Method for preserving of siberian deer velvet antlers

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, reprocessing, preservation and storage of natural raw material, in particular, Siberian deer velvet antlers.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cyclic thermal processing of antlers in vacuum drier followed by cooling, with drying process being provided in two steps including first step carried out at temperature of 65°C in chamber and vacuum value of 0.094-0.096 MPa for 4 hours, followed by cooling upon expiration of indicated time at temperature of 15-20°C for 12-24 hours, with cycle of operations being repeated until removal of 35-40% of moisture, and second step, wherein temperature in chamber is reduced to 45°C and drying process is continued at the same vacuum parameters for 7 hours, with following carrying out of cooling process under conditions similar to those of the first step, and processing of raw material with the same parameters until normal moisture content is 12-19%. Method allows drying process to be reduced to 6-9 days depending on antler size and weight parameters.

EFFECT: reduced loss of biologically active substances during reprocessing and preservation of antlers, reduced time for drying of basic material and reduced labor intensity.

2 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the primary processing of medicinal and technical raw materials, namely the conservation of non-ossified horns (antlers) reindeer.

A known method of preserving antlers, including heat treatment with subsequent cooling. Moreover, heat treatment is carried out in an atmosphere of steam at the temperature between 35°C to 85°C for 1-1 .5 min and subsequent cooling is carried out at room temperature (15-20° (C) for 2-3 minutes Heat treatment and cooling is carried out repeatedly (USSR author's certificate No. 528915, IPC6A 01 N 1/02, publ. 1976). However, this method provides insufficient preservation of biologically active substances contained in the antlers in their preservation.

There is a method of processing and canning antlers for subsequent separation from him biologically active substances, including cleaning raw antlers from the skin, freezing cleaned antlers at a temperature of (-3)-(-10)°, grinding antlers into pieces of 0.5-1 cm and freeze drying of the material by the standard method. Lyophilized powdered antlers grind to a fine powder (patent RF №2054292, IPC6A 61 K 35/32, publ. 20.02.96 year).

However, this method of processing and canning of antlers has several disadvantages. When cleaning raw antlers on the skin lose part of biologically active substances, contained in the skin. Insufficient frost antlers results when crushing to the coagulation of particles and the formation of large conglomerates, which lengthens the drying process of the material. The standard technique of freeze drying has great energy and insufficient intensity to remove moisture, which increases the drying time.

A known method of preserving reindeer antlers, including drying antlers in three stages with the first stage antlers heated to 68-70°C, dried for 4 hours at a temperature 70-72°and conduct ventilation drying within 48 hours, repeating the cycle from 1 to 3 times. In the second stage the antlers heated to 65°C, drying with hot air is carried out at 65-68°C for 4 h, the ventilation drying is carried out for 48-72 hours In the third stage, carry out the drying in a draft within 4-10 days depending on the size of the antlers (RF patent No. 2034553, IPC661 To 35/32, publ. 10.05.95 year).

However, this canning process antlers also has a long duration (more than 25 days), and in addition, under high temperature lost part of thermo labile biologically active substances.

A known method for continuous drying of food and drugs, including drying of the product in the fluidized layer of air having a temperature of 90-130°and speed is 0.8 to 2.0 m/s to a dry matter content of 75-90 wt.%. The moist product is placed in a vacuum chamber and finally dried at a temperature of 25-45°and a pressure of 1-10 mm Hg to a dry matter content of 98 wt.% (International application PCT (WO) 81/01415, IPC 12 N 1/18, epubl,)

However, this method is unacceptable for conservation of horns, as the final product in the dry form loses under high temperature range of heat-sensitive bioactive substances.

A known method of preserving antlers, including cutting and pre-cleaning of the skin, freezing at -40°and storing, if necessary, at this temperature. Drying antlers carried out at a temperature from -40°C to +45°and a pressure of 0.5 mm Hg to a residual moisture content of 10-11%. The drying process lasts more than 24 hours (copyright certificate №563146, IPC6A 01 N 1/02, publ. 30.06.77 year).

However, this method of preservation and processing of antlers has several disadvantages. When cleaning raw antlers from the skin lose part of biologically active substances contained in the skin. The drying process provides insufficient intensity to remove moisture, which increases the drying time.

There is a method of processing and canning antlers of red deer and Sika deer, including cutting antlers, freezing and storage of this material in a frozen state and its drying in the chamber under vacuum. C is marajuana produced in the environment of liquid nitrogen, before drying, the antlers together with the skin crushed to a particle size of not more than 500 μm, drying in the chamber of the frozen material under vacuum is carried out in a pressure range of 0.1-10.0 mm Hg at a temperature of from (-60) to (+30)°C to a residual moisture content of not more than 5 wt.%, and after drying, the material is further crushed to a particle size of 0.1 to about 30.0 microns. (patent RF №2163438, IPC7A 01 N 1/02, And 23 L 3/00, publ. 27.02.2001,)

The disadvantage of this method is that the antlers are crushed, however, the greatest demand is for the whole antlers.

The closest technical solution is a way of preserving reindeer antlers, patent RU 2034553 AND 61 TO 35/32, publ. 10.05.1995, the Method is a stepwise treatment with hot air at a temperature of 70-72°C for 4 h, and repeat this step 2-3 times. In the next step, drying is carried out at a temperature of 65-68°C for 4 h with preheating of antlers up to 65°C, followed by wind drying within 48-72 hours This step is repeated up to 10 times depending on the size of antlers. At the third stage, the antler is dried in a draft 4-10 days.

The disadvantage of this method is the length of the canning process (30 days). Accommodation antlers with an inclination of 15° top up with no further leads, turning over during a heat drying to Vatican the Yu blood through the butt portion of antlers, that, in turn, leads to the clarification of individual sections of antlers and, as consequence, to decrease in the content of biologically active substances. It should also be borne in mind that when adverse weather conditions (rain, lowering the ambient temperature is below 15°and so on) when wind drying this method leads to increased humidity antlers, which, in turn, may cause them to rot and mold processes and as a consequence of the damage.

The aim of the invention is to obtain raw materials with high content of biologically active substances, reducing labor costs, the number of technological operations and time preserving.

The goal, assuming a uniform distribution of blood throughout the body antlers, even the color of the internal structure and the high conservation of biologically active substances that enhance product quality with this method of canning antlers, achieved technological scheme of canning, which consists in drying antlers in a vacuum chamber at a temperature of 65°and the magnitude of the vacuum 0,094-0,096 MPa to loss of 35-40% humidity with decreasing temperature up to 45°and drying to a residual moisture content 12-19%.

The proposed method is as follows.

Example 1. Pre-thawed antlers place is in a vacuum dryer, equipped with a thermostat, electric heating elements, vacuum pump and level sensor vacuum. Antlers are laid in a horizontal position. Then include electric heating elements and a vacuum pump when the temperature is 65°and the magnitude of the vacuum 0,094-0,096 MPa. The drying mode is 4 hours after this time, the heaters turn off and produce cooling at a temperature of 15-20°With in 12-24 hours. The process is repeated to remove 35-40% moisture. Then the temperature of heating is reduced to 45°and dried for 7 h, then the cooling process is repeated in the same way. By reducing the moisture in the product to 12-19% of the curing process is completed. Duration canning is 6-9 days.

Example 2. Canning is carried out analogously to example 1, but the cooling process after the first and second stage cyclic drying is carried out using forced air with a speed of 10-12 m/S.

Organoleptic evaluation of antlers, obtained by canning method proposed by size, color on the cut and morphological characteristics, corresponds to TU-46 RF 001-99-e (table 1).

Comparative analysis of biologically active substances and the level of biological activity of the products obtained by the claimed method and the prototype presented in table 2 and 3.

Application

Feature reindeer antlers, preserved on known and proposed methods

Table 1
Organoleptic evaluation of the antlers of deer, preserved on known and proposed methods
IndicatorsAntlers, preserved by the method prototypeAntlers, canned claimed method
1. The color of the internal structure of antlers on longitudinal and transverse sections.Uneven, brown with a red tint around the antlers and processes, with lots of lightening.Uniform brown with a red tint around the antlers and processes, without clarification.
CAPAHCharacteristic, without discrediting attributes.Characteristic, without discrediting attributes.

<> 0.045
Table 2
The content of mineral substances in the antlers of reindeer, preserved on known and proposed methods (mg%)
IndicatorsPrototype methodThe proposed method
Cobalt<0.01<0.01
Copper0.851.43
Iron51.1089.00
Manganese0.380.39
Magnesium283.10304.90
Nickel0.200.16
Lead0.25025
Zinc46.1047.31
Strontium6.066.92
Bor3.123.11
Cadmium0.0330.023
Beryllium<0.001<0.001
Chrome<0.4<0.4
Selenium0.160.16
Titanium<0.4<0.4
Barium7.198.88
Molybdenum0.045
Sodium983.00989.50
Calcium14787.5017794.50
Silicon30.4528.70

Table 3
Characterization of the extracts obtained from reindeer antlers, preserved on known and proposed methods
No.IndicatorsPrototype methodThe proposed method
1Fractional composition of lipids:
Total lipids, g/l0.541.10
Cholesterol, mmol/l0.400.50
Triglycerides, mmol/l0.220.86
2Hormones:
Estradiol, PG/ml30614300
FSH, IU/ml0.110.21
Thyrostimulin, IU/ml0.1030.158
Thyroxine, nmol/l24.3524.49
Free thyroxine, pmol/l12.4917.00
Testosterone, ng/ml22.8423.02
Progesterone, ng/ml3.028.69
3Biological activity according to the standard FS 42-2323-85, %27,031.0

1. Method of preserving reindeer antlers, including cyclic heat treatment of antlers in a vacuum dryer, followed by cooling, wherein the drying is carried out in two stages, the first stage at a temperature in the chamber 65°and the magnitude of the vacuum 0,094-0,096 MPa for 4 h, after this time produce cooling at a temperature of 15-20°C for 12-24 h, and the cyclical nature of this process can be repeated to remove 35-40% moisture, and at the second stage the temperature in the chamber is reduced to 45° and under the same parameters of vacuum continue drying for 7 h, after which the cooling process is similar to the first stage, and at these settings, the raw material is adjusted to standard moisture 12-19%, thereby reducing the drying process to 6-9 days depending on the size and weight of antlers.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that th is process cooling antlers after the first and second stages of the flame drying is carried out using forced air with a speed of 10-12 m/S.



 

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