

Current sensitivity at a temperature of 20° - 0.5 a/W.

- Volt sensitivity at a temperature of 20° - 200/watt.

- Performance solar cell 5-15 ISS.

Gamma-percent time to failure when the γ=95% - 50,000 hours.

- Working temperature range - minus 60° plus 80°C.

- The efficiency of conversion of radiation energy into electrical energy is 3.5%.

The photocell can be placed in the enclosure-5, weight not more than 3,

Declared variant of the optocoupler has the following main parameters and characteristics:

- Input current of 100 mA.

- Input voltage - 1,8 Century

- Input pulse current is 1.5 A.

The pulse width is 100 μs.

- Duty cycle - 20.

The voltage noise at the output of 2×10-8V/Hz1/2.

- Width of spectral bandwidth in the open channel optical communication:

a) without the interference filter of 0.7 μm,

<> b) with an interference filter of 0.1 μm.

Gamma-percent time to failure when the γ=95% - 50,000 hours.

- Working temperature range - minus 60° plus 80°C.

The relationship values of the output voltage to the voltage noise and the values of rise time and fall times of the output pulse voltage for different spectral bandwidths in the open channel optical communication are provided in Table 3.

In the manufacturing process was used technological tools, materials and equipment, developed by the domestic industry. Experimental and production test, the results of which are presented in Tables 1-3, showed a sustained achievement of the objectives of the invention, is claimed photoluminescent emitters, semiconductor solar cells and optocouplers for the wavelength range 2-5 μm on the complex optical, photoelectric, performance, dimensions, weight, and cost characteristics superior to all known analogues. High PV and performance photoluminescent emitter and a semiconductor photocell "broadcast" and constructed using optocouplers, which according to the applicant currently does not have analogues in the appropriate class of optoelectronic converters.

Still the way in our opinion, the claimed solution new, non-obvious and capable of industrial application, which allows you to qualify them as inventions.

1. Photoluminescent emitter comprising an electroluminescent diode of gallium arsenide, the generating of the primary radiation in the wavelength interval of 0.8 to 0.9 μm and deposited on a dielectric substrate of the polycrystalline layer of lead selenide, absorbing the primary radiation and re-emitting in the wavelength interval of 2-5 μm, characterized in that the lead selenide collectively entered additive, directionally altering the position of the wavelength of the emission maximum, rise time and fall times of the pulse and additive increasing the radiation power photoluminescent emitter.

2. Photoluminescent emitter according to claim 1, characterized in that the additive is directed altering the position of the wavelength of the emission maximum, rise time and fall times of the pulse, consists of cadmium selenide in an amount of 0.1-20 mol.%, and additive increasing the radiation power, consists of bismuth, chlorine (iodine) in an amount of 0.005-0.05 at.% and oxygen in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, and these elements are introduced in a ratio of 1:1:2.

3. Semiconductor solar cell that converts radiation with a wavelength in the range of 0.5 to 5 μm, comprising a layer of lead selenide on the dielectric is odlozte formed with it a potential barrier, characterized in that a semiconductor material that converts the energy of radiation with a wavelength of 0.5 μm - 5 μm applied selenide lead collectively entered Supplement directionally changing field of the spectral sensitivity, the value of the wavelength of maximum spectral sensitivity, rise time and fall of the photo-EMF, and the additive, increasing the current sensitivity and photo-EMF of the cell.

4. Semiconductor solar cell according to claim 3, characterized in that the additive, directionally changing field of the spectral sensitivity, the value of the wavelength of maximum spectral sensitivity, rise time and fall of the photo-EMF consists of cadmium selenide in an amount of 0.1-20 mol.%, and additive increasing the current sensitivity and photo-EMF consists of bismuth, chlorine (iodine) in an amount of 0.005-0.05 at.% and oxygen in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, and these elements are introduced in a ratio of 1:1:2.

5. Semiconductor solar cell according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the selenide of lead additives applied in the form of a polycrystalline layer, in which a potential barrier is formed in the shape of a p-n junction, and a region with p-type conductivity is obtained by introducing sodium, and the region of n-type conductivity is due to the introduction of India.

6. Semiconductor solar cell according to claim 5, characterized in that the sodium in the Eden in the amount of 0.005-0.02 at.%, and indium in an amount of 0.01-0.1 at.%, the concentration of India more than 2 times higher than the concentration of sodium.

7. Optocoupler, comprising an infrared emitter and an infrared detectors, characterized in that the emitter is applied in this photoluminescent emitter according to claim 1 or 2, and as detectors - semiconductor photovoltaic cells according to claim 3 or 4, or 5, or 6.

8. The optocoupler according to claim 7, characterized in that the concentration of the additive of cadmium selenide in polycrystalline layer of photoluminescent emitter 3.5-4.5 times greater than the concentration of this additive in the polycrystalline semiconductor layer of the solar cell.

9. The optocoupler according to claim 7, characterized in that it is an outdoor optical channel configured to fill a gaseous or liquid substance.

10. The optocoupler of claim 8, characterized in that it is an outdoor optical channel configured to fill a gaseous or liquid substance.

11. The optocoupler according to claim 7, wherein the photoluminescent emitter and/or semiconductor solar cell equipped with narrow-band optical interference filters.

12. The optocoupler of claim 8 or 9, or 10, wherein the photoluminescent emitter and/or semiconductor solar cell equipped with narrow-band optical interference filters.



 

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