Method of remote control of pipeline condition in permafrost zone

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises radiolocation interferometric survey from the repeatable orbits of satellites when the distance between the trajectories of the satellite (interferometric base) is no more than 500 m. For each element of the radiolocation image obtained at different moments of time the phase difference of signals is determined which contains information on the movement of the reflecting surfaces and relief. The topographic phase difference caused by the relief is then calculated from the model of relief and survey geometry. The phase difference indicates the dynamic phase difference during the interval between the surveys for the given pair of phase differences. The vertical component of movements of the reflecting surface is then calculated during the time interval between the surveys of the pipeline on the ground surface from the formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

 

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry and can be used for remote monitoring of structures of gas and oil pipelines, located in a seismically unstable area or in the zone of permafrost, unstable soil, landslides, wetlands, bottom of rivers and seas and other

Use of modern pipelines involves periodic inspection in order to detect violations of the integrity of the pipes, occurring, for example, due to the deformations caused by the movement of the soil when it is freezing and thawing.

There is a method of remote detection of heat leaks from underground pipelines (ed. mon. USSR N 1434212, CL F 17 D 5/02, 1988). The method includes aerial thermal field of the route of the pipeline, fixing the location of local areas with high temperature and ground temperature measurement reference sections of the route. The accuracy of determining the location of the leak with this method of diagnosis is quite high, as the temperature rise of the earth's surface goes directly into the damaged pipe. However, this method is applicable only to find defects in pipelines used for transporting hot environment, such as fluid in the heat pipes, and does not allow to detect leakage of the transported liquid and gaseous at the of leogardo, if their temperature slightly above or close to ambient temperature. In addition, this method involves conducting surface thermometry.

These disadvantages are partially deprived selected as a prototype method for remote detection of leaks in the pipeline (ed. mon. USSR N 1800219, CL F 17 D 5/02, 1993). This method includes aerial thermal field of the route, the determination of threshold values of brightness, location of local areas with low temperature fixing brightness values of thermal field of local areas.

How well it solves the problem of detecting leaks in a pipeline for transportation of the pipe liquefied gases, when the liquefied gas is under a pressure of several tens of atmospheres, which saved in the liquid phase. In case of a leak from a pipe in the environment (in the area of low pressure) is the transition process liquefied natural gas from the liquid phase into the gaseous accompanied by lowering of the gas temperature and the environment in the place of the leak. Therefore, the search for leakage of liquefied gas is carried out through the analysis of areas with lower temperature. As the depth of the pipe in the ground along the pipeline route does not exceed a few diameters of the pipes, the cooling zone is localized on the surface of the track on a plot size is, approximately equal to the depth of the pipe that conveys a sufficiently high accuracy of determining the location of the leak. To detect leakage of liquefied natural gas from the pipeline it is necessary to heat the contrast of the local terrain, caused by cooling of the soil in the place of diversion, superior thermal contrasts natural backgrounds.

However, this method does not allow to detect with sufficient reliability, the fact of damage or deformation of pipelines transporting hydrocarbons that are in a natural state in the liquid phase, such as oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, etc., especially when, for example, the temperature of the oil transported through the pipe, close to the ambient temperature and is pumping technologies only +17°C. Therefore, thermal contrasts (anomalies) will have little value and be difficult to distinguish against the background natural background inhomogeneities, the magnitude and distribution of which depends on the state of soil cover on the track, weather, seasonal, geographical and other conditions.

The present invention is the remote detection places a strain on the pipeline that will prevent further destruction of the pipeline and leakage transported by pipeline is Reda.

This problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of remote monitoring of pipelines in permafrost regions, namely, that conduct remote sensing of the route the route of the pipeline from the flying object, while remote sensing of the route where the pipeline is carried out by conducting radar interferometric survey with repeated orbits of spacecraft, when the distance between the trajectories of the spacecraft (interferometric base) is not more than 500 m, while in the beginning for each of the elements of the radar images obtained at different points in time, determine a phase difference signals Δf, containing information about the movements the reflective surface and the terrain, then according to the model topography and the geometry of the shooting calculate the topographic phase difference Δftopogenerated terrain, and the difference of these phases determine the dynamic phase difference Δfdynfor the time between shooting this couple: Δfdyn=Δf-Δftopo, and then calculate the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface during the time between the filming of the pipeline on the surface of the earth, heavier structures together with the pipeline or lying on the pipeline of ground on clubusacasino:

where λ - wavelength signal, α - the angle of incidence of the radio waves to remove surface Δtvert- the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface relative to the surface of the earth during the time between filming.

As shown by the analysis, the use of satellites for remote condition monitoring of gas or oil pipeline allows to detect the displacement of pipelines and to plan measures to prevent its destruction. This is especially true for areas of permafrost. Obtained during the interferometric survey the difference between the initial phases of the reflected signals carries information about the surface topography and small-scale displacement of the reflective surface. Given the latter, allows reliable detection of areas where the deformation of the pipeline. The most promising is the method of sensing the route of the pipeline route with a flying object, namely radar interferometric survey with repeated orbits of the spacecraft, which is conducted joint treatment sessions, surveys conducted over the same area, and the distance between the traces of the spacecraft is synthesized base of the interferometer. The period at which the measure length between spacecraft trajectories (interferometric base) up to several hundred meters, is called the repetition period of the orbit. For operating modern space systems, this interval is within 35-45 days. The study was processed many pairs of radar images, allowing you to get a map of the elevation of the study area location and to detect displacement of the underlying surface in the shooting area. During the research it was decided to separate the influence of topography and surface displacements during the time between shots, which consists in the fact that the joint processing of three or more sessions of shooting with repetitive trajectories allows to disentangle the effects of elevation and displacement of the surface during the time between filming. Forming two independent interferometric pairs, we can solve the problem with two unknowns - the topography and dynamics of the reflective surface. In the course of the study it is shown that the analysis of data received from the spacecraft (or spacecraft) interferogram allows you to detect processes of subsidence of the pipeline due to thawing of the soil under the pipe or the upwelling of the pipe due to frost heaving or more. The change in the phase difference, for example, in the area of extensive wetlands, may indicate small-scale surface displacement of wetlands during the summer period of operation of the pipeline as a result of loss of flood water. The square is covered in one image, is several thousand km2and because it is practically possible to control the area, for example, the whole of Western Siberia. The considered method allows you to create backups on the time of year and for years to analyze the condition of the pipelines, dikes strip construction for almost the entire life of the pipeline.

The described method is implemented as follows.

Conduct remote sensing of the route the route of the pipeline, which is carried out by conducting radar interferometric survey with repeated orbits of spacecraft, when the distance between the trajectories of the spacecraft (interferometric base) is not more than 500 meters. First, for each of the elements of the radar images obtained at different points in time, determine a phase difference signals Δf, containing information about the movement of the reflective surface and the terrain. Then according to the model topography and the geometry of the shooting calculate the topographic phase difference Δftopogenerated terrain, and the difference of these phases determine the dynamic phase difference Δfdynfor the time between shooting this couple: Δfdyn=Δf-Δftopo, and then calculate the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface at the time the I between the filming of the pipeline on the surface of the earth, weighting structures together with the pipeline or lying on the pipeline of soil according to the following dependence:

where λ - wavelength signal, α - the angle of incidence of the radio waves to remove surface Δrvert- the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface relative to the surface of the earth during the time between filming.

Thus, interferometric methods radar imagery using schema observations with duplicate orbits allow us to detect small-scale displacement of the surface during the time between filming in place pipelining. Measurement of displacements of pipelines in the vertical plane may spend up to fractions of a wavelength of the signal.

Measuring the phase difference between the elements of two images of the filming may be held in a range from a minimum repetition period of the orbit in one day (as it was implemented in tandem with the shooting of two spacecraft ERS-1 and ERS-2) up to 10 years. Increasing the time interval between observations increases the amplitude of the effect, however, leads to an increase in the temporal decorrelation of reflections up to a complete loss of signal.

The present invention may find application in gas and oil industry, as well as some other the branches, where it is necessary to monitor the status of extended objects in hard to reach locations, in particular in the permafrost of Siberia.

The method of remote monitoring of pipeline in permafrost regions, namely, that conduct remote sensing of the route the route of the pipeline from the flying object, wherein the remote sensing of the route where the pipeline is carried out by conducting radar interferometric survey with repeated orbits of spacecraft, when the distance between the trajectories of the spacecraft (interferometric base) is not more than 500 m, while in the beginning for each of the elements of the radar images obtained at different points in time, determine a phase difference signals Δf, containing information about the movement of the reflective surface and the relief, then, according to the model topography and the geometry of the shooting, calculate the topographic phase difference Δftopogenerated terrain, and the difference of these phases determine the dynamic phase difference Δfdynduring the time between the filming of this pair: Δdyn=Δf-Δftoro, and then calculate the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface during the time between the filming of the pipeline on top of the spine of the earth and heavy structures together with the pipeline or lying on the pipeline of soil according to the following dependence:

where λ-wavelength signalαis the incidence angle of radio waves to remove surface Δrvert-the vertical component of movement of the reflective surface relative to the surface of the earth during the time between filming.



 

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