Noninvasive method for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis grade in patients suffering from chronic viral hepatitis
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining spontaneous blood platelets aggregation and one induced by adrenalin and collagen, thrombocytospecific peptides activity of β-thromboglobulin and thrombocytic factor 4 in blood plasma.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.
The invention is used in medicine, namely in the clinic of internal medicine (gastroenterology).
Determining the expression of fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis is an important task, as the rapid progression of fibrosis leads to cirrhosis or liver cancer in one-third of patients within 20 years [1, 2]. On the other hand, determining the severity of fibrosis (stage hepatitis) is important to determine the indication for antiviral therapy.
Determining progression of liver fibrosis is possible without holding a needle biopsy on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic parameters [3, 4].
However, the precise predictors, indicating some degree of fibrosis compared with histological results obtained by biopsy of the liver, currently no. Thus, according to S.A.Coverdale and G.Borroni [2, 5], revealed insignificant correlation between routine hepatic biochemical and ultrasonographic tests and fibrational stage of chronic hepatitis. .Mattiello and .Penz [3, 4] using these data revealed sufficient correlation for determining the stage of fibrosis. With the rapid development of fibrosis associated male gender, disease duration, 1 genotype of the virus, the gene polymorphism factor V clotting, R-village of the tin .
The platelets in the peripheral blood [7, 8, 9] in combination with age may be a predictor of the development of significant histological changes in chronic viral hepatitis . According to S.A.Coverdale , the clearance of antipyrine and the level of platelets for detection fibrational progression of viral hepatitis are more sensitive than albumin and other biochemical tests. According to G.Borroni  of 3 clinical and 6 biochemical factors, the level of platelets and the concentration of immunoglobulins significantly and independently correlated with the presence of cirrhosis in chronic liver pathology with infection with hepatitis C virus, and the level of platelets less than 134×109/l had 100% specificity.
Based on the above, you should characterize the relationship between the level of platelets and structural changes in the liver and to define the role of platelets in the progression of chronic viral liver disease.
Under the influence of lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α platelets pass through the hepatic sinusoidal space and come into contact with hepatocytes , which leads to their activation, the release of ATP and ADP . Activation of platelets is a potential trigger remodeling of the liver tissue with chronic viral hepatitis  secreted in excessive amounts of OS-granules platelet-derived growth factor , transforming growth factor - β and thrombin stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and the development of liver fibrosis, disruption of the architecture of the liver even after cessation of exposure to the initiating factor[15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Thus, there is a clear link between inflammation and collagenopathy in the liver and the functional activity of platelets.
However, the reduced level of platelets in the peripheral blood in chronic viral liver pathology may be associated not only with fibrosis of the liver, but also due to the direct influence of viruses on trombozitopoez, to reduce the level of messenger RNA of thrombopoetin, low production of hepatic tissue, increasing the level of antiplatelet IgG. Therefore, to more accurately assess the degree of fibrosis on the basis of the criterion of platelets is necessary to use indicators of their functional activity, including the reaction products release components α-granules.
Reliable method to determine the degree of liver fibrosis (stage hepatitis) is a histological method for the study of the liver obtained by biopsy of the liver performed percutaneous or laparoscopic by .
The applied method has numerous disadvantages:
1. The invasiveness of the procedure, which reduces the compliance of the patient.
2. The need to conduct is of ultrasonographic studies before the procedure to exclude focal liver formations.
3. Numerous contraindications to needle biopsy of liver lesions (cysts, hemangioma), reduced level of platelets in the peripheral blood, increasing the duration of bleeding, clotting time, decreased prothrombin activity and other
4. The need of the patient's stay in hospital overnight after the procedure.
5. Complications of biopsy: abdominal and thoracic bleeding, pneumothorax, injury to the gall bladder and ducts, cysts, peritonitis.
6. The frequent inability of the procedure to dynamically assess the severity of fibrosis.
7. The need for a doctor's certificate (surgical specialties) to conduct research on therapeutic doctor (gastroenterology) Department.
While laparoscopic biopsy in fact equivalent to a small surgery on the organs of abdominal cavity.
The task is non-invasive diagnosis of the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.
This object is achieved by defining indicators of spontaneous and induced (adrenaline, collagen) platelet aggregation and activity thrombocytopathies peptides (β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4) in the plasma.
The method implemented is aetsa as follows.
The criterion for inclusion is the availability of proven chronic viral hepatitis. To determine fibrosis indicators are used induced platelet aggregation (inductors: adrenaline, collagen), the level of spontaneous platelet aggregation, activity thrombocytopathies peptides in plasma (β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4). Exclusion criteria are related pathology (acute or chronic diseases in the acute stage), the medication within 7 days prior to the survey.
The blood produced from the cubital vein in the morning, on an empty stomach, a needle with a wide opening without tourniquet is applied and massage of the forearm with the further use of citrate plasma rich or poor (depending on the designated parameter) platelets. Platelet aggregation is logged on aggregometry AR (SOLAR, Belarus), paired with an IBM-compatible computer. To exclude the contact activation of platelets is only used plastic utensils. Spontaneous platelet aggregation register since the beginning of the mixing platelet-rich plasma (no inductor) for 10 minutes to determine the maximum extent of aggregation. Normal spontaneous aggregation is 0.67±0,07%. Induced aggregation studied by adding the value of the inductors to platelet-rich plasma: adrenaline (5 μm/ml, "Aoede Richter, Hungary), collagen (0.2 mg/ml, "NGOs to Rena", Russia) in the indicated final concentrations in the test system with the assessment of the maximum aggregation level in %in healthy equal 64,70±1,94% 60,01±1.35%, respectively.
Activity β-thromboglobulin in the plasma is determined using standard test kits Roche ELISA. Blood (4.5 ml) are placed in plastic tubes with addition of 0.5 ml of 3.8% solution translesanas of sodium citrate, 2 mg/ml of theophylline and dipyridamole, centrifuged 30 minutes (4000 rpm, 4° (C), the plasma is selected and stored at a temperature of -25°C. the Method for determining the activity of 4 platelet factor-based actions estramboticos heated plasma containing thermostable factor 4, thrombin-heparin clotting time control estramboticos plasma. The degree of shortening of the thrombin-heparin clotting time is a measure of the activity of the 4 factors. In healthy people the plasma level β-thromboglobulin is 146,12±8,13 IU/ml, activity 4 platelet factor - 3,02±0,67 C. Data of platelet aggregation and activity thrombocytopathies peptides in healthy individuals, and patients are presented in table 1. The indicators of the functional activity of platelets with the purpose of further evaluation of fibrosis was performed with the plot is that the results of histological examination of the liver tissue, obtained by needle biopsy.
|index of fibrosis|
|0-1 points||2-3 points||4 points|
|Note that n is the number of patients. * - p<0.05 compared with control, ** p<0.05 compared with minimal fibrosis, *** p<0.05 compared with moderate fibrosis.|
Chronic viral hepatitis with minimal signs of fibrosis according to Desmet (0-1 point) characterized by an increase (compared to control) performance of spontaneous platelet aggregation induced by epinephrine and collagen platelet aggregation, levels β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. Unidirectional changes in the direction of increasing values of the functional activity of platelets are the difference between chronic viral hepatitis with minimal about what areas of fibrosis from chronic viral hepatitis with moderate to severe fibrosis. While the absolute values of these parameters are as follows:
- adrenaline platelet aggregation >76%,
- collagen platelet aggregation >68%,
spontaneous platelet aggregation >0,9%,
- β-thromboglobulin >170 IU/ml,
- 4 platelet factor >4,7 sec.
Chronic viral hepatitis with moderate to severe liver fibrosis (2-3 points) characterized by a reduction induced by adrenaline and collagen platelet aggregation, in contrast to the increase (as with minimal fibrosis) indicators of spontaneous platelet aggregation, β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. While the absolute value of the spontaneous aggregation of platelets, level β-thromboglobulin and activity of platelet factor 4 higher than the corresponding indices in patients with chronic viral hepatitis with minimal fibrosis. Indicators of functional activity of platelets following:
- adrenaline platelet aggregation 54-16%,
- collagen platelet aggregation 52-24%,
spontaneous platelet aggregation >2,6%,
- β-thromboglobulin >204 IU/ml,
- 4 platelet factor >7.8 seconds.
Index of fibrosis 4 points (the presence of cirrhosis at least class a Child-Pugh) (in addition to clinical and instrumental signs of portal hypertension) is characterized by maximum (relative to the s index of fibrosis 2-3) inhibition induced by adrenaline and collagen platelet aggregation, level β-thromboglobulin within normal limits or slightly increased, increased platelet factor 4 and increased spontaneous platelet aggregation. While the absolute values of these parameters are as follows:
- adrenaline platelet aggregation <16%,
- collagen platelet aggregation <24%,
spontaneous platelet aggregation 0,9-1,5%,
- β-thromboglobulin within normal limits or slightly increased,
- 4 platelet factor of 4.7-5.2 sec.
Table 2 shows the parameters of the functional activity of platelets to assess the severity of liver fibrosis.
|Indicators||Healthy||index of fibrosis|
|0-1 points||2-3 points||4 points|
|β-||122-170||>170||↑||>204||↑||or within the||or|
|Platelet||1,3-4,7||>4,7||↑||>7.8 seconds||↑||a 4.7-5.2 sec||↑|
|Note: ↑ - increase compared to the norm, ↓ - decrease in comparison with the norm N is within limits.|
Developed non-invasive diagnostic criteria of severe fibrosis equally informative for any etiological forms of viral liver disease (b, C, b+C, B+D).
Patient A., aged 27. Case history No. 71. Was in the gastroenterological Department of the regional clinical hospital with 04.01.01 on 18.01.01, the Diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis C (aHCV +, HCV RNA +) with moderate activity. Concomitant diagnosis: serological signs moved HBV infection.
Complaints about General weakness, decreased performance. Considers himself ill with 1999 the ode, when recovered from acute viral hepatitis b+C (HBs Ag +, aHCV +). In September 2000, he was troubled and General weakness. While the survey found a threefold increase in transaminases. From history: tonsillectomy in 7 years. Drug use between 1998 and 2000.
Objectively: the skin, sclera and the regular color. The lungs and heart without features. AD - 125/80 mm RT. Art., pulse 64 in 1 minute. The size of the liver by karlovu: 10×9×8 see Liver soft-elastic consistency, painless, smooth, the lower edge of the stands from under the costal arch to 1.5 cm Spleen not palpated.
Complete blood count: er. 4,2×l012/l; HB 142 g/l; blood clot. 210×109/l; lake. 4,2×109/l; E. 2%; p. 2%; S. 62%; limp. 28%; Mont. 4%; erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 6 mm/h
Urinalysis: Rel. density 1,019; without deviation from the norm; diastasis urine 128 ed,
Biochemical studies. Total protein 72 g/l; albumin 44%; globulins: α 20%; β 17%; γ 19%. Blood glucose 4.1 mmol/l Bilirubin: total 13,76 µmol/l AST 44 u/l; Alt 126 u/l; LDH 254 u/l; GGT 21 u/l; alkaline phosphatase 169 u/l Thymol test 7,7 u; CEC UE 180; Ceruloplasmin of 41.7 mg/DL; cholesterol 4.5 mmol/l Triglycerides: PETIT 87%; the clotting time 5 min 43 sec; duration of bleeding 40 C.
Markers of hepatitis: HBs Ag (-); aHBs (+); HBe Ag (-); aHBe (+); aHBc Ig M (-); aHBc amounts. (+); aHCV (+); HCV-PHK (+).
Ultrasonography. Liver: right lobe 108 mm, the left share of 79 mm, echo is normal, tissue is homogeneous. Intrahepatic ducts are not expanded. Portal vein 10 mm, splenic 5 mm, choledoch 5 mm Gallbladder 71×13 mm, wall thickness 3 mm Pancreas: head 22 mm, the body is 15 mm, the tail is 23 mm, echo is increased. Spleen 127×52 mm
Liver biopsy. Lobular structure saved. Portal tracts unevenly expanded expressed lymphomacrophagal infiltration with formation of lymphoid follicles. Marked proliferation of the bile ducts, significant focal proliferation kupperbusch cells. Lobular component in the form of chains, and on-site 3-4 hepatocytes. Fibrosis of the stroma of the walls of the Central veins and stroma slices in 3 area. Hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Conclusion: chronic hepatitis with moderate activity. Index Knodes 7 points. Index Desmet 1 point.
The studied parameters: induced adrenaline and collagen platelet aggregation 78,6%, 70.0% respectively, spontaneous platelet aggregation 1,49%, the content of β-thromboglobulin 172,2 IU/ml, activity 4 platelet factor 4,88 C. As can be seen from this example, the patient with a minimum degree of fibrosis determined by the elevated levels of spontaneous and induced platelet aggregation and indicators thrombocytopathies peptides.
The use of the proposed method of evaluation grade is liver fibrosis lets not resort to biopsy of the liver. The study is safe for the patient, there is no need for invasive procedures, is available for practical health care institutions, not time-consuming.
Sources of information:
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16. Gressner A.M. Cytokines and cellular crosstalk involved in the activation of fat-storing cells J. Hepatol. - 1995. - Vol.22 (2 Suppl). - P.28-36. 17.Gressner A.M., Chunfang G. A cascade-mechanism of fat storing cell activation forms the basis of the fibrogenic reaction of the liver // Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Pathol. - 1995. - Vol. 79. - P.1-14.
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The way to diagnose the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, including the identification of liver fibrosis, characterized in that identify indicators of spontaneous and induced adrenaline and collagen platelet aggregation, activity β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in plasma and at the parameter values: adrenaline platelet aggregation >76%, collagen platelet aggregation >68%, spontaneous platelet aggregation >0.9 per cent, activity β-thromboglobulin >170 IU/ml, 4 platelet factor >with a 4.7 - define chronic viral hepatitis with minimal fibrosis on Desmet (0-1 point), when the values of the parameters: adrenaline platelet aggregation 54-16%, collagen platelet aggregation 52-24%, spontaneous platelet aggregation >2,6%, the activity of p-thromboglobulin >204 IU/ml, 4 platelet factor >7,8 - define chronic viral hepatitis with moderate to severe fibrosis by Desmet (2-3 points), with parameter values: adrenaline platelet aggregation <16%, collagen platelet aggregation <24%, spontaneous platelet aggregation 0,9-1,5%, activity β-thromboglobulin within normal limits 122-170 IU/ml or slightly increased, 4 platelet factor 4,7-5,2 to determine fibrosis by Desmet 4 points (the presence of cirrhosis at least CL the SSA And Child-Pugh).
FIELD: medicine, obstetrics.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with predicting disadaptive processes in women in dynamics of menstrual cycle. During menstrual cycle beginning since the 1st d to the 21st d one should detect the dynamics for alteration in coefficient of activity of syntoxic adaptation programs (CASAP), calculated by the following formula:
where CST - concentration of blood serotonin, AAT-III - activity of antithrombin III, Aaoa - total antioxidizing activity of plasma, CCD8 + - concentration of T-suppressors, Cad - concentration of blood adrenalin, Cα2MG - concentration of α2-macroglobulin, CMDA - concentration of malonic dialdehyde, CCD4 + - concentration of T-helpers. Moreover, normally CASAP value alters two-fold against the first day of the cycle - since 0.70 up to 1.40 on the 21st d of the cycle, at no alterations in CASAP value one should diagnose female disadaptive alterations leading to failed pregnancy. The innovation enables to perform diagnostics of disadaptive processes in women in dynamics of menstrual cycle followed by prognostic conclusion upon future pregnancy.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.
FIELD: medicine, diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: one should study blood components to detect anticoagulant-fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, patient's blood should be sampled: in whole blood one should detect the presence of affected erythrocytes and evaluate the quantity of thrombocytes, in plasma it is necessary to study the activity of antithrombin III, XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis, the content of soluble fibrin-monomeric complexes, in blood serum of the sample taken one should detect the concentration of urea, creatinine, sodium, albumin, total cholesterol and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, moreover, one should calculate integral value of renal-hepatic deficiency, to put corresponding point for the degree of parameters under testing, then one should calculate integral value of disseminated intravascular clotting (IVDIC) and at its value being 6.3 U and more DIC-syndrome should be diagnosed, moreover, at IVDIC value ranged 6.3-10.1 U it is possible to diagnose latent DIC-syndrome, at 10.2-14.6 - subacute DIC-syndrome and at 14.7 and higher - acute DIC-syndrome should be concluded.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of diagnostics.
4 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves analyzing symptoms manifesting initial disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome danger like burn area, availability of upper air passages burn, shock with its severity degree taken into consideration, sepsis development; clinical manifestations of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome like lung, kidney, liver function insufficiency, cerebral dysfunction, local and multiple hemorrhages, thrombosis, infarction; homeostasis system laboratory analysis data, hyper- and hypocoagulation based on chronometry test data, number of blood platelets, fibrin-monomer complexes, D-dimers, activity of antithrombin III, C and S proteins, XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis plasminogen content, availability of injured erythrocytes, combinations of laboratory tests for recognizing disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome. Each sign under consideration receives a number of points corresponding to its diagnostic significance and integral value is calculated DIBCSIV=(X1+X2+…+Xn)/n, where n is the number of signs taken into consideration. DIBCSIV value equal to 1.0-1.5 units shows physiological norm. The value being between 1.6 and 2.5 units, light disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome is diagnosed. The value being between 2.6 and 3.5 units, disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome of medium severity is diagnosed; 3.6-4.5 points to one heavy severity degree; 4.6 and greater indicates highly severe case of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome.
EFFECT: high accuracy and objectiveness in differentiating syndrome severity degrees.
FIELD: medicine, laboratory diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: one should evaluate the time for clotting of plasma under testing in phospholipid-dependent test, moreover, one should apply high- and low-sensitive thromboplastin reagents to lupus anticoagulant to calculate the ratio of indices of prothrombin time prolongation and at its value being either equal to or above 1.1 one should diagnose APS.
EFFECT: shortened terms of research.
1 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves checking consciousness, blood coagulation state, peripheral blood leukocytes number, K+ ions, bilirubin, fibrinogen, hemolysis and hemoglobinuria availability, prothrombin index and exotoxic shock development. Each value is calculated in points as follows. Lucidity is evaluated as -2 points; depression - +3 points; coma - +6 points; lack of changes in blood coagulation system - -2 points; coagulation availability without clinical injuries - +2 points; coagulopathy with clinical manifestation signs - +19 points; K+ ions concentration being less than 3.0 mmole/l - +3 points, from 3.1 to 3.5 mmole/l - -5 points, from 3.6 to 5.0 mmole/l - 0 points, greater than 5.0 points - +7 points, failure in determining K+ ions concentration - 0 points; hemolysis availability - +6 points, its lack - -3 points; hemoglobinuria availability - +8 points, its lack - -1 points; leukocytes number being less than 12.0x109/l - -2 points, from 12,1 to 18.0x109/l - 0 points, higher than 18.0x109/l - +8 points; hourly urine output being less than 30 ml/h - +6 points, greater than 30 ml/h - -2 points; bilirubin content being less than 31 mcmole/l - -2 points, from 30.1 to 50.0 mcmole/l - 0 points, greater than 50.0 mcmole/l - +2 points, failure in determining bilirubin content due to hemolysis being available -+6 points; prothrombin index being equal to or less than 60% - +3 points, greater than 60% - 0 points, failure in determining prothrombin index due to hemolysis being available - +12 points; fibrinogen concentration in blood plasma being less than 2.1 g/l - +4 points, from 2.1 to 4.0 g/l - -1 point, from 4.1 to 6.0 g/l - +1 point, failure in determining fibrinogen concentration due to erythrocyte hemolysis being available - +13 points; exotoxic shock development - +9 points, its lack - -1 point. The points are summed up. The value being greater than +13, admission for treatment in resuscitation department is indicated. The value being less than -13, admission for treatment in therapeutics department is indicated. The value being from -13 to +13, resuscitation expert consultation is advised.
EFFECT: high evaluation accuracy.
FIELD: medicine, laboratory diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: the suggested studying should be carried out on the glass simultaneously with several inductors by applying minimal inter-taking antilogarithms concentrations of aggregation inductors which correspond at double combination of inductors: ADP 5.0 x 10-8 M, adrenaline 3.0 x 10-9, collagen - dissolving the main suspension 1:8, thrombin 0.075 U/ml; at triple combination of inductors: ADP 10-9 M, adrenaline 10-9, collagen - dissolving the main suspension 1:9, thrombin 0.060 U/ml. The development of aggregation means thrombocytic activation in patients with arterial hypertension at metabolic syndrome. The method enables to evaluate the changes of thrombocytic functional state with combination of inductors more probably present in area of vascular lesion by applying minimal necessary concentrations that develops real conditions at hemostatic initiation in human vessels.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of studying.
3 dwg, 3 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out infrared saliva spectroscopy and determining mean values of infrared radiation pass band in frequency ranges of 3085-2832 cm-1, 2120-1880 cm-1, 1600-1535 cm-1, 1543-1425 cm-1, 1430-1210 cm-1, 1127-1057 cm-1. Mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being greater than 35.9, in the range of 1543-1425 cm-1 being greater than 57.9, in the range of 1430-1210 cm-1 being greater than 54.5, compensated chronic tonsillitis is considered to be the case. The mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being less than 32.5, in the range of 1543-1425 cm-1 being less than 65.2, compensated chronic tonsillitis is to be diagnosed. The mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being less than 35.9, in the range of 3085-2832 cm-1 being greater than 72.8, compensated chronic tonsillitis is to be diagnosed. The mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being less than 35.9, in the range of 1127-1057 cm-1 being greater than 51.7, compensated chronic tonsillitis is to be diagnosed. The mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being less than 35.9, in the range of 2120-1880 cm-1 being greater than 79.7, compensated chronic tonsillitis is to be diagnosed. The mean value in the range of 1600-1535 cm-1 being less than 35.9, in the range of 2120-1880 cm-1 being less than 79.7, decompensated chronic tonsillitis is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high reliability and simplicity of differential diagnosis.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining malonic aldehyde quantity in blood serum before and after treatment in addition to clinical study. The quantity growing after having applied the transcranial magnetic stimulation method more than by 15% when compared to an initial state, treatment result is estimated as positive one.
EFFECT: high estimation method objectivity level.
FIELD: medicine, therapy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for prognosis in lingering pneumonia course in patients with liver pathology that involves assay of bilirubin-aminotransferase index (BAI). The latter is calculated as a product of two ratios: activity of alanine aminotransferase to activity of aspartate aminotransferase and the content of serum bound bilirubin to the total bilirubin. The lingering pneumonia course is diagnosed at BAI value above 1. The measurement of BAI value allows carrying out prognosis for lingering pneumonia course in patients with liver pathology that promotes to the well-timed correction of treatment and improvement of the patient living quality.
EFFECT: improved method for prognosis.
FIELD: analytical diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: biochemical examination of blood and endoscopic ultrasonography are performed. When alkaline phosphatase activity is increased by 150% and more relative to normally occurred values, alanineaminotransferrase by 250% and morem and amylase by 150% and more, and when level of conjugated bilirubin is increased by 150% and more relative to normal level, while diameter of common bile duct is 7 mm and more, choledocholithiasis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: increased early recognition accuracy.
FIELD: medicine, hematology.
SUBSTANCE: one should detect the quantity of human CD20+ B-lymphocytes in patient's blood due to immunofluorescence assay by applying monoclonal antibodies and at the level of CD20+ cells ranged 0.4 -7.0 x 109/l one should predict nonprogressing flow of chronic lympholeukosis, and at the level of CD20+ cells being above 7.0 x 109/l - progressing flow.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of prediction.
1 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: veterinary medicine, biochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with boiling an extract, cooling, centrifuging, dissolving a residue, cooling, centrifuging, dissolving a residue, adding sulfuric acid into a tube and 1%-condensate's solution followed by heating, cooling, photometry against the control at wave length being 315 nm, as a condensate one should apply resorcinol.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and economy of detection.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves fixing material and setting histochemical reaction on detecting cholinergic nerve structures. The fixed material under study is incubated during 60-90 min in thermostat at 37°C in mixture containing acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate, washed, treated with alcohols in growing concentrations, cleared and enclosed into balsam. The material is fixed with 2% glyoxylic acid prepared on 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution having pH of 7,0. Histochemical reaction is set concurrently with material fixation for detecting adrenergic nerve structures containing neuromediators forming luminescent reaction products with glyoxylic acid, in which the material is incubated during 15-20 min at temperature of 20-25°C. Then it is dried and heated during 5-10 min in thermostat at 80°C, studied with luminescent microscope, subjected to morphometric study and photographed. Then, histochemical reaction is set on the same material for detecting cholinergic nerve structures.
EFFECT: high comparison accuracy on the same portion of tissue being used.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining proportion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate, serotonin and histamine level and serotonin/histamine ratio coefficient, content of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2α and adenylatecyclase index. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate ratio being equal to 2.7-3.3, serotonin level of 4.5-6.6, content of prostaglandin E2 being equal to 670-1340 mg/g of protein and prostaglandin F2α to 320-960 mg/g of protein, label index being equal to 10.1-35,0% and adenylatecyclase index being equal to 19.2-30.0 rmole/g of protein/min, stomach and duodenal ulcer healing is predicted.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prognosis.
FIELD: medicine, oncology.
SUBSTANCE: before carrying out hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) one should detect the content of lipid peroxidation products in the condensate of expired air. If the content of TBC-active products is below 14 conventional units it is necessary to perform about 3-4 HBO seances at 1.3 absolute atmosphere for 40 min both in pre- and postoperative periods. If the content of TBC-active products varies 14-24 conventional units one should conduct about 3-4 HBO seances at 1.3 absolute atmosphere for 40 min in preoperational period only. If the content of TBC-active products is above 24 conventional units HBO séances should not be carried out . The method is considered to be noninvasive, of high information value and enables to increase efficiency to apply HBO in patients with pulmonary cancer planned for operative treatment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: medicine, obstetrics.
SUBSTANCE: one should study placental tissue to prepare 10% homogenate and detect NADPH-oxidase activity according to reduction of 2.6-dichlorophenylindophenol at the presence of NADPH. Results of reaction should be specified spectrophotometrically at wave length being 600 nm. Method is atraumatic and enables to predict the development of encephalopathy in neonatals at high accuracy.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of prediction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining lactate content in peripheral venous blood sample taken from cadaver. The value being less than 16 mmole/l, hypoglycemic coma is diagnosed.
EFFECT: high reliability of diagnosis independently on death outcome time.