Loosening method for rock having different strength

FIELD: mining industry, as well as hydraulic, road, agriculture and other building, particularly to perform open cast mining and other woks by rock loosening.

SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining information concerning main and structural-and-strength rock properties on the base of estimation of data of primary and post-authorization prospecting, as well as production prospecting; detailed rock zoning to separate production blocks and unit blocks characterized by uniform rock at borders thereof; writing computer program; automatically loosing rock of each unit block by most effective method, namely by mechanical, pneumatic, blast drilling or physical one performed with the use of all-purpose mobile rig tools. Above rig includes computer system, device provided with one, two or three replaceable teeth, with plate-like metal pins and with hydraulic cylinders. The rig also has device adapted to create holes in unit block and wedge out thereof, drilling device and charging device, laser charge initiation system, local shelter with damping means, device for rock cutting by applying pressurized air and impacts to rock and auxiliary excavation device.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock preparation for further cutting and loading and for solid mineral field development as a whole.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, hydraulic engineering, road, agricultural, and other sectors of construction and can be used in the manufacture of various works involving loosening of rocks and building soil.

Widely known traditional methods of cultivation of different rocks: rock, half-rock, dense and frozen composing work on arrays, such as arrays of ledges ore quarries and coal mines[1], [2], [3], each of which is carried out using technical, or physical, or chemical-physical means, but mainly with the help of explosives and are monopsony. For loosening of rocks of a certain strength using a corresponding unit: Ripper on the basis of a tractor, bulldozer-loosening, drilling machine and car charger, etc. Because most rocks and especially of solid mineral deposits are composed of rocks of different strength with the strength coefficient on a scale Dev from 4-6 to 28, it leads to sadasivuni on a single production facility various means, to a significant decline in productivity, environmental, and social security, to increase capital and operating costs to prepare the ku rock for excavation.

As the closest analogue [3] adopted the method of development of deposits of solid minerals, including operational intelligence, the allocation of operational blocks on the quality of minerals and rock strength, crumbling rock drilling and blasting method using a horizontal or slightly inclined boreholes with a diameter of from 50 to 150 mm, the loading of EXPLOSIVES and blasting under the local mobile shelter, subsequent excavation practicing blown blocks. The disadvantage of the prototype is the possibility of loosening of rocks in only one way - drilling and blasting.

Thus, to the General disadvantages of these methods loosening of rocks should include the need to use for loosening rocks a particular strength of the respective unit or set of units, as, for example, when widely used currently drilling and blasting method.

The main result of the invention, including technical, is to increase the efficiency of loosening of rocks and the development of solid mineral deposits in General, as well as various construction and mining operations, connected with the necessity of destruction of rocks and building soil.

This result is achieved by the fact that in the universal way of loosening raznopolosnyh mountain p is the genus, including obtaining information about the main structural strength properties of all types of rocks array, detailed zoning of rocks within working operating horizon or its individual plot, the allocation of operational blocks and borders - the elementary units represented by homogeneous fortress rocks, forming a computer program, loosening raznopolosnyh rocks, auxiliary excavation the excavation and loading of the rock mass in small volumes, loosening raznopolosnyh rock field or array construction soils carried out selectively in accordance with their structural strength properties, which distinguish the elementary blocks, using the most effective way - one of the mechanical or pneumatic or explosive or physical, which is implemented in an automated process mode using a computer program universal mobile unit, with a dense and relatively weak half-rock breed loosen mechanically with the use of technical devices, equipped with one, two or three teeth on traditional type mounted Ripper, any device with plate metal pins, introduced in the rock is hydrocylinders, device for the formation of holes in the pattern elementary unit and separation of waste elements from the array block their rasklinivanie, relatively strong half-rocks and hard rocks of medium strength and destroy using the power of compressed air, strong half-rocks and hard rocks elementary blocks destroy the drilling and blasting method, and wells or bore-holes with a diameter of 16-150 mm Buryats rotary or rotary-percussion or percussion-rotary or combined method, blow up the bore-holes and wells of small diameter of the detonating cord or patronized nizkobyudzhetnym explosive, a small diameter cartridge or natronomonas nizkobyudzhetnym explosive, descobrindo explosive mixture initiate laser pulse, blasting is performed under local shelter mobile unit, small inclusions of rocks, as well as the oversized destroy mechanical shock, while the excavation and loading of the rock mass produce auxiliary excavation device, and the execution of all processes and operations associated with loosening raznopolosnyh rocks, manufactured using universal mobile unit that includes a complex variety of devices to implement the mechanical way rychle the Oia rocks, drilling wells and bore-holes, loading and blasting, laser system initiation, the computer system, the device for breaking rocks by the energy of compressed air and blow, a device for supporting excavations excavation of the rock mass in small amounts.

A comparable analysis with the prototype of the differences of the proposed method, which consists in providing a selective loosening of diverse quality and raznopolosnyh rocks within each operational unit by using the most effective for the specific difference between rocks of the way of the destruction of those few that can be implemented using the universal mobile unit, equipped with a set of structural devices that allow rational loosening rocks and building soil, or various mechanical, or pneumatic, or drums, or drilling and blasting method using wells or bore-holes of small and small diameter, exploded under a local shelter that can be used and some relatively simple physical methods of cultivation, such as hydroelectric.

Thus, the claimed universal way of loosening raznopolosnyh and different rock meets the condition novizny the process of exploring other solutions in the field of machinery safety signs, distinguishing this invention from the prototype and associated with achieving the stated technical result, have not been identified and therefore provide the requirement of inventive step.

The inventive method illustrates the drawing, which schematically depicts a generic unit. In the drawing, the following notation:

1 - mastering the horizon of the Deposit and its plot;

2 - operational unit, folded raznoobraznymi or different rocks;

3 is a basic block, folded uniform in strength or quality and structure of the rock;

4 - universal mobile unit;

5 is a device for mechanical loosening of rocks one, two or three teeth;

6 is a device for the mechanical destruction of rocks break;

7 is a device for mechanical loosening of rocks by cutting or chipping;

8 - installation for drilling wells and bore-holes;

9 - device for loading wells and bore-holes;

10 - device for initiating detonation of explosive charges;

11 - the local shelter for the implementation of the blasting of rocks;

12 is a device for implementing the loosening of rocks by the energy of compressed air;

13 - portable compressor;

14 is a device for the destruction of separateness strong hornyhead shock method;

15 - auxiliary excavation device;

16 - diesel-electric installation.

Method of loosening raznopolosnyh and different rocks is as follows.

Make a selection in each working horizon 1 field or array construction rocks operational blocks 2, and in them - elementary blocks 3 on the basis of geological information obtained sequentially in several stages:

in the first stage, allocate petrological, structural and morphological gornorudnaya education within career fields or specify them on the basis of information obtained in the process delicensing exploration

in the second stage, highlight or clarify previously allocated blocks within petrologically homogeneous blocks on the basis of information obtained during post-licensing exploration

in the third phase adjust petrographically homogeneous units based on the additional information set out in the design process of the development of minerals, some of its plot or construction of an object

in the fourth stage secrete structurally homogeneous blocks within petrographically homogeneous blocks on the basis of geological information received by the CE failover upstream horizon or block, and its extrapolation to the next adjacent block, provided for mining,

in the last step, finally form the basic blocks of 3 or clarify previously allocated on the basis of operational mining and geological information, quickly get jalagamparai service by the company as a direct instrumental measurements and quantitative evaluation and visual assessment entered into the computer system universal loosening unit 4.

After extraction of the elementary units 3 for each of them establish the most efficient technology loosening their constituent rocks, including both the method and sequence of loosening, using the computer system universal unit 4, and in close connection with the means and methods further auxiliary or main excavation excavation loosened rocks.

When this dense and some weak half-rock rock f≤6-8 on a scale professional Dev loosen mechanically by means of technical devices 5, 6, 7 universal mobile unit 4: unit 5, provided with teeth on type mounted Ripper, device 6 for removing rock that rasklinivanie, device 7, the cutting or shearing the rock.

Regarding the BAP is the cue half-rocks and hard rocks with f> 7-8 destroy the drilling and blasting method, Abueva elementary block or two or three adjacent elementary unit of horizontal or slightly inclined wells, or their combination, small or small diameter within 16-150 mm Drilling wells or bore-holes is made by setting 8 mobile unit 4, including the complex used in mining and construction industry lightweight rotary drilling equipment, rotary-percussion and percussion-rotary types, each of which is used depending on the fortress of rocks that are installed permanently in the process of drilling wells, and the well can be drilled one, two, or even several by the way, if it takes place in rocks that are significantly different from each other by drillability, and the transition from one drilling mode to another is done automatically.

Wells or boreholes charge detonating cord, or explosive mixture or the packaged explosive in accordance with their diameter, strivesto rocks and the necessary degree of fragmentation, with the security requirements of loading and blasting holes with the charger 9, a hardware-based charging machine operated mines.

Done is make short-delay and dispersed downhole, crosshole and miragee blasting explosive charge, initiating their laser pulse passed through the system laser initiation device 10, under the local shelter 11 mobile unit 4.

Loosening of rocks with medium strength f=7-9, when the mechanical method is no longer effective, and drilling and blasting is not yet appropriate, carried out using the energy of compressed air that is being implemented with the help of the device 12 and portable compressor 13.

The destruction of the inclusions of hard rocks in the array of the ledge and oversized solid rock is performed by the drummer from the device 14, and their subsequent excavation and loading in vehicles with small auxiliary excavating device 15 of the universal unit 4, which allows deriving the rock mass along the straight, curved and combined paths.

Thus, using the generic unit is provided with high quality, selective and controlled loosening raznopolosnyh and different rocks, preserving their original position in the array, enabling high performance, high quality and deeply differentiated excavation of the rock mass.

The claimed method of loosening raznopolosnyh rocks provides a reduction of the major capital and operating costs, improving the efficiency of loosening of rocks and the development of solid mineral deposits in General, as well as various construction works.

The universal unit 4 energy is carried out using diesel-electric installation of the 16 universal unit 4, which can work both autonomously and from any power grid.

The method can be used for open development of ore, rock, coal and gravel deposits, and deposits of construction rocks and construction materials, and in particular, in the development of gold deposits TAS-Yuryakh, Khakanjinskoye and Yuryev, coal deposits - Urgalskoe, Tataurovskoe, Apsatskoe, which are characterized by significant intermittency and inclusions raznopolosnyh rocks, requiring preliminary loosening.

Sources of information

1. Open pit mining. The Handbook. M: Mining, 1994.

2. Rzhevsky CENTURIES Processes of surface mining. M.: Nedra, 1978, 543 S.

3. Patent RU NO. 2039253, E 21 37/00.

4. Patent RU NO. 2181834, E 21 41/00.

5. The fracture energy of the compressed high pressure air. M.: Publishing house of the Institute of mining them. Ass.

Method of loosening raznopolosnyh rocks, including obtaining information about the main structural strength properties of all types of rocks mA is Siwa, detailed zoning of rocks within working operating horizon or its individual plot, the allocation of operational blocks and borders - the elementary units represented by homogeneous fortress rocks, forming a computer program, loosening raznopolosnyh rocks, auxiliary excavation the excavation and loading of the rock mass in small volumes, characterized in that the loosening raznopolosnyh rock field or array construction soils carried out selectively in accordance with their structural strength properties, which distinguish the elementary blocks, using the most effective way is one of mechanical or pneumatic or explosive or physical implemented in an automated process mode using a computer program universal mobile unit, with a dense and relatively weak half-rock breed loosen mechanically with the use of technical devices, equipped with one, two or three teeth on traditional type mounted Ripper, any device with plate metal pins, introduced in the rock by hydraulic cylinders or devices for the formation of holes in the array of elementary block iodrive rock elements from the array block their rasklinivanie, relatively strong half-rocks and hard rocks of medium strength and destroy using the power of compressed air, strong half-rocks and hard rocks elementary blocks destroy the drilling and blasting method, and wells or bore-holes with a diameter of 16-150 mm Buryats rotary or rotary-percussion or percussion-rotary or combined method, blow up the bore-holes and wells of small diameter of the detonating cord or patronized nizkobyudzhetnym explosive, a small diameter cartridge or natronomonas nizkobyudzhetnym explosive, descobrindo explosive mixture initiate laser pulse, the blasting is performed under local shelter mobile unit, small inclusions of rocks, as well as the oversized destroy mechanical shock, while the excavation and loading of the rock mass produce auxiliary excavation device, and the execution of all processes and operations associated with loosening raznopolosnyh rocks, manufactured using universal mobile unit that includes a complex variety of devices to implement mechanical way of loosening of rocks, wells and bore-holes, loading and blasting, laser system initiation, computer system, eliminate the STV for the destruction of rocks by the energy of compressed air and blow, device for supporting excavations excavation of the rock mass in small amounts.



 

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