Method for making armor sheets and plates of aluminium base alloys and article of such sheets and plates

FIELD: rolling processes and equipment, namely manufacture of armor sheets and plates of aluminum base alloys used in aircraft- and ship manufacture, for making armored transport vehicles and so on.

SUBSTANCE: method for making armor sheets and plates of aluminum base Al-Mg-Mn alloys with Mg content no less than 4 mass % comprises steps of hot rolling of ingot to plate and finish rolling of it; performing as finish rolling warm rolling at temperature 80 - 300°C with total deformation degree no less than 60%; preferably realizing warm rolling at temperature 250 - 290°C with total deformation degree 65 - 80%. Invention provides ballistic protection degree 738 - 742 m/s for plates with thickness 38.0 -38.2 mm at firing on with armor-piercing shells 7.62.

EFFECT: improved resistance against ballistic action due to constant strength and ductility values at high corrosion resistance, good welding capability and small mass.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, namely rolling production, and can be used in the manufacture of armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminum used in aircraft and shipbuilding, production of armored ground vehicles and other objects of civil and special purpose.

Armor plates and plates should have an optimum combination of certain properties, namely to have increased strength and plastic characteristics, to have a viscous structure of the metal sufficient to provide the desired ballistic protection level.

It is also important to the stability of these properties over time.

It should be noted that the armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminum are not only used where resistance to ballistic impact, but also in cases where important factors are weight reduction, high corrosion resistance, weldability.

The greatest application in the manufacture of armor plates and plates of aluminum alloys of two systems: Al-Zn-Mg (Vielen, Who, Ahmaric. Structure and properties of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg. M.: metallurgy, 1982, s) and Al-Mg-Mn (Aluminum. Properties and physical metallurgy. Edited Cehat, M.: metallurgy, 1989, s).

As practice shows, armor plates and plates of systems aluminum alloys mentioned above have inherent flaws and virtues.

Thus, with the use of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg for the manufacture of armor plates and plates of known faults and reasons for, their cause, namely, the relatively high density and relatively high cost, due to its relatively high content of zinc, the technology of production of these sheets and plates contains additional operations - quenching and aging, including finished products, increased strength and reduced ductility of the alloys of this system leads to a relatively low resistance of the plates to impact fragmentation rounds (characterized by a blunt impact to the end), and consequently the presence of metal fragments inside moreover, when through the piercing plate armor-piercing projectile (characterized by a sharp shock end) there is a coloring of the core of the projectile portions of the high content of zinc adversely affect its corrosion resistance (Vielen, Who, Ahmaric. Structure and properties of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg. M.: metallurgy, 1982, s), the difference of the mechanical properties of the weld, heat affected zone and base metal results in lower resistance weld ballistic is impact and corrosion (Lphmodule. Structure and properties of aluminum alloys. M.: metallurgy, 1979, s). Moreover, armor plates and plates of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg rarely used as homogeneous armor, and is most often included as one of the layers in the composition of complex, multi-layered armor system (patent RF №2071025, MPK F 41 H 5/04, RF patent №2102241, MPK 32 IN 15/20). Data generation armored systems is time-consuming and extremely expensive process.

The advantage of the alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg, used for the manufacture of armor plates and slabs, is the increased resistance of the sheets and plates of ballistic impact armor-piercing shells due to higher strength characteristics.

Thus, armor plates and plates of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg are characterized by reduced performance due to increased weight, poor weldability and low quality of the weld, the increased complexity of manufacture and high cost, and in General favorable ballistic armor plates and plates shown in ballistic impact armor-piercing shells, seriously deteriorate in time due to the reduction of their corrosion resistance.

Armor plates and plates of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn free from the disadvantages inherent in the armor sheets and plates of alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg. They have the improved operational performance, namely, low-weight, high weldability and quality of the weld, high corrosion resistance, easy fabrication and low cost, due to the relatively high plasticity demonstrate satisfactory ballistic characteristics when exposed to shrapnel shells are used as homogeneous armor.

However, have relatively low resistances ballistic impact armor-piercing shells because of the reduced strength.

Taking into consideration the above, we believe that the most promising for the manufacture of armor plates and plates with enhanced ballistic performance are aluminum alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn.

As practice shows, the most high ballistic performance while retaining all the advantages that characterize the alloys of this system, have sheets and plates of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%.

The closest way to the same destination to the claimed invention, the set of essential characteristics is a method of making armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, includes hot rolling the ingot to slab the final rolling (U.S. patent No. 4469537, MPC WITH 22 21/06).

The disadvantages of this method of manufacture of armor plates and slabs, taken as a prototype, is getting the armor plates and plates with low ballistic and performance, the high complexity of their manufacture.

The reasons for the occurrence of the above deficiencies, include the fact that as the final rolling cold rolling with degrees of deformation 19%, 23%, 26 to 30%, which does not allow to achieve the required strength and plastic characteristics, the optimal structure of metal armor plates and slabs, which are critical to the resilience of the sheets and plates of ballistic impact of different types of shells. The application of cold rolling is not possible to provide a stable mechanical properties of the alloy due to the significant weakening of the alloy in time at normal temperature and low-temperature heating, resulting in reduced resistance to ballistic impact. The plates of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn with the content of Mg is more than 4 wt.%, obtained by known techniques, decreases the corrosion resistance and intergranular corrosion in time.

In addition, cold rolling leads to increased cracking of the side edges of the plates, which subsequently requires milling, is also accompanied by disclosure of the ends of the plates on each pass what complicates the process.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to create a technology armor plates and plates of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, free from the disadvantages listed above and inherent in the known technical solutions, which combines the best ballistic performance and operational characteristics armor plates and plates made of aluminum alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn and Al-Zn-Mg. Technical result achieved when using the present invention is to obtain armor plates and plates with increased resistance to ballistic impact of various types of shells due to achieve continuous time optimal strength properties and the ductility characteristics of the optimal structure of the metal, and who would possess such properties, good weldability, high corrosion resistance and light weight.

Tasked with achieving the mentioned technical result is solved in that in the known method of manufacture of armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, includes hot rolling the ingot to slab and final rolling, the feature of zakluchaetsa, as a final rolling is used warm rolling, which is carried out at a temperature of 80-300°with a total degree of deformation of at least 60%.

The analysis showed that required by the above combination of properties and the most viscous structure will have armor plates and plates with precrystallization structure, with an optimal grain size and a distinct texture deformation.

During warm rolling the alloys used for the manufacture of armor plates and slabs, simultaneously occurring processes of plastic deformation and dynamic polygonization.

During warm rolling (deformation Resistance and ductility of aluminum alloys. The Miklyaev L.G., Dudenko V.M. M.: metallurgy, 1979, p.15)conducted at temperatures below the temperatures at the beginning of recrystallization (hot rolling) and higher temperatures cold rolling, the deformation of subgrains - directional sliding metal layers relative to each other to maintain texture deformation obtained after hot rolling. Plastic deformation is carried out by gradual distribution of shear on the slip planes, which can be regarded as a movement of the linear lattice defects - dislocations. Along with the movement of existing dislocations occurs n the continuous generation of new, at the same time an increasing proportion of old dislocations becomes stationary. This leads to a sharp increase in the dislocation density, the increase in internal stress in the crystal lattice. It is the increase in the dislocation density and is the main cause of structural hardening, leading to increased strength (characterized by the rate - tensile strength, σin, MPa).

Occurs when warm rolling processes dynamic polygonization cause poorly designed and washed in hot deformation of cells grains are completely surrounded by boundaries that surround the walls of the cells become more narrow, flat, body cells more cleansed from dislocations and the cells gradually turn into a well-designed subzero, resulting in precrystallization patterns and improve plastic properties (characterized by the indices - yield strength, σof 0.2, MPa, elongation δ, %).

Thus, the parallel running during warm rolling processes of plastic deformation and dynamic polygonization lead to increased strength and plastic properties of the armor plate and forming a viscous metal structure, thereby increasing the resistance of the plates ballistic effects of different types of shells. In addition, the floor is an increase precrystallization metal structure in armored plates and sheets ensures consistency achieved mechanical characteristics over time.

To achieve the above-mentioned technical result is enough to hold warm rolling at temperatures 80-300°but for more reliable achievement of objectives is preferred interval 250-290°C.

Although the above temperature range warm rolling is important to achieve the objectives of the present invention, it is also important to achieve a warm rolling to a sufficiently high total degree of deformation, at least 60%.

It is established that the preferred spacing of the total degree of deformation in order to secure the achievement of these goals will be 65-80%.

These intervals of temperature and degree of deformation guarantee achieving the required levels of mechanical properties of armor plates and slabs, namely achieving their optimal combination (tensile strength - σinyield strength - σof 0.2, elongation - δ) and, as a consequence, their high ballistic performance.

The combination in the process of making armor plates and plates of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, the above temperature and degree of deformation allows to achieve optimum strength and plastic characteristics of the desired metal structure and, as a consequence, high ballistic properties.

In addition, the chemical composition of the alloys and technology the Oia making armor plates and plates guarantee the consistency of the obtained properties in time, high corrosion resistance and weldability, and low weight products.

Of armor plates and plates made by the proposed method can be obtained in various products, such as panels for covering the wings and fuselage of the aircraft, buildings helicopters, tanks, hull structures light vessels (hydrofoils, air cushions and so on) and their superstructures, hulls of vehicles and other

In the proposed product made of armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the Mg content is not less than 4 wt.%, the technical result is achieved by the fact that the armor plates and plates made by the method comprising hot rolling the ingot to slab and final warm rolling.

The invention is illustrated in the diagram, figure 1-3 shows the dependence of the properties of armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, for different temperatures and degrees of deformation.

The importance of technology armour sheets and plates, namely temperature deformation and deformation during warm rolling is illustrated in the diagram, which shows the increase in strength and plastic characteristics of the armor plates and plates that have a direct relation to the increase of the level of ballistic the protection for different types of shells. This increase can be achieved by using in the final process after hot rolling rolling with higher temperatures than traditional temperature cold rolling, and at the same time lower than the temperature of the beginning of recrystallization of the alloy (temperature of hot rolling), namely 80-300°and the use of high degrees of deformation, namely not less than 60%.

These data represent a comparison of examples of two ways to get armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the Mg content in them is not less than 4 wt.%: method 1 - method of obtaining armor plates and plates for U.S. patent No. 4469537, method 2 is the method of obtaining the armor plates and plates in accordance with the present invention.

The implementation of the method and examples

The sequence of technological operations and their modes are given in table 1.

As an alloy based on aluminum system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, used for the manufacture of armor plate, was selected alloy 5083 (designation of the alloy is in accordance with the numbers of alloys and meets the definitions registered with the Aluminum Association, Washington, United States).

Casting and rolling was carried out on industrial equipment that is manufactured on an industrial scale alloys on the authorized system.

This alloy was cast into ingots, subjected to homogenization and hot rolling in the modes listed in table 1. Further, one of the plates was subjected to cold rolling with traditional temperature with degrees of deformation 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 32, 5%, another plate was subjected to warm rolling in the temperature range 250-290°With degrees of deformation 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%. Plate in both cases were subjected to analysis to determine the mechanical properties of the plates to obtain comparative data on the chart. From these data it is seen that holding a warm rolling temperature 250-290°and With high degrees of deformation 65-80% has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the armor plates and plates and thereby on the General properties of resistance to ballistic impact.

Cold rolling hot rolled plate method 1 was accompanied by a significant, including the length of the plate, the disclosure of both ends in each iteration, leading to an increase of the rolling cycle and a significant reduction in yield. The maximum reduction per pass in cold rolling does not exceed 5 mm, and when a significant total deformation within 26-32% there is a strong possibility of internal damage in the center of the plate thickness.

Samples from plates obtained is by the above methods, were tested ballistic properties according to the method similar to the method described in U.S. standard: MIL-A-46027H (MR) (a copy of the standard can be obtained in the order Department of standardized documents to: Standartization Documents Order Desk, Bldg.4D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, approved for use without any restrictions).

Ballistic properties of the plates were determined by shelling plates 7.62 mm round (armor piercing) and shells of caliber 30 mm (high).

Before the test armour plates have undergone thermal processing at a temperature of 14°With a duration of at least 8 hours.

Plates were installed at a distance of 58 metres at an angle of deviation 0°. For examinees bronwyne plates parallel to them at a distance of 15 cm were installed sheets"witnesses" of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 thickness of 0.5 mm, Determine the ballistic limit protection consisted of an equal number of scoring strokes projectiles at speeds of full and partial penetration. Under the credit impact refers to the impact, which occurred the defeat of the test sheet shell under normal flight conditions and separated from another strike or away from edges, holes, cracks or other undamaged zones have a length of not less than two calibers. Under full penetration means the breaking, the ri which a projectile or one or more fragments of the projectile or of the sheet passes beyond the reverse side of the test sheet and punch list"witness". Under partial penetration refers to the strike, which occurred the defeat of the test sheet (breakout, the output of the core of the projectile from the plate, having bruised on the inside, cracks etc), but not related to a complete crash.

All the ballistic limits of protection was calculated based on the highest speed of the projectile for partial penetration and the lowest rate of the projectile for full penetration. Firing continued until it was made of ballistic protection limit of four series of shots with a maximum spacing speed of 18.3 m/s, or ballistic protection limit in six series of shots with a maximum spacing speed 27,4 m/sec. Under a spacing refers to the difference between the highest speed of the projectile in case of partial penetration and the lowest speed of the projectile at full penetration.

Bullet speed selected by the change in weight of the sample powder. The velocity measured by the station "Ray-81".

The results of the mechanical and ballistic testing of armor plates are presented in table 2.

The data in table 2 show the improved ballistic properties of the armor plates (resulting in increased need to defeat armor plates speed projectiles), the improvement which is achieved by increasing the strength and plastics the properties of the plates, increasing the viscosity of the metal structure.

Thus, the use of the proposed method will allow you to get armor plates, plates and products with improved ballistic properties when exposed to different types of shells, high corrosion resistance and weldability, low weight while reducing the complexity and increasing the efficiency of the process.

/tr>
Table 2
Alloy 5083Thickness, mmMechanical propertiesBallistic protection level, m/s
σin, MPaσof 0.2, MPaδ, %7.62 mm armor-piercing30 mm high
Manufactured by a method according to U.S. patent No. 446953738,13702558718732
38,03722529714729
38,03732558716728
of 37.93682548712726
38,13692578719734
Manufactured by the method according to the invention38,040629015738751
38,140829315740755
38,240929315742760
38,040428615739752
38,040729015740750

1. The method of manufacture of armor plates and plates of alloys based on aluminium system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, includes hot rolling the ingot to slab and final rolling, characterized in that as the final rolling use warm rolling, which is carried out at a temperature of 80-300°with a total degree of deformation of at least 60%.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the warm rolling is carried out at a temperature of 250-290°S .

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the warm rolling is carried out with a total degree of deformation of 65-80% .

4. The product of armor plates and plates of alloys on the base is ve aluminum system Al-Mg-Mn when the content of Mg is not less than 4 wt.%, characterized in that it is made of armor plates and plates manufactured by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 3.



 

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