Device for x-ray beam shaping and device for crystal bending

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of x-ray diffraction and rentgenotopograficheskaya non-destructive methods of investigating the structure and quality control of materials and is intended for shaping the x-ray beam, in particular beam of synchrotron radiation (SR), using crystal monochromators.

Known double-crystal monochromator (A.Darovsky, I.Meshkovsky, P.Coppens // Rev.Sci.Instrum. 1995. V.66. No. 2. R - 2087), which provides for the possibility of rotation of the monochromator as a whole to change the Bragg angle in the range of 3.5-23°. The constancy of the spatial position of the generated beam by automatically changing the vertical distance between the crystals. The energy range of the formed beam: 3-31 Kev.

Known also double crystal monochromator (D.M. Mills, M.T.King // Nucl.Instrum.Methods. 1983. V.208. R-347), in which the first crystal has a possibility of rotation around the axis, spaced from the direction of the primary beam C at a distance h/2 (h - distance between the axes of crystals vertically) and the linear displacement along the normal to the reflecting planes. The second crystal has the ability to move along the direction of the beam reflected by the first crystal. For Si(III) energy range of the beam: 3.5 to 21 Kev.

As a prototype of the selected device for forming x-ray beam (Nggablog, Vijendra the EB, VMotion, Masherov, Aienaou, Ilagin, Bpollock, Marshrutochnikov, Anestacon // proceedings of the XIV Russian conference on synchrotron radiation (SR-2002), Novosibirsk, 15-19 July 2002, S)containing two crystal monochromator in the dispersionless scheme diffraction can move one of them in the direction of the primary x-ray beam and rotation of crystal monochromators for the implementation of coherent Bragg diffraction. The movement of the first crystal, in which direct synchrotron beam (and the whole site of the first crystal), is the horizontal movement through the bellows with the rod. Change the height of the beam, defined by the vertical position of the second crystal is 40 mm energy Range when working with crystals Si (III) is 5 to 19 Kev. The axis of rotation of the second crystal is fixed, and the rotation of the crystal consists of two parts: the first part is relatively quick turn with my arm resting on the roller, the exact adjustment of the rotation of the crystal is provided with a mechanism that uses intense wave transmission, high transmission efficiency, which changes the angle between the lever and the plane of the crystal. A similar site fine-tune features and on the axis of the first crystal, but it is only used to before kiteley settings of the monochromator, required after replacing the crystals.

This design is double-crystal monochromator allows you to do a minimum of adjustments in his work. The optimal choice of the design parameters (the position of the rollers and levers) can reduce the change in the position (height) of the output beam over the operating range of the energy to a sufficiently low level to 10 microns.

However, such design of the monochromator is quite cumbersome and does not provide the width of the energy range generated x-ray beam, necessary for solving a class of problems in structural characterization of condensed matter.

Formed in sequential dispersionless diffraction on two flat crystals-beam monochromators has a very small angular divergence (of the order of a few arc seconds). The density of the x-ray flux of gamma rays is defined as the ratio of the integral intensity of the beam and its cross-section. For a number of x-ray techniques, it requires a radical increase achievable with the beam focusing. To focus the beam in the double-crystal monochromator can be provided by replacing the holder of the second crystal of the monochromator on the bending device in the sagittal plane (i.e. in the plane normal to the plane of di is rakli).

A device for bending of the crystal (J.C.Haselgrove, A.R.Faruqi, H.E.Huxsley, U.V.Arndt// J.Physics E. 1977. V.10. P.1035-1044), containing two fixed and two movable cylindrical rod, between which the terminal portion bent crystal axes are displaced relative to each other. The first pair of rods lying flat on the table, through which by means of the transfer mechanism transfers the bending effort on both ends of the crystal. However, this design does not guarantee strict parallelism of all terminals that can lead to non-uniform bending of the focusing crystal.

The objective of the invention is a device for forming x-ray beam, in which the design of the monochromator is more compact and provides the width of the energy range of the x-ray beam, necessary for solving problems in structural characterization of condensed matter, while maintaining its spatial position, and devices for bending of the crystal, in which the device is designed to achieve uniform distribution of bending forces and to avoid non-uniform deformation of the focusing crystal.

The problem is solved in that the device for forming x-ray beam containing two crystal monochromator in the dispersionless and therefore the e diffraction can move one of them in the direction of the primary x-ray beam and rotation of crystal monochromators for the implementation of coherent Bragg diffraction, the first crystal of the monochromator is mounted for movement along the primary beam with fixation in two discrete positions, and the second crystal of the monochromator has the capability of bending in the sagittal plane, and in the first fixed position of the first crystal of the monochromator is provided to overlap the range of Bragg angles from 3° to 8.25°and the second fixed position - from 8.25° to 80°.

In addition, the problem is solved in that the device for bending of the crystal containing the transfer mechanism, two fixed and two movable cylindrical rod, between which the terminal part of the bent crystal and the axis of which is offset with respect to each other, stationary rods rest on the upper surface of the plane-parallel plate in the region of its ends, the ends of the plate attached to l-shaped brackets, parallel surfaces which are in contact with fixed terminals, and parallel to the surface of the upper ends of the bars are l-shaped brackets are in contact with the moving rod, plate G-shaped arms covered in broken shoulders floating rocker arm installed at the ends of the cylindrical fingers resting on the surface of the movable rods perpendicular thereto, and between the bottom surface is rnostly plate and the middle point of the rocker mechanism is moving.

The invention illustrated by the drawings, in which figure 1 presents a diagram of the device for forming x-ray beam, as in figure 2 - diagram of the device for bending of the crystal.

Apparatus for forming x-ray beam contains the first crystal monochromator 1 and the second crystal of the monochromator 2, installed in the vacuum chamber 3.

The crystal-monochromator 2 is mounted for movement along the direction of the primary beam of radiation at a distance L. the movement of the crystal-monochromator 2 can be implemented by means of a screw pair. The crystal-monochromator 1 is mounted for movement from one fixed position to another corresponding to the transition to the range of the Bragg angle of 8.25-80°. Move the crystal-monochromator 1 can be implemented by means of a screw pair. To implement coherent Bragg diffraction both crystal-monochromator have the ability to rotate through the worm gear or lever torsion mechanism with linear piezo technology. The crystal-monochromator 2 is also the possibility of bending in the sagittal plane, using the device presented in figure 2.

Device for bending of the crystal comprises a cylindrical fingers 4 of the rocker arm, the movable cores 5, l-shaped brackets 6, the stationary rod 7, the bending is th crystal 8, the base plate 9, the floating rocker arm 10, the transfer mechanism, for example, in the form of a screw 11 that is associated with the engine and gearbox (not shown).

Apparatus for forming x-ray beam works as follows. The beam of x-ray (synchrotron) radiation (SR) is directed to the first crystal monochromator 1, located in the first fixed position, which rotates around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane of the drawing, at the Bragg angle corresponding to the selected beam energy. In order beam reflected from the first crystal of the monochromator 1 hit on the second crystal of the monochromator 2, the latest move in the horizontal direction (along the direction of the primary beam) at the required distance and set under the same Bragg angle as the first crystal 1. So, get monochromatizing the beam at the output of the device with energy corresponding to the Bragg angle in the range of 3-8,25°. To go to a softer range of energies, which correspond to the Bragg angles from 8.25 to 80°first crystal monochromator is fixed in the second position (indicated in figure 1 by the dotted line), then the above procedure is repeated.

The bending of the crystal-monochromator 2 is carried out by means of the device shown n the figure 2, as follows.

Screw pair 11, driven in rotation by the motor and supported on the base plate 9, moves equal armed beam 10, having the ability to swing around a hinge located at the end of the screw. Cylindrical fingers 4, attached to the ends of the rocker arm 10, press the movable cores 5 lying on a bent crystal 8 and resting the side surfaces in parallel between a plane of the upper rungs of l-shaped brackets 6. The stationary rod 7, which is bent crystal, base plate 9 and the parallel between a plane of l-shaped brackets 6. The displacement of the movable rod 5 relative to the stationary 7, the curvature clamped between crystal 8 is proportional to the extension screw screw 11.

This design of the device for bending allows to achieve uniform distribution of bending forces and to avoid deformations associated with uneven thickness and rigidity of the crystal, since the bending force generated by the coil pair 11, evenly distributed between mobile terminals 5 and between the ends of each of the rolling rod.

1. Apparatus for forming x-ray beam containing two crystal monochromator in the dispersionless scheme diffraction, the possibility is using move one of them in the direction of the primary x-ray beam and rotation of crystal monochromators for the implementation of coherent Bragg diffraction, wherein the first crystal monochromator is mounted for movement along the primary beam with fixation in two discrete positions, and the second crystal of the monochromator has the capability of bending in the sagittal plane, and in the first fixed position of the first crystal of the monochromator is provided to overlap the range of Bragg angles from 3 to 8.25°and the second fixed position from 8.25 to 80°.

2. Device for bending of the crystal containing the transfer mechanism, two fixed and two movable cylindrical rod, between which the terminal part of the bent crystal and the axis of which is offset with respect to each other, characterized in that the stationary rods rest on the upper surface of the plane-parallel plate in the region of its ends, the ends of the plate attached to l-shaped brackets, parallel surfaces which are in contact with fixed terminals, and parallel to the surface of the upper ends of the bars are l-shaped brackets are in contact with the moving rod, plate G-shaped arms covered in broken shoulders floating rocker mounted with its ends cylindrical fingers, based on the surface of the movable rods perpendicular thereto, and between the lower surface layer of the active and the middle point of the rocker mechanism is moving.



 

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