Heat supply method and device

FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of heat supply which is based upon sequent transporting of two chemical reaction hidden heat matters-carriers to consumer, heat extraction for consuming by means of direct exoergic chemical reaction of transformation of those matters to single matter-product of direct reaction, transportation of the matter to primary heat energy primary source and its reverse transformation to two initial matters by means of reverse endoergic reaction to accumulate primary heat source heat chemical form. As matters-carriers of hidden heat of chemical reaction gaseous or liquid chemisorbent - carbon dioxide and solution of at least one chemisorbent in water or in organic solvent, for example, monoethanoamine that has content of chemisorbent lower than 60%. Physical heat whish is rest after transmission which heat achieved as result of direct reaction of chemical adsorption product is partially or totally recuperated due to performing heat exchange between the matter and chemosorbent and chemosorbent solution which center for direct reaction. Physical heat of chemosorbent and chemosorbent solution restored during reverse reaction is partially or totally recuperated due to carrying heat exchange out between them and product of chemical adsorption entering for reverse reaction.

EFFECT: savings of heat energy; reduced amount of heat of primary source.

10 cl, 1 ex, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system and are intended for use in heating systems of residential, public and industrial buildings and structures.

The traditional method of heating [1], in which the primary source of heat transfer to the coolant is water, then the heat transfer medium is transported by the feed (so-called direct) pipeline to the consumer and after the transfer of heat to the consumer return the spent coolant in the so-called return lines to the primary heat source.

Known conventional device for implementing this method - heating system, comprising a primary heat source (heat generating device, thermal network and equipment of heat supply (LAN heat consumption) [1].

These method and device for its implementation have one common drawback is the low efficiency of utilization of thermal energy of the primary heat source.

Closest to the claimed invention related to a method of heating method is based on the use of chemical bond energies (latent heat) reversible chemothermal reactions [2]. In this way repeatedly carrying out the process includes sequentially transportation (supply) to the consumer two substances nose and the indicators of the latent heat of chemical reactions (chemical heat), heat for consumption by conducting direct exothermic chemical reaction conversion of these substances into one substance, transportation (removal) of the substance to the primary source of thermal energy and its reverse transformation by carrying out the reverse endothermic chemical reaction in two original substances accumulating in them in chemical form (in the form of latent heat of a chemical reaction) heat the primary heat source.

In contrast to the traditional, the Foundation of this method is based on the principle of reversible transformation of thermal energy the primary source of physical heat in the chemical form of the chemical in the heat (the consumer). Essentially, here instead of the traditional one-component media physical heat (coolant) are dealing with a two-component medium consisting of two separate substances, carriers of the latent heat of chemical reaction (accumulated heat in chemical form)whose interaction leads to the release of thermal energy in physical form, and get out of these two substances is the product of an exothermic reaction. The transportation of heat to the consumer in the chemical form has an obvious advantage over the above-described conventional heat transportation in physical form. This allows using the substances-carriers with large specific parameters of heat transfer, for example, the volumetric energy density of the media, which, accordingly, provides a reduction in the number of substances for transferring the unit of thermal energy compared with traditional heat transfer system under equal conditions.

However, this method has some weaknesses associated with the type of the used substances, the conditions under which direct and reverse reactions, and the specific applications in heating systems. Proposed in this way reversible chemothermal reaction conversion and synthesis of methane and other alternative reaction analogs feasible only at relatively high temperatures (the temperature of the coolant in the primary heat source from 700 to 1200 K), which is considerably higher than the temperature of the working bodies of the primary sources of thermal energy existing heating systems. Thus, the practical application of this method requires substantial upgrading of these systems.

Using this method not only requires a powerful primary source of heat, but also adds a large number of physical heat in a substance-carriers of latent heat of chemical reaction and, consequently, to a significant heat loss to the environment during transportation of these substances.

In addition, many of the responses under the different chemothermal methods are carried out in the reactor in the presence of catalysts, which have high cost and short period of service and products offered reactions or toxic (for example: CO, CH4, Cl2H2SO4), or vysokoreaktsionnye or fire and explosive (WITH N2CH4). A number of such products causes severe corrosion of metals (e.g., N2SO4), the fragility of welds (e.g., N2) and other phenomena that complicate the operation of heating systems. Therefore, it is suggested in the way of substance-carriers of latent heat of chemical reaction, from the viewpoint of practical application, security, environment (especially in emergency situations) and economic feasibility, not suitable for operation in the existing heat supply systems of housing and communal services (HCS).

Closest to the claimed device for implementing the method is the heating system described in [3] (the prototype device). The system includes a primary heat source, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or boiler, with the device selection of thermal energy, at least one heater with a heat exchange device for a heat systems, such as heating and hot water supply, and the system forward and reverse conveying fluid between the primary heat source and a heat paragraph.

This device relates to traditional heating systems and has respective drawbacks. These include: a high level of heat losses in heat networks during transportation of the carrier, in spite of costly thermal insulation of pipes and heat networks in General; low efficiency of use by a consumer of thermal energy generated in the primary source and transmitted through heat networks; complex with disabilities regulation of transmitted heat capacity at the change of ambient temperature and thermal loads, modifying as bulk parameters of the heat carrier (water or steam)and thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure), the shortcomings of which becomes apparent when necessary compensate for peak thermal loads and in emergency situations.

The proposed invention solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of thermal energy in the heat.

The technical result that can be obtained by implementation of the proposed invention is the saving of thermal energy (fuel consumption), which can result in reduction of heat consumption of the primary source, while maintaining the amount of heat transferred to the consumer, or in which velichanii amount of heat, passed to the consumer, while maintaining heat consumption of the primary source. In addition, specific forms of implementation of the proposed method and device provide several technical results, further extend the functionality of the proposed heating system. These include: reduction of requirements to the level of insulation of thermal networks, including the possibility of a ground strip is non-insulated pipes for conveying fluids and their return to the primary source; the possibility of accumulation of thermal energy; providing regulation of the transferred heat power only due to the cost changes of the coolant; the possibility of using low-grade primary sources of thermal energy for heating with a normative level of coolant parameters in the local systems of consumption; the development of combined systems supply the coolant to consumers, including remote from the heating systems.

To obtain these technical results in the way of heat, which repeatedly carrying out the process includes sequentially transportation to the consumer two substances-media latent heat of chemical reaction, heat for consumption by conducting direct ectothermic is some chemical reaction conversion of these substances into one substance is the product of the direct reaction, the transport of this substance to the primary source of thermal energy and its reverse transformation by carrying out the reverse endothermic chemical reaction in two original substances accumulating in them in the chemical form of thermal energy the primary source of heat as a substance carrier of the latent heat of chemical reactions take gaseous or liquid chemisorbed and a solution of at least one chemical sorbent in water or organic solvent concentration at which the solidification temperature of the solution is less than the minimum ambient temperature, and the residual after the transfer for consumption physical heat resulting from direct reaction product chemisorption Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between him and coming directly the reaction by hemosorption and solution of chemical sorbent, and the sensible heat recovered in the reverse reaction of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between them and acting on feedback product chemisorption.

In addition, as the solution of chemical sorbent can be used an aqueous solution of a substance from the class of alkanolamines, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and as hemosorbent you can use carbon dioxide.

To a solution of hemosorption to add at least one corrosion inhibitor and at least one of the substances, preventing the passage of the adverse reactions of chemical sorbent.

The reverse reaction can be conducted under reduced pressure, keeping it level, depending on the temperature of the primary heat source in the range from 0.01 to 0.2 MPa, and the direct reaction is carried out at elevated pressure in the range of 0.1-2.0 MPa, providing a higher degree of saturation of the chemical sorbent (α=0.4 and above) and maintaining the temperature within 363-393 (90-120° (C) by regulating pressure level.

To implement the proposed method in the device, the heating system, comprising a primary heat source, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or boiler, with the device selection of thermal energy, at least one heater with a heat exchange device for a heat systems, such as heating and hot water supply, and the system forward and reverse conveying fluid between the primary heat source and a heat point system forward and reverse transportation of the coolant is made to separate the direct transport of two substances - hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and the reverse transport of one substance product chemisorption, the primary heat source is provided with at least one desorber, connected to the device selection of thermal energy from the first knogo heat source, and at least one heat exchanger-recuperator, and the heater is provided with at least one absorber, connected to transfer heat to the heat exchange devices of the boiler, and at least one heat exchanger-recuperator, and two inlet and outlet of the absorber is connected through the heat exchanger-recuperator respectively with the two system outputs the direct transportation of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and the input of the system is the reverse transportation of the product chemisorption, and input and two output desorber connected through the corresponding heat exchanger-a heat exchanger in accordance with the output of the system is the reverse transportation of the product chemisorption, and the two inputs of a system of direct transportation of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent.

In addition, the device of the heating system may be further provided with at least one device, filtering the solution of chemical sorbent and at least one device regeneration by-products and may be further provided with at least three tanks hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption intended for storage of these substances and recharge their system, each of which is connected to the system via mounted on the container device metered bypass washes the VA from the system into the tank and feed it from the tank into the system.

In addition, the system of heat supply system forward and reverse transportation of the coolant may include, respectively, two continuous pipeline to supply hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and one continuous pipeline for discharge of product chemisorption and may include mobile equipment delivery hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent to the heat absorber item and product chemisorption to desorber primary source of heat, such as bus or rail cars.

As the primary heat source, you can use low-grade heat source, the device of the heat supply system is further provided with devices for regulating the pressure in the absorber (absorbers) and desorber (desorbers).

One of the main distinguishing features of the proposed method of heating is that as matter-carriers of the latent heat of chemical reactions take gaseous or liquid chemisorbed and a solution of at least one chemical sorbent in water or organic solvent concentration at which the solidification temperature of the solution is less than the minimum ambient temperature, and the residual after the transfer for consumption physical heat resulting from direct reaction product chemisorption (he is absorbtsii) Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between him and coming in direct response hemosorption and solution of chemical sorbent, and the sensible heat recovered in the reverse reaction of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between them and acting on feedback product chemisorption.

Essentially, the proposed method is implemented reversible reaction "chemisorption-hemadsorption", namely: direct chemical reaction of interaction of a solution of chemical sorbent with hemosorption (chemisorption) with the formation of a new product (product chemisorption), which is accompanied by release of heat energy (exothermic reaction), and the reverse reaction of thermal decomposition product chemisorption (endothermic reaction) with the physical supply of heat from the primary source to obtain the original substances (hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent) with their subsequent separation and separate row.

It is important to note that the above product chemisorption and the original (restored as a result of desorption) solution of the chemical sorbent between them may differ only in the degree of saturation of hemosorption. The degree of saturation of the chemical sorbent as a result of chemical reaction between the solution and hemosorption characterized by the parameter determining the molar ratio of hemosorbent and chemical sorbent "α", with dimension [mol hemosorbent/mol the chemical sorbent]. In the proposed decision shall Institute the original solution of the chemical sorbent can be characterized by the value of the saturation degree from α and=0 to a certain value axis αand>0. Product chemisorption is characterized by the degree of saturation of the αpand αpand. In the process of conducting direct reaction parameter value α varies from αandto αp. When conducting a reverse reaction the value of this parameter varies from αpto αand. Specific values αandand αpdetermined by the requirements of a specific heating system, such as: the type and parameters of the heat generating equipment of the primary source, end-user requirements to the parameters of the received thermal energy used by the user equipment, etc. Setting the initial values of indicators of the degree of saturation or their regulation during operation of the heating system is regulated flow values as the coolant in the primary source and thermal energy consumption and expenditure component in the heat transfer system (solution of chemical sorbent, hemosorbent and product chemisorption), and to establish appropriate thermodynamic regimes in the apparatus for carrying out chemisorption and hemadsorption (pressures and temperatures).

There exists a wide class of the considered substances (chemo-sorbents, hemosorbates), the reaction between them and the ut at temperatures the corresponding temperatures in the equipment of primary sources and consumers of existing heating systems and significantly smaller than in the prototype method. In this regard, they can naturally be used in existing heating systems, including heat network type used. The effectiveness of the heating system will be increased due to a larger amount of the transferred heat energy resulting from the latent heat of chemical reactions and physical heat of the components of heat transfer (solution of chemical sorbent and hemosorbent). With the rise in the number of portable heat will be just equal to the latent heat of chemical reactions, and heat loss associated with the loss of physical heat, heat networks in the environment will be equivalent thermal losses in existing heating systems and even less than that specified, as it will be less than the cost component, transferring thermal energy, and, respectively, less than the diameters of the heat network pipes and the heat transfer surface. Compared with the chemothermal methods in the proposed decision level of heat losses in the transfer of heat energy at equal other conditions will be significantly smaller because of the smaller temperature of the transported component. It is characterized by a higher UB is the tier of effectiveness of the proposed heating system and is a positive effect from the point of view of achievement of the technical result.

The proposed method minimizes the level of heat losses to the environment, which is a technical solution, directly providing the actual savings spent on heating fuel and energy resources. When substances-media latent heat of chemical reaction and, consequently, the product of reaction of a substance with a low temperature freezing (solidification), opens the possibility of their transmission pipelines with temperatures close to or even equal to the ambient temperature, this is achieved by using the recovery of thermal energy in physical form between substances of the direct and reverse reaction (chemisorption and hemadsorption) and the resulting products of these reactions. Obviously, for a direct reaction chemisorption released thermal energy is concentrated in the form of physical heat product chemisorption. Passing a portion of the physical heat of the product chemisorption in local heating systems and hot water, the product chemisorption remains substantial stock of physical heat, determined by the level of the outlet temperature of the heat transfer device of the HCP system, local heating, which is similar to the reverse flow of the fluid (water) in existing heating systems. Analogion is, if remodelable output the recovered components also come with a considerable stock of physical heat, characterized by the level of temperature at which hemadsorption. Recovery of thermal energy between substances produced by forward and reverse chemical reactions, and, accordingly, the substances coming into direct and reverse reactions, provides preheating of the latest and cooling first before entering the piping of a heating system. Specified, on the one hand, ensures the effectiveness of the reactions due to the preheating of the components and, on the other hand, the low temperature of the transported heat networks substances that provide a low level of heat losses in the pipes. Conducting physical recovery of heat between substances participating in the reaction, and the reaction products, it is especially important at low ambient temperatures to increase the efficiency in the heat of chemisorption reaction and reduce the energy costs for hemadsorption product chemisorption and the separation of components (substances vehicles latent heat of chemical reactions).

To implement the method in the range of ambient temperatures from +10°C to -60°, which covers the possible temperature di is Pisoni heating season in different regions, the proposed regenerative circuit heat exchange between the reactants (hemosorption, the solution of chemical sorbent and product chemisorption). The result is organized in this way heat recovery achieved two positive from the point of view of obtaining the specified technical result, effect: first, even at very low ambient temperatures does not decrease the amount of heat transferred for consumption, and does not require additional primary heat source for the process of hemadsorption, and secondly, it reduces the level of heat losses during transportation of substances-media latent heat of chemical reactions and substances-product chemisorption.

Thus, the choice of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent as substances-media chemical heat and implementation of the proposed schemes allow heat recovery, in the aggregate, throughout the possible range of ambient temperatures to achieve the technical result due to the following advantages of the proposed method in comparison with prototype: less heat loss when it is sent to the customer (the transport of fluids), smaller, ceteris paribus, the cost of primary heat source to the heat and lack of need for modernization of existing generating systems

It is known that the temperature of solidification (freezing) of the solution depends on the concentration of the dissolved component. Therefore, the concentration of the chemical sorbent in the solution should be designed such that the solidification temperature of the solution of chemical sorbent (chemo-sorbents) is less than the minimum ambient temperature during the heating season in the region for the proposed method. For hemosorbates this limitation is less important, as usually is the temperature of freezing is quite low, and gaseous chemisorbed (for example, from the class of so-called acid gases) may also be transported in liquid form.

Signs of a way to "gas" and "liquid" hemosorbent expressed in an alternative form, as are technical equivalents. In the process in any case, achieving the same technical result. The same applies to the topics, "the solution of chemical sorbent in water and solution of chemical sorbent in an organic solvent". Different combinations of the proposed substances can only lead to quantitative changes (both upwards and downwards) achieved technical result. The choice of certain substances is determined in each case, the implementation method specific conditions (climatic conditions, which is been created heat output, the power of the primary source of heat and the like) and, to a significant extent, to economic considerations (the required number of substances, the scale of their production, value).

Thus, the above distinguishing features of the proposed method are significant, and their combination allows to achieve the technical result.

In the particular case of the solution of chemical sorbent can be used an aqueous solution of a substance from the class of alkanolamines, such as monoethanolamine (MEA) with the chemical formula NH2CH2CH2OH. An aqueous solution of the IEA with a concentration of 45%(mass.) hardens at a temperature of 217 (-56°C)and at a concentration of 60% at 186 (-87° (C) [4], which is less than the lowest possible ambient temperature determined by the domestic rules of operation of heating systems.

As hemosorbent can be used carbon dioxide (CO2). When chemisorption of carbon dioxide reacts with an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) with the formation of substituted carbamino acid and heat:

where R≡CH2CH2HE.

In aqueous solution IEA instantaneously balance:

RNH2+H+=RNH3+,

the result is a product chemisorption - carbamate, monoe is anolamine:

RNHCOO-+RNH3-=RNHCOORNH3.

The heat released during chemisorption (hemabsorbtion) in the calculation of the carbamate of monoethanolamine is 73-81,5 kJ/mol when the degree of saturation (or, in this case, the carbonization) α0.5 and 0.1, respectively [4]. This allows you to provide the consumer with hot water with a temperature corresponding to the accepted, for example, in Russia regulations - 343-353 K (70-80°). At atmospheric pressure the reaction hemadsorption is in the temperature range 373-423 To (100-150°).

To a solution of chemical sorbent can be added to at least one corrosion inhibitor and at least one of the substances that prevent the passage of the adverse reactions of chemical sorbent. This allows to extend the service life of pipelines and equipment. In combination with the solution of monoethanolamine as the chemical sorbent as inhibitor you can select a related product, such as triethanolamine. Additives are substances that prevent the passage of adverse reactions to the deposition of insoluble sediments, provide stability properties of chemical sorbent using insufficiently treated of chemical sorbent and hemosorbent, random deviations in temperature reactions performed, and when it gets into the equipment and highways foreign substances, such as oxygen in the air or polluted the th from the walls of pipes and equipment.

Conduct direct (kemosabe) and reverse (remotesource) reactions can be carried out with chemical sorbent and product chemisorption with high degrees of saturation (αand=4 and higher; αp=5 and above)than in the General case, the implementation of the method, while the reverse reaction is performed under reduced pressure, maintaining its level in the range from 0.01 to 0.2 MPa, and the direct reaction is carried out at elevated pressure in the range of 0.1-2.0 MPa. This allows you to use in district heating as the primary heat source of the low-grade heat source with temperature 323-353 K (50-80°C), such as geothermal water, low-grade drains, etc. and get the consumer thermal energy of a high quality with temperatures in heating and hot water, the relevant regulatory requirements. Temperature direct reaction to provide heating and domestic hot water is maintained by regulation of the pressure of the reaction within the specified limits.

When implementing this method achieved a new technical result, which consists, essentially, in the implementation of the workflow kind of heat pump to expand the functionality of the heating system.

Since the proposed device realize the way where as reactants reversible chemical reaction involves a two-component fluid consisting of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent - two substances-media latent heat of chemical reaction and substance-product chemisorption, for heat generation and subsequent recovery of the components necessary to provide a separate supply of components to the chemisorption and the discharge of product chemisorption on desorption. Absorber (absorbers) is (are) to conduct the process of chemisorption on the proposed method. Connecting it to heat exchange devices of the boiler it is necessary to transmit emitted chemisorption heat system heat, such as heating and hot water. Desorber (desorbers) is (are) to process hemadsorption of the proposed method. For supplying heat energy to the product chemisorption for heating it to a temperature at which efficiently implements remotesource, desorber (desorbers) is connected (connected) device selection of thermal energy from the primary heat source. Heat exchangers-heat exchangers connected in the manner described to the absorber, desorber and delivery systems, and separate exhaust reactants, are designed to perform heat exchange between reactan the AMI schema, inherent in the proposed method. The number of absorbers, desorbers and heat exchangers-heat exchangers, and heating units, is determined by the specific type primary heat source (heat-generating equipment), its capacity, type and operating conditions (levels and modes of consumption of heat, picowiki loads and so on).

The degree of heat recovery (efficiency heat) heat exchangers-heat exchanger is determined by the specific design of the device and the financial costs that affect the payback period of the heating system. Overall mass and, as a consequence, the values of heat exchangers and recuperators are substantially dependent on the implemented their degree of heat recovery. Thus, the calculations for plate heat exchanger-the heat exchanger in the heat recovery system of the absorber showed that the temperature difference of more than 10 degrees between input it to heat the cold liquid component (water solution IEA) and output it after cooling hot liquid component (carbonated aqueous solution IEA) is achieved by the heat exchanger standard. However, if necessary, reduce the difference of these temperatures, for example from 5.0 to 3.5 degrees weight (intensity) of the core of the heat exchanger-recuperator zoom is by almost 25%, to reduce this difference from 3.5 to 1.0 degrees - increased almost 6 times. Above imposes on the degree of recovery of some limitation of the "top". There is also a limit from below, which is connected with the necessity of the separation of hemosorbent and chemical sorbent and, to this end, some of their cooling output of desorber by heat recovery. It is also necessary to minimize heat losses during transportation of hemosorbent. The achievement of the claimed technical result is ensured regardless of the degree of recovery. So, with a high degree of recovery, for a particular case of use as a chemical sorbent IEA bulk density transmitted to the heat network heat is 540 MJ/m3thermal energy is concentrated only in the chemical form and its transmission is cooled to ambient temperature. After conversion to the absorber latent heat of the chemical reaction of the solution of chemical sorbent and hemosorbent in the sensible heat of the product chemisorption big part in the amount of 306 MJ/m3is passed to the consumer network hot water and heating, and the remaining sensible heat of the product chemisorption in the number 234 MJ/m3goes to recovery for final cooling per the d output in the return pipe. This amount of heat is constantly circulates in the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger and used to preheat incoming in the absorber solution chemical sorbent and hemosorbent. This almost completely eliminates the loss of heat into the environment and the corresponding costs on the insulation of heat networks. Thus, the degree of recovery of thermal energy, providing the difference between the temperature of the transported products and ambient temperature 5-10 degrees, can reduce heat loss in the heating system considerably compared to the prototype. Thus, the efficiency of transmission to the consumer of thermal energy (the ratio of the amount of heat received by the consumer to the amount of heat transferred to the heat network from the heat source) is 57%. At a small degree of recovery and use of heat networks with insulated pipes bulk density of the stored thermal energy is 1090 MJ/m3(550 MJ/m3in physical and 540 MJ/m3in chemical forms)that is communicated to the consumer - 516 MJ/m3and heat losses in networks - 21 MJ/m3. The efficiency of transfer of heat is 47%. In this case, due to the high values of bulk density of the accumulated carriers of thermal energy transfer to the consumer the same amount the STV heat can be conducted through the pipes twice smaller section. The comparison shows that at high recovery efficiency of transfer of heat energy more. However, at any level of recovery efficiency of heat transfer by thermochemical method is higher than in existing heating systems, where it is 38%from the primary heat source in thermal network is transferred to the coolant (water) with a bulk density of 550 MJ/m3, heat loss during transportation is 21 MJ/m3the consumer is transferred to 210 MJ/m3and returned in the return line 330 MJ/m3. Thus, the choice of the rational degree of heat recovery in the achievement of the technical result is to consider the conditions of implementation of the proposed heating system and be based on comparing the respective costs and implemented performance level.

The totality of the above characteristics of the device allows to implement the proposed method with the achievement of the technical result - the saving of thermal energy (fuel).

In the device, the heating system can be supplemented introduced equipment full or partial filtering the solution of chemical sorbent and/or product chemisorption with separation of the solid particles and the regeneration equipment products, which is, for example, part of the hardware desorption by primary energy source. The inclusion of containers hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption part of the heating device substantially extends its functionality: simplifying the commissioning, the ability to quickly reconfigure the device to work in different modes (with different number of absorbers and desorbers), the control device for setting the required chemisorption and hemadsorption. In addition, capacity at the same time act as accumulators of heat energy (drives starting compounds and the reaction product), which makes it easy to compensate (remove) peak heat load. It is sufficient to include additional flow of substances from these containers and, if necessary, connect the required number of absorbers, desorbers and heat exchangers. The number of tanks, as the number of absorbers, desorbers and heat exchangers, is determined by the operating conditions of the system: the levels and modes of heat consumption, peak loads, etc.

Inclusion in the system of direct and reverse transportation of the fluid, respectively, two continuous pipelines to supply hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and one continuous pipeline for discharge of product chemisorption is preferred, mainly for urban conditions. If this is m heat exchangers-heat exchangers allow, if necessary, to achieve the effect of "cold" pipes of equal (or very small differences, for example by 1-5 degrees) temperature of the transported substances and the environment, thereby minimizing heat loss and the cost of the insulation.

In the system of direct and reverse transportation of the coolant can be enabled mobile devices to deliver hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent to the heat absorber item and product chemisorption to desorber primary source of heat. These means can be, for example, road or rail tankers or containers transported by other modes of transport. In addition to the achieved technical result consists in the saving of thermal energy, such performance is not only extends the functionality of the device, but also expands the scope of the proposed heating system. In particular, when the system forward and reverse transportation of the coolant is made completely mobile, it can be used in, for example, a large distance of calorific points from primary sources of heat, which is typical, for example, for remote sparsely populated villages or technical objects. However, depending on distance and traffic volume of the reactants, the system can function is to make plans in connection with or in closed-loop mode - with continuous cyclic process hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and return to the desorption of the product chemisorption, or open with an intermediate accumulation of these substances in containers. Being involved in forward and reverse transportation of the coolant as tools, mobile tools, delivery hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption help in an emergency (for example, when the rupture of pipelines and the like) to arrange for the duration of the emergency supply of substances-media latent heat of chemical reactions in the absorber and the removal of matter-a product of chemisorption in desorber by transportation of these substances specified means, bypassing pipelines, and thereby to provide a continuous heat supply. For example, when using the CO2and solution IEA as carriers of thermal energy for heating during the day one of the consumer with power consumption of 1 MW requires two capacity of 250-300 m3for 45%aqueous solution of monoethanolamine and accumulation of carbonized of monoethanolamine and one tank 35 m3for carbon dioxide in liquid form. We would add that based on the proposed equipment of heat supply can be created mobile Autonomous heating system, h is about true for example, for remote communities on a small scale or temporary heating in the field.

The device of the heating system may be further provided with devices for regulating the pressure in the absorber (absorbers) and desorber (desorbers), and as the primary source of heat may be used a low-grade heat source with a temperature equal to 323-353 K (50-80°).

The present invention illustrates the concepts of systems of a heat supply in the specific forms shown in figures 1-6.

Figure 1 gives the schematic of the device of the heating system with two continuous pipelines to supply hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and one continuous reverse pipeline for discharge of product chemisorption.

Figure 2 gives the diagram of the device of the heating system with two continuous pipelines to supply hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and one continuous reverse pipeline for discharge of product chemisorption, equipped with an additional tank storage hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption.

Figure 3 gives the diagram of the device of the heating system with independent mobile means of delivery of hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemosorb the AI when working in closed-loop mode.

Figure 4 gives the diagram of the device of the heating system with independent mobile means of delivery of hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption when operating in open-loop mode.

Figure 5 gives the diagram of the device of the heating system with an auxiliary mobile means of delivery of hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption when operating in emergency mode.

Figure 6 gives the diagram of the device of the heating system, equipped with devices for regulating the pressure in the absorber and desorber when the primary low-grade heat source.

The proposed device, the heating system includes (1-6): a primary heat source 1, for example combined heat and power (CHP) or boiler, the device selection heat 2, at least one heater with 3 heat exchange device 4 for systems of heat, such as heating and hot water system forward and reverse transportation of the coolant 5, 6 between the primary heat source and heat point, at least one desorber 7 devices separate components attached to the device selection of thermal energy from the primary heat source 2, at least one heat exchanger-recuperator device filtering the solution of chemical sorbent 8, m is Nisha least one absorber 9, connected to transfer heat to the heat exchange device 4 heat paragraph 3 and with at least one heat exchanger-recuperator 10.

In different forms of embodiment of the device heat: it further comprises at least three capacity - hemosorbent 11, solution chemical sorbent 12 and product chemisorption 13 for the storage of these substances and recharge their devices, each of the tanks is connected to the corresponding through pipelines mounted on the container device metered bypass substances from the pipe into the tank 14-16 and its supply of capacity in the pipeline 17-19. System forward and reverse transportation of the coolant 5 and 6 include, respectively, two continuous pipeline to supply hemosorbent 20 and solution of chemical sorbent 21 and a continuous line 22 for discharge of product chemisorption. In the system of direct and reverse transportation of the coolant can be enabled mobile devices to deliver hemosorbent 23, solution chemical sorbent 24 and product chemisorption 25, such as bus or rail cars. In absorber 9 and desorber 7 added device pressure control 26 and 27 (when using low-grade heat source).

The proposed method is carried out in the following sequence. Selected chemosorb the solution selected chemical sorbent concentration in the required quantities transported (served) to the consumer.

Then carry out the interaction of these substances - the chemisorption reaction, the released thermal energy is passed to the consumer, recuperare while the residual heat in such a way as to convey his coming to the reaction fresh portions of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent, and the resulting substance is a product of chemisorption is transported to the primary heat source.

Then conduct the reaction hemadsorption, which get restored chemisorbed and solution of chemical sorbent with accumulated them in the chemical form of heat to the primary heat source and share them. While physical warmly received by hemosorption and solution of chemical sorbent, Recuperat thus, in order to transfer it from coming on feedback product chemisorption. Restored chemisorbed and solution of chemical sorbent separated and transported (assign) to the consumer, and the process of "feeding - chemisorption - bend - hemadsorption" repeated over and over.

The accumulation of heat in chemical form and in a certain way oriented regenerative schemes provide smaller, compared with the prototype, the heat loss during transportation and lower cost primary heat source.

Example.

In the device in the form of a model of the heating system served at a temperature of OK is usausa environment 283,15 To (10° C) through two separate pipelines gas CO2and 45%solution IEA, spend the chemisorption reaction, remove heat from the product chemisorption system heat consumption, Recuperat residual heat and divert the product chemisorption on the back line to the primary heat source, conduct the reaction hemadsorption split components, Recuperat physical heat recovered CO2and solution of the IEA and repeatedly described the process within 2 hours.

Measured during the experiment at a desorption temperature of CO2and the recovered solution IEA after heat recovery and carbonated solution IEA before and after recovery averaged respectively: 284,65 To (11,5°C)284,55 To (11,4°C)285,15 To (12°C)363,15 (90° (C)that corresponds to the temperature of the pressure in straight pipes on average 1.45 degrees and reverse - 2 degrees. This is significantly below the values which were realized when using analogues: 120 and 60 degrees, respectively.

The heating system works as follows (Fig.1-6).

The direct transportation of the carrier 5, is made with the possibility of separate transportation of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent, these substances are fed into the absorber 9. In private cases are fed by pipelines 20 21 or using mobile vehicles 23, 24.

In the absorber in the process of hemabsorbtion there is a saturation solution of the chemical sorbent hemosorption with evolution of heat in physical form. The resulting product is chemisorption through the heat exchange device 4 transmits heat to the systems of heat, in this case the heating system and hot water. The residual heat is recovered by heat exchanger-recuperator 10. When this recovery is organized so that entering the absorber materials are heated, and the resulting reaction product is cooled.

The cooled product chemisorption is given on the basis of reverse transportation 6 in desorber 7. In private cases, the removal is carried out on the return pipe 22, or using a mobile vehicle 25. Pre-enabled device selection heat 2 from the primary heat source 7. After desorption chemisorbed and chemical sorbent is separated, the last fully or partially passes through the filters, and the sensible heat recovered hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent is recovered in the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger 8. When this recovery is organized so that entering the absorber product chemisorption heated and restored and divided chemisorbed and solution of chemical sorbent is cooled.

Chilled chemisorbed and solution of chemical sorbent do what in the system of direct transportation, and the process is repeated many times.

When the heating system is additionally provided with at least three tanks hemosorbent 11, solution chemical sorbent 12 and product chemisorption 13, when, for example, the debugging system or removing the peak heat load enables or disables mounted on the container device metered bypass substances from the pipe into the tank 14, 15, 16 and the dosing of the substance from the container into the pipe 17, 18, 19, correcting the estimated costs of hemosorbent and chemical sorbent thus, in order to provide the required thermal conditions of the system.

The operation of the heating system in an emergency depends on the specific situation (rupture of one or more pipelines) and the composition of the system hardware (the number of containers for storage of reactants). In any case, the transport of reactants is mobile means.

The operation of the heating system when using low-grade heat source is provided deeper regulation of the pressure in the absorber (absorbers) and desorber (desorbers) with additional devices 26, 27.

Sources of information

1. Any, Bmilanov and other Heat. - M.: stroiizdat, 1982, pp. 27-53.

2. Achnatherum, Alastoneesti. Energetiche logicheskie the use of high temperature nuclear reactors. In : "Atomic-hydrogen energy and technology". Issue 3. M: Atomizdat, 1980, p.106-112.

3. Patent RU 2200906 1, class F 24 D 3/08, publ date: 2003.03.20.

4. Purification of process gases. Edited by Semenova T.A. and I.L. Leites M.: Izd-vo "Chemistry", 1977, s.

1. The method of heating, in which repeatedly carrying out the process includes sequentially transportation to the consumer two substances-media latent heat of chemical reaction, heat for consumption by conducting direct exothermic chemical reaction conversion of these substances into one substance-direct product of the reaction, the transport of this substance to the primary source of thermal energy and its reverse transformation by carrying out the reverse endothermic chemical reaction in two original substances accumulating in them in the chemical form of thermal energy of the primary heat source, characterized in that as substances, carriers of the latent heat of chemical reactions take gaseous or liquid hemosorbent - carbon dioxide and the solution in water or an organic solvent, at least one chemical sorbent, such as monoethanolamine, with the concentration of the chemical sorbent in the solution is not more than 60%, while the residual after the transfer for consumption physical heat resulting from direct reaction product chemisorption cha is partially or fully Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between him and coming in direct response hemosorption and solution of chemical sorbent, and the sensible heat recovered in the reverse reaction of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent partially or fully Recuperat by carrying out heat exchange between them and acting on feedback product chemisorption.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the solution of chemical sorbent type, at least one corrosion inhibitor and at least one of the substances that prevent the passage of the adverse reactions of chemical sorbent or foaming of the solution.

3. The method according to any of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the concentration of the chemical sorbent in the solution set at the level at which the solidification temperature of the solution is less than the minimum ambient temperature in the region during the heating season.

4. Heating system for implementing the method according to claim 1, comprising a primary heat source - heat or boiler with the device selection of thermal energy, at least one heater with a heat exchange device for a heat systems - heating and hot water supply and systems forward and reverse conveying fluid between the primary heat source and heat point, and the system forward and reverse transportation of the carrier done with separate direct transportation TLD the substances hemosorbent - dioxide and solution of chemical sorbent, such as monoethanolamine, and the reverse transport of one substance product chemisorption, the primary source of heat is supplied, at least one desorber connected to the device selection of thermal energy from the primary heat source, and at least one heat exchanger-recuperator on each of the highways output hemosorbent and chemical sorbent, respectively, and the heater is equipped with at least one absorber, connected to transfer heat to the heat exchange devices of the boiler, and at least one heat exchanger-recuperator for each of the mains input hemosorbent and chemical sorbent, and two inlet and outlet of the absorber is connected through these heat exchangers-heat exchangers respectively with the two system outputs the direct transportation of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and the input of the system is the reverse transportation of the product chemisorption, and input and two output desorber connected through the respective heat exchangers-heat exchangers, respectively, with the output of the system is the reverse transportation of the product chemisorption, and the two inputs of a system of direct transportation of hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent.

5. Heating system according to claim 4, characterized in that it is further provided with, on m is Nisha least three tanks of hemosorbent, solution chemical sorbent and product chemisorption intended for storage of these substances and recharge their system, each of which is connected to the system via mounted on the container device metered bypass substances from the system into the tank and feed it from the tank into the system.

6. Heating system according to claim 4, characterized in that it is a system of direct and reverse transportation of the carrier include, respectively, two continuous pipeline to supply hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent and one continuous pipeline for discharge of product chemisorption.

7. Heating system according to claim 4, characterized in that in the system of direct and reverse transportation of the coolant is enabled mobile devices to deliver hemosorbent and solution of chemical sorbent to the heat absorber item and product chemisorption to desorber primary source of heat, such as road or rail tankers or containers transported by other modes of transport.

8. Heating system according to claim 4, characterized in that it is further provided with at least one device, filtering the solution of chemical sorbent and at least one device regeneration by-products.

9. Heating system according to claim 4, characterized in that first knogo heat source is low-grade heat source, the system is further provided with devices for regulating the pressure in the absorber or absorbers and desorbers or desorbers.



 

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