Method of production of power, hydrogen and diamonds and a device for its realization

FIELD: power industry, mechanical engineering and environmental control.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of high power industry, mechanical engineering and environmental control. In a explosion-proof chamber 1 with double-walls simultaneously feed a gaseous explosive mixture using pipeline 4 through channels 5 and inject hydrocarbons with the nucleuses of carbon crystallization using a pipeline 6 through an injector 7 with formation of a cone-shaped shell 8 with an inert cavity in the central zone. The shell 8 and the explosive mixture 9 form a cumulative charge. Conduct initiation of undermining of an explosive mixture 9, as a result of which the cumulative charge forms a cumulative spray 10 moving at a high speed along the axis of the cumulation. The gaseous products withdraw through pipeline 17. At collision of the cumulative spray 10 with a barrier having channels 11 of the cooling unit 2 the pressure and temperature there sharply increase ensuring growth of the formed crystals of diamond. Simultaneously conduct cooling with the help of pipelines 12 located in metal filings and granules 13. The atomized and cooled cumulative spray gets into the auxiliary chamber 3, where the diamonds 14 are separated, feed through the pipeline 15 to a power accumulator 16, in which they are settling. Separated hot hydrogen is removed for storing or utilization. The invention allows to magnify the sizes of dimensions crystals of diamond up to 800 microns and more, to decrease atmospheric injections, to reduce the net cost of the diamonds, to increase effectiveness of the device.

EFFECT: the invention ensures growth of sizes of diamonds crystals up to 800 microns and more, decrease of atmospheric injections, reduction of the net cost of the diamonds, increased effectiveness of the device.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the production of hydrogen and superhard materials of the substances containing compounds are hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, and can be used in energy, engineering and environment.

Known modern methods of energy production based on fuel combustion. A more efficient way of producing energy are explosions, which is practically not released unburned particles and uses the mechanical energy of the shock waves.

Closest to the claimed method and device are method and apparatus for producing diamond, described in the patent RU №2048437, CL 01 In 31/06, 1995.

The known method is the impact of the explosion of the shaped charge of explosive gas mixtures without the inner shell injected on-axis charge stream of substances containing compounds hydrocarbons. The method was carried out in a cylindrical metal explosion chamber having at the top end of the distribution node of the supply of explosive gas mixtures and substances containing compounds hydrocarbons and centers of crystallization of small diamonds to increase their size, or small particles of metals that can be injected along the axis of the charge. At the bottom of the camera made cooling system diamond water. Luggage are made with double sheath filled with an attached mass of metal sawdust and pellets, hosting the pipelines for heat dissipation.

This method has the following disadvantages:

inefficient use of energy explosion of a shaped charge without the inner shell on the substance injected along the axis of the charge;

to obtain diamonds requires a powerful explosive mixtures and values shaped charges;

provided cooling water to the total volume of explosive products to prevent combustion of the diamond decreases the efficiency.

A disadvantage of the known device is that it does not provide a continuous process of obtaining diamonds. In addition, the system of separation of hydrogen from the steam formed during the cooling of the diamonds in this device is complicated.

The aim of the invention is to eliminate the above drawbacks and improving the efficiency of energy production, hydrogen and diamonds.

This is achieved in that in the method of obtaining energy hydrogen and diamonds, including simultaneous filing in explosion-proof camera gaseous explosive mixtures and compounds hydrocarbons with nuclei of crystallization of carbon, the formation of a shaped charge, it burst with obtaining cumulative jet, energy extraction, separation of the formed diamond and hydrogen, according to the invention compounds of hydrocarbons in the germ crystallizatio the carbon supplied to the camera by injecting thus, to make a cone-shaped shell shaped charge with an inert cavity in the Central zone, and diamonds form at high pressures and temperatures in the collision of the received cumulative jet with a barrier located in the cooling unit attached to the specified camera, tap the power dissipation of the jet and its cooling, and then allocate the resulting diamonds and hydrogen at a sharp drop in pressure in the auxiliary chamber connected to the cooling unit.

The task is also achieved by a device for energy, hydrogen and diamonds, including explosion-proof cylindrical chamber with double walls attached thereto a cooling unit, means for removal of hydrogen and energy, the receiver diamonds, while this camera has a distribution hub intended for the formation of the shaped charge, pipelines for supplying gaseous explosive mixture, and means for supplying hydrocarbon compounds and germs crystallization of carbon, and the cooling unit is equipped with piping and attached masses of metal pellets and sawdust, with the specified device is equipped with automatic control systems, which according to the invention the means for p the villas of hydrocarbon compounds and germs crystallization is made in the form of a nozzle for injection in the form of a conical shell with an inert cavity in the Central zone, the cooling unit is further provided with a barrier with channels to create high temperatures and pressures in collision with a cumulative jet, and the pipelines of the cooling unit is made in the form of a coil designed for the chilled water and the cooling unit attached auxiliary camera for sharp pressure drops, and selection of diamonds and hydrogen.

Figure 1 shows a cross-section of the claimed device along the line b-B; figure 2 is a longitudinal section along the line A-A.

The device for implementing the method of obtaining energy, hydrogen and diamonds is an explosion-proof cylindrical chamber 1, the cooling unit 2 and the auxiliary chamber 3. Cylindrical explosion-proof camera has double walls and is equipped with a distribution hub for the formation of a shaped charge, comprising the pipeline 4 and channel 5 for supplying gaseous explosive mixture, as well as the pipe 6 with a nozzle 7 for supplying hydrocarbon compounds and germs crystallization of carbon. Camera 1 is further provided with a pipe 17 to divert excess energy to the consumer. The cooling unit 2 is provided with barrier with channels 11 to create high temperatures and pressures in collision with a cumulative jet 10 formed in the chamber 1. The cooling unit 2 is also provided in the pipeline is mi 12 in the form of a coil, intended for chilled water or gas. The pipes 12 are metal sawdust and pellets 14. The cooling unit 2 is attached auxiliary chamber 3 for the sharp pressure drops, and selection of diamonds and hydrogen, is supplied by a pipe 15 connected to energodinamika 16.

The claimed process is carried out in the described device works as follows.

In the workspace explosion-proof camera 1 via line 4 through the channels 5 serves gaseous explosive mixture, such as hydrogen, air, energy 725 kcal/m3; or hydrogen with oxygen with energy 1630 kcal/m3. Concurrently, the pipe 6 through the nozzle 7 inject compounds hydrocarbons and germ crystallization of carbon, such as graphite, which form a conical shell 8 with the inert cavity in the Central zone. Compounds of hydrocarbons may be in the form of compressed gas, liquid, small particles. After that make the initiation of gaseous detonation of explosive mixtures by means of electric sparks (initiating device not shown), in which a conical shell 8 with a gaseous explosive mixture of 9 form a shaped charge, forming a cumulative jet 10. Gaseous products of detonation are removed through trubor the water 17 and use, for example, in a boiler or heating systems. Because these products do not fall into the auxiliary chamber 3, is prevented by the combustion of the obtained diamond, which is a significant problem with known methods. Cumulative stream 10 is moving at high speed along the axis of cumulation, carrying solid products of detonation diamonds, and preventing them from settling on the walls of the chamber 1.

When confronted cumulative stream 10 with a barrier with the channels 11 at the expense of its kinetic energy dramatically increases the pressure up to thousands of atmospheres and temperatures up to 900°that ensures the growth of the sizes of diamonds to 800 microns, and more. The cumulative pressure of the jet 10 barrier 11 can be adjusted by the amount of charge and changing the shape of the barrier 11. Simultaneously with the increasing size of the diamonds produce their cooling by means of pipes 12 arranged in a metal sawdust and pellets 13. Then atomized and cooled cumulative stream enters into the auxiliary chamber 3, where the pressure drops sharply, resulting in the selection of diamonds 14 and hydrogen, which through the pipeline 15 is directed to Energoproekt 16, in which there is deposition of diamond. Separated heated hydrogen can be sent to storage or to use in production.

The proposed device has suitable the mi automatic control systems: supply of explosive mixture, hydrocarbons, initiation of the explosion, cooling and removal diamonds, hydrogen and energy, which is not shown in the drawing.

The method of obtaining energy, hydrogen and diamonds and device for its implementation will enable more efficient use of substances containing compounds of hydrocarbons, Autonomous and centralized energy systems, to use environmentally friendly energy source - hydrogen engines and thus create favorable conditions for life in densely populated regions, reducing at least twice the emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, reducing the greenhouse effect on Earth. Low cost get diamonds will allow the economy superhard materials.

1. The method of obtaining energy, hydrogen and diamonds, including simultaneous filing in explosion-proof camera gaseous explosive mixtures and compounds hydrocarbons with nuclei of crystallization of carbon, the formation of a shaped charge, it burst with obtaining cumulative jet, energy extraction, separation of the formed diamond and hydrogen, characterized in that compounds of hydrocarbons from the nuclei of crystallization of carbon fed into the chamber by injection in such a way as to form a cone-shaped shell shaped charge with an inert cavity in the Central AOR is e, diamonds form at high pressures and temperatures in the collision of the received cumulative jet with a barrier located in the cooling unit attached to the specified camera, tap the power dissipation of the jet and its cooling, and then allocate the resulting diamonds and hydrogen at a sharp drop in pressure in the auxiliary chamber connected to the cooling unit.

2. Device for energy, hydrogen and diamonds, including explosion-proof cylindrical chamber with double walls attached thereto a cooling unit, means for removal of hydrogen and energy, the receiver diamonds, while this camera has a distribution hub intended for the formation of the shaped charge, pipelines for supplying gaseous explosive mixture, and means for supplying hydrocarbon compounds and germs crystallization of carbon, and the cooling unit is equipped with piping and attached masses of metal pellets and sawdust, with the specified device is equipped with automatic control systems, characterized in that the means for feeding hydrocarbon compounds and germs crystallization is performed in the form of a nozzle for injection in the form of a conical shell with an inert cavity in the Central the Oh zone, the cooling unit is further provided with a barrier with channels to create high temperatures and pressures in collision with a cumulative jet, and the pipelines of the cooling unit is made in the form of a coil designed for the chilled water and the cooling unit attached auxiliary camera for sharp pressure drops, and selection of diamonds and hydrogen.



 

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SUBSTANCE: proposed oxygen storage method includes partial reduction of λ-Al2O3 on specific surface area of 200 - 400 m3/g doped with up to 0.5 mass percent of Sn during synthesis and subjected to oxidizing treatment at 500 °C in oxygen stream. Reduction is made by activated molecular, hydrogen, or hydrogen-containing hydrocarbon gas at gas temperature of 100 - 750 °C, pressure of 1 - 10 at., and humidity of 10-5 - 10-1 volume percent followed by freezing water produced in the process; storage of partially reduced λ-Al2O3 in arbitrary-humidity atmosphere at up to 50 °C or in vacuum, or in inert gas atmosphere at temperature of up to 750 °C and humidity of up to 10-5 volume percent; and oxidation of partially reduced λ-Al2O3 with water vapors at temperature of 100 - 750 °C or in vacuum at humidity of 10-5 - 10-2 volume percent.

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1 cl, 87 ex

FIELD: power equipment; generation of hydrogen in stationary plants and on transport facilities.

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

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6 cl, 2 dwg

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FIELD: methods of production of hydrogen, electrical power and the hydraulically purified products out of hydrocarbon raw materials.

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18 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: liquid-phase reforming.

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16 cl, 5 dwg, 3 ex, 3 tbl

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4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

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10 cl, 5 ex

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12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

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1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in manufacture of hydrosols, organosols, and suspensions in oils. Nano-size diamond powder is charged into ultrasonic disperser and water and modifier, in particular organic ligand such as EDTA or ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid are then added. Resulting suspension is separated on centrifuge into dispersion medium and precipitate. The latter is treated with water to form suspension, which is centrifuged to give precipitate and hydrosol, which are concentrated separately by heating in vacuum into powderlike form. When concentrating hydrosol, depending on desire, following finished products may be obtained: concentrated hydrosol, cake, or dry black powder. When concentrating precipitate, clear nano-size diamond powder is obtained. Thus obtained products are appropriate to prepare sedimentation-resistant hydrosols and organosols with no ultrasound utilized, which products have no tendency to aggregate upon freezing and thawing, boiling and autoclaving, and which can be repetitively dried and reconstituted. Surface pollution of nanoparticles is reduced.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of hydrosols with precise concentration of nano-size diamonds.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for chemical industry. To 1 g of a powder of nanodiamonds of an explosive synthesis add 100 ml deionized water. The mixture is treated with the ultrasonic dispersant for 5 minutes. The produced suspension is added with an electrolyte - NaCl solution in the quantity exceeding sorptive capacity of nanoparticles by ions of sodium, for example, 20 ml of 0.9 M solution. Then separate the disperse medium and the settling. The disperse medium is removed. The settling is added with 100 ml of deionized water and is intensively agitated. The supernatant - hydrosol of nanodiamonds is separated and dried. At multiple add-on of water to the produced powder a stable nanodiamond hydrosol is formed. The share of the surface impurities in the produced nanodiamond is reduced. Simultaneously the share of sodium ions is increased.

EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce the share of the surface impurities in the produced nanodiamond and simultaneously to increase the share of sodium ions.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: production of color diamonds.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of production of fantasy neon yellow-green diamonds of precious quality produced from the pale (discolored) or so-called "brown" diamonds of the lowest quality. The method provides for placement of a pale natural diamond in the medium capable to transfer the pressure, which then is mold into a "tablet". Then the tablet is placed in the high-pressure press (HP/HT) and exposed to machining at an increased pressure and temperature being within the range of graphite stability or a diamond being on the phase diagram of carbon for the period of time necessary for improvement of a color of the mentioned diamond. In the end the diamond is removed from press. The indicated method ensures production of diamonds of an attractive yellowish-green or yellow-green and neon yellow-green colors.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of diamonds of attractive yellow-green colors.

22 cl, 4 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry and electronics; production of diamonds.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for chemical industry and electronics. The chemical product is prepared out of the following organic compounds (in weight %): acetamide - 6.7; carbamide - 0.8; ethylene glycol - 2.0; glycolic acid - 11.7; lactamide - 8.8; glycerine - 2.3; hexamethylenetetramine - 11; indene - 7.6; 1,2-dimethylnaftaline - 2.6; 1,4 -diisopropenylbenzol - 3.3; cyclohexylphenylketon - 8.1; 4'-cyclohexylacetophenone - 7.2; 4-(1-adamantyl)phenol - 2.1; 4,4'-methylenebis (2,6-dimethyl phenol) - 2.3; α,α'- bis (4-hydroxyfenyl)-1.4-diisopropylbenzol - 0.2; phenanthrene - 11.0; lauric acid - 6.2; sebacic acid-6.3; eicosanic acid - 9.7. The indicated components are mixed with water in the ratio of 1:(1-2). The mixture is heated up to 150-200°С in vacuum of 10-1-10-6Pa. A reaction sample formed this way is refrigerated in conditions of vacuum and dried for removal of water and the volatile organic substances. The dried reaction sample is heated in vacuum up to 200-400°С for 80 hours. The invention allows to use the raw material being in lower power state as compared with the known methods and to produce the high-clean diamonds.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the high-clean diamonds from the raw material of the lower power state.

16 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.

EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.

2 cl

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of diamond films that can find use in biology, medicine, and electronics. Initial powder containing superdispersed diamonds with level of incombustible residue 3.4 wt %, e.g. diamond blend, is placed into quartz reactor and subjected to heat treatment at 600-900оС in inert of reductive gas medium for 30 min. When carbon-containing reductive gas medium is used, heat treatment is conducted until mass of powder rises not higher than by 30%. After heat treatment, acid treatment and elevated temperatures is applied. Heat treatment and acid treatment can be repeated several times in alternate mode. Treated powder is washed and dried. Level of incombustible impurities is thus reduced to 0.55-0.81 wt %.

EFFECT: reduced level of incombustible impurities.

4 cl, 3 ex

The invention relates to methods of artificial synthesis of single crystals of diamond - like with predetermined physical properties: solid, fluorescent, colored, etc., and without impurities with high optical transparency
The invention relates to the field of processing (refining) of the diamond to give them a different color colouring and may find application in the jewelry industry

The invention relates to the technology of the detonation synthesis of superhard materials, in particular of nanodiamonds (or ultradispersed diamonds, UDA), which can be used for finishing and superfinishing polishing different materials to obtain the metal-diamond electrochemical and chemical coatings, polymerlatex songs (film, membrane, rubber), diamond-like films and coatings, semiconductors, batteries, hydrogen, elasomechanik compositions, polycrystalline diamond, biologically active compositions and environments, adsorbents, abrasive materials and tools

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of diamond films that can find use in biology, medicine, and electronics. Initial powder containing superdispersed diamonds with level of incombustible residue 3.4 wt %, e.g. diamond blend, is placed into quartz reactor and subjected to heat treatment at 600-900оС in inert of reductive gas medium for 30 min. When carbon-containing reductive gas medium is used, heat treatment is conducted until mass of powder rises not higher than by 30%. After heat treatment, acid treatment and elevated temperatures is applied. Heat treatment and acid treatment can be repeated several times in alternate mode. Treated powder is washed and dried. Level of incombustible impurities is thus reduced to 0.55-0.81 wt %.

EFFECT: reduced level of incombustible impurities.

4 cl, 3 ex

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