Open-cast mining method

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cast mining of steeply inclined, even vertical, laterally bounded ore body, for instance diamondiferous kimberlite pipe under flooded conditions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming hydraulic-mining dump; opening quarry field by pit excavation; filling the pit with water; installing floating pump dredger in plant with cutter; performing rock excavation at quarry field; transporting the obtained rock to ground surface through pulp conveying line and conveying dead rock to hydraulic-mining pump. The quarry field is previously zoned into horizontal layers (horizons) and quarry field development is performed by cutting horizontal layers in top-bottom direction so that water level is lowered as layers are excavated and water surface is maintained at current production horizon level.

EFFECT: reduced power and cost inputs for field dewatering.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the opencast mining of mineral deposits in steeply inclined to vertical, falling limited in terms of ore bodies, for example, diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes in the conditions of intensive irrigation.

There is a method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, according to which the invented hydraulic mine dump, career field opened a pit, quarry filled with water and mounted therein a floating suction device Ripper, make the notch career fields, transportation of rock mass obtained on the surface of the slurry pipeline and the location of waste rock in hydraulic mine dump [1].

The known method can be applied in complex natural and technical conditions for the development of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes made of kimberlites low strength.

However, the above method requires a working body long length (boom or other device that delivers a working body of the suction device to the bottom under water (when using a floating suction device CSD), or bucket frame and bucket chain (in the case of dredging development)). This leads to higher dimensions and metal equipment, loss of maneuverability and reliability in R is the bot that, ultimately, leads to loss of efficiency of development.

In addition, the known method leads to flooding of career fields and requires alterations produced by industry standard equipment.

The technical result, to achieve the aims of this technical solution is in the drainage rock quarry field and the preparation of the surrounding mountain array to reconstruct the career and transition to the next stage of its development, using development systems without fill excavations with water simultaneously with the development of the field, which leads to reduction of energy consumption and capital costs of the drainage field and ensures the development of the field in a short time and with a minimum initial investment, but also in the use of standard equipment without modification.

This result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, according to which the invented hydraulic mine dump, career field opened a pit, quarry filled with water and mounted therein a floating suction device Ripper, make the notch career fields, transportation of rock mass obtained on the surface of the slurry pipeline and the location of waste rock in hydraulic mine dump, pre-career field razmeta the t on the horizontal layers (horizons) and produce the notch career field horizontal layers from top to bottom, moreover, when developing layers support the mirror of water on the roof level of the current operating horizon. Water balance to maintain the water surface at the level of the operating horizon support due to the return of in-pit water from hydraulic mine dump. For training the next layer is the kickoff carry out the excavation, which then expand floating suction device, and the testing of horizontal layers is carried out by continuous extraction system of the benches.

Figure 1 shows a General view of the quarry in the plan and the location of the suction devices and equipment; figure 2 is a section along a-A.

The proposed method is as follows. Perform pre-study physical-mechanical properties of the covering, enclosing rocks and rocks of ore array and check their ability to develop in the area of irrigation methods dredging due to their low strength and poor connectivity.

Based on previous studies of hydro-geological conditions of the Deposit and physico-mechanical characteristics of the rock quarry field 1, quarry ore body is carried out by the underwater excavation of rock floating suction device 2, equipped with a Ripper (for example, milling type), combined with a submersible pump. Based on the characteristics introduced the CSOs suction dredger career field mark on the horizontal layers (horizons) 4, 5 and produce the notch career field 1 horizontal layers from top to bottom. For training the next layer is the kickoff carry excavation 6, which then expand by sinking the same suction shell 2 split production, providing further elaboration of the horizon. Development of the current operating horizon carry benches 7, similar dredging passages. Placement moves is chosen to provide a full excavation of rock mass over the entire area of career or part of a given mark. Mountain mass of the slurry line 8 is transported in hydraulic mine dump (not shown) for developing the overlying or surrounding rocks, or processing plant - ore development array. Before storage or enrichment slurry is thickened, the drain water in amounts necessary to maintain the required technology level of the water in the pit, and return for reuse in the mode of a closed circulation.

The transition to the development of the next current operational horizontal layer (operating horizon) is carried out with simultaneous lowering of the water level in the quarry, and when a failover layers support the mirror 9 at the level of the roof 10 of the current operating horizon 5.

Thus, the water level in the quarry falls ACC is accordance with the decrease of mining operations, ensuring optimum working conditions suction device and suction device Ripper performs not only the function of mining machinery, developing careers, but the pump unit, providing pumping water that interfere with the mining operations until the drainage pit on the last stages suction device.

Board 11 career rebuild with the formation of horizontal safety berms security, ensuring safe working conditions below the suction device 2 and spaced from each other along the height of the operating horizon. The sustainability Board will be increased as the dewatering and drying of the surrounding quarry rock mass.

Transport connection of the suction device with the surface carried out on an inclined trench, laying abroad career, then held by the Board of career and deepening deepening of mining operations. This trench is laid slurry line 8 that carries the rock mass overboard career. With increasing depth career and, accordingly, the height of the pulp along the slurry line constructed pumping pumping station.

In the end, mining down to a depth corresponding to the boundary of the transition from weak ore to ore with enhanced strength characteristics the ticks, requiring other methods of development. Due to the draining of deposits resulting from practicing the claimed method it flooded part, it becomes prepared to effectively use other "dry" systems development to continue on it surface mining.

Implementation of the proposed method on the example of the development of one of the diamond-bearing pipes in the North-West European frequent Russia, is as follows.

The Deposit is located in lowland wetlands. Power overlying sediments varies from 30 to 60 meters. They are represented by disjoint sandy loam and loam with rare interlayers of sandy composition. Host rocks to depths of 200 meters weak sandstones, strength parameters which gradually increase with depth. All the strata from the surface intensively irrigated. The ore body is a vertically overlies a funnel-shaped array, to a depth of 130-150 meters folded soft effusion-sedimentary kimberlite rocks of the crater frequent deposits. Having a source of natural low strength, these rocks in the aquatic environment it will lose even more. Below the composition of kimberlites changes, becomes dominant Intrusive autolatina kimberlite breccia with a significantly higher p is agnostini characteristics. Dredging the way of career development, thus, it is possible to apply to depth of 150 meters.

Quarry lay directly above the ore body. In the preparation of mining arrange to supply suction device. In the early stages of pit water from the developed array will be small, and the need of mining operations in the water for transportation and laying in a pile of rock mass will be great. Therefore, use of surface water sources covered the needs of a career in the water (usually they are). In this case, does not require a protection system of mining operations from irrigation (as in traditional development techniques). Disclaimer rain events at the first stage of career development, transfer them to a later date (with natural while optimizing the volume and value of works) significantly reduces the cost and timing of preparatory work, has a noticeable impact on the improvement of the economy of the mining enterprise.

Also a significant part of the preparatory phase is the construction of hydraulic mine dump. For storing the slurry on the selected area and prevent contamination of the surrounding terrain at the site is under construction dam of filter soils, provides a means of thickening postraumaticos (protozoa are devices with the use of hydrocyclones), the means of reclamation of gidrootvalov, and the return of drain water in the mountain section. When working mountain complex water accumulating in the pond-tank hydraulic mine dump, will either be returned to the quarry, or after additional purification to MAC discharged into the river system depending on the requirements of compliance with the water balance.

Transport and other communications, providing communication between the suction device with the surface (the delivery people, fuel, spare parts, materials), laid on a sloping trench, laying down for a career path and coming on Board at the level defined by the level of the water surface in a career. The trench deepens as deepening of mining operations. When the quarry sole overlying sediments direction of the trench is changing. Then it is passed with a recess along the outside of the pit. In the same trench stacked line slurry pipeline, in which the pumping of the slurry for subsequent lines in hydraulic mine dump or enrichment. With the deepening of mining operations and, accordingly, increase the height of the pulp along the slurry pipeline installed over the pump station. The feed pulp from the suction device to the coastal stationary slurry line is realized by means of a flexible floating pescopagano, articulated texts is budegassa and coastal slurry line, and with a suction device.

The quarry is polarisant, horizontal ledges. The scarp is determined on the basis of 55-60% of the maximum depth of development, determined by the technical passport of the suction device. When the marking depth suction device 18 meters height of the ledge is defined in 10 meters. To ensure business continuity and prevent the process of furthering the development of massive discharge of water from the ground when moving to the next horizon quarry is divided in several parts, at least, into two halves, each of which is mined horizontal layers of terraces, the altitude which differs from the adjacent ledges of the second half pit half the height of the ledge. The deepening of mining operations by poluustav allows the discharge of water from the landfill also layers with the height of the lower water layer after a failover horizon on one half of the career and transition in the second half, also equal to half the height of the operating horizon. Thus, the total amount of water accumulated in the development of the current horizon and to be reset when switching to the next horizon, by volume less than half when developing the entire area of the career of one ledge. In addition, the lowering of the water level in your career can be the lead gradually, during the whole period of working out the horizon on this half of the career, because the total depth of development in the transition suction device for testing the next ledge is within the passport depth decreased suction device.

The development of new horizon of each half career start with structures revealing the workings of the pit, the size of which allows suction device to start the gradual development of the horizon. The pits for the opening operation horizons of each half of the quarry lay generally on opposite sides of the pit. Each of the halves career work out consistently after full completion of the other half.

Accepted system development - continuous excavation of rock in the project boundary career system adjacent longitudinal adjacent transverse (relative to the long axis of career fields), the combined moves the suction device. Adjacent faces provides maximum width of Zachodni, which helps minimize loss of time to stop when spreads suction device and the transfer floating slurry line. During the transition to lower horizon along the outer contour career form a safety berm, which ensures safe working conditions, the earth is ecologo device in the flank area with decreasing mining operations.

After reaching the quarry sole overlying kimberlite pipe deposits mining operations as described above focus in the contours of the ore body that becomes a natural quarry developed suction device at these depths. Technology development ore array and deepening it remain the same as at the upper levels. It only changes the direction of pumping of the rock mass on the concentrator, where it passes the appropriate stage of dehydration, classification and other operations of pretreatment, enrichment with storage dump tailings in the tailings pond factory. Loop water recycling mining with regulation of water balance and retain here.

Thus, the proposed technical solution will allow you to:

- To carry out drainage rock quarry field. The surrounding mountain range is becoming prepared for the reconstruction of the career and transition to the next stage of its development, using development systems without fill excavations with water.

- Start the development of the field, in spite of complex natural and mining conditions, in a short time and with minimal initial investment.

- To reduce energy consumption and capital costs for drainage have been discovered in the Oia.

- Apply standard equipment without modification (i.e. no additional cost).

The source of information

1. RF patent №2081321, MKI 7 E 21 41/26, from 10.09.97.

1. The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, according to which the invented hydraulic mine dump, career field opened a pit, quarry filled with water and mounted therein a floating suction device Ripper, make the notch career fields, transportation of rock mass obtained on the surface of the slurry pipeline and the location of waste rock in hydraulic mine dump, wherein the pre-career field mark on the horizontal layers (horizons) and produce the notch career field horizontal layers from top to bottom with decreasing water level after testing layers, maintaining the water at the roof level of the current operating horizon.

2. The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits according to claim 1, characterized in that the water balance to maintain the water surface at the level of the operating horizon support due to the return of in-pit water from hydraulic mine dump.

3. The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits according to claim 1, characterized in that for training the next layer is the kickoff carry out the excavation, which then expand and testing Horiz is Talnah layers is carried out by continuous extraction floating suction device CSD system benches.



 

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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