Assembly for hydrocarbon waste thermal decomposition

FIELD: thermal processing of domestic, industrial and other sorts of waste.

SUBSTANCE: assembly for hydrocarbon waste thermal decomposition has thermal reactor and thermal decomposition gases discharge system. Thermal reactor is mounted in vertical and is made to have vertical loading. Layer of electroconductive coal and layer of insulator are disposed at exit area of thermal reactor. The layers make the reactor gas-proof. Gas-discharge tube is mounted inside the thermal reactor. Casing is put on the top part of the tube in such a way that lower part casing is submerged into electroconductive coal. Filter-catalyst is located in area between gas-discharge tube and casing. Case of the thermal reactor is provided with heat-protective envelope. Case of reactor and gas-discharge tube are connected to corresponding terminals for feeding power voltage. Gas-discharge tube is connected with thermal decomposing gases discharge system through rectifier.

EFFECT: complete processing of components.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to thermal treatment of domestic, industrial and other hydrocarbon wastes for disposal and reuse.

Known installation pyrolysis wastes containing thermoreactor with indirect heating, the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases, including the condenser, and the flue gas cleaning system. Moreover, in the exhaust system of the pyrolysis gases sequentially with the capacitor, made in the form of a refrigerator with running water, a sump of liquid precipitation, water seal with a catalyst, water seal with the catalyst of the measurement, as the flue gases included hydrofilter connected to the electrostatic precipitator, and the receivers of liquid hydrocarbons valves and hydrofilter, as well as the receiver of liquid precipitation sedimentation tank is connected through the pumps with the respective nozzles, placed in thermoreactor, in which is located an electric heater direct heating (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2168676, F 23 G 5/027, declared 18.06.99 published 10.06. 2001).

Disadvantages installation are outliers in the atmosphere, the design complexity and the lack of efficiency of the pyrolysis process, due to the fact that the pyrolysis gas is not fully restored, leaving through the flue.

Closest to the proposed combination of essential the signs and the achieved result and chosen for the prototype is the apparatus for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon waste, containing thermoreactor with heater and exhaust system pyrolysis gases comprising a capacitor; the heater is made with an internal cavity connected to the internal volume of thermoreactor and drainage system of the pyrolysis gases through gasolene slit. The condenser and the tank located above the level of thermoreactor, the latter being connected to the sump through pipe (application for invention No. 2002120394/03 (021529) from 29.07.2002, F 23 G 5/027, the decision on the grant of a patent of the Russian Federation dated 08.10.2003).

The drawbacks of the prototype are

- the need to increase energy or time of heating biomass over coal because of its low thermal conductivity;

the accumulation of liquid hydrocarbons in the lower part of thermoreactor, slow evaporation and their interaction with thermosetting coal bulk volume;

incomplete processing components of the process in the fuel gas, since not the entire volume of the coal is heated and interacts with water vapor and hydrocarbons and not the whole amount of biomass is heated enough to complete its processing.

The proposed apparatus for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-containing wastes thermoreactor and the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases, which in the gate area of thermoreactor are a layer of conductive carbon and the insulating layer, the sealing thermoreactor, and EXT is thermoreactor is gazohoda pipe, on the upper part of which is put on the casing so that the lower part of the casing is immersed in conductive carbon, and in the space between gazokhodny pipe and casing is located the filter catalyst, in the download area of thermoreactor installed feeder water, and housing thermoreactor provided with a heat-insulating shell, the reactor vessel and gazohoda pipe connected to the appropriate terminals for the supply voltage, and gazohoda pipe through the valve connected to the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases.

The drainage system of the pyrolysis gases consists of series-connected filter-trap with a catalyst in the inlet pipe of the compressor and the tank.

Thermoreactor can be installed vertically and is made with vertical loading.

Insulating sheath thermoreactor made of fine powder of charcoal.

The operation of the device illustrated in the drawing, which shows a General view of the installation for pyrolysis of hydrocarbon waste.

The installation includes thermoreactor 1 with a sealed lid 2. Inside thermoreactor 1 is gazohoda pipe 3, which is put on the casing 4. In the part of the tube 3 located under the casing 4, there may be additional hatwalne holes. Under the casing 4 around the pipe 3 is the filter catalyst 5. Lower frequent the casing 4 is immersed in conductive coal 6, which is pressed and compacted on top of the loaded biomass 7. The insulator 8 seal the internal volume of thermoreactor 1 and provides galvanic isolation between the reactor vessel 1 and gazokhodny pipe 3. In the upper part of the reactor 1 is installed, the device 9 water flow into the inner volume of the reactor. The reactor vessel 1 and gazohoda pipe 3 is connected to the appropriate terminals for the supply voltage. Case thermoreactor 1 has a heat-shielding shell 10. Gazohoda pipe 3 through the valve 11 is connected to the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases comprising serially connected hydraulic lock 12 with catalyst 13 in the input pipe of the compressor 14 and the holder 15.

The device operates as follows.

In thermoreactor 1 load biomass 7 and tightly close the lid 2. When the AC voltage at the power supply terminals on the conductive layer 6 coal also is energized. Under the influence of electric current, the coal is heated to a temperature sufficient to begin the process of pyrolysis, reaching maximum activity recovery ability. The temperature inside the reactor 1 rises, and the pyrolysis loaded biomass 7, and the casing 4 removes heat from the heating zone 6 coal in the upper layers of the biomass. As a result of its pyrolysis and the subsequent dasta the products in the reactor 1 remains coal sludge and the gas component goes through a layer of hot charcoal 6, the filter catalyst 5, gathogo pipe 3. To intensify the process of pyrolysis and coal waste sludge in an area loaded biomass 7 intervals of time water is pumped through the device water supply 9. Water turns into steam and interacts with coal sludge biomass 7, forming a fuel gas. Thus, the fuel gas passes through the volume of coal 6, which has a maximum temperature and activity as it flows an electric current. Due to this, the fuel gas is effectively restored. In addition, due to the sharp increase in the pressure in thermoreactor vapour of water is a mechanical effect on biomass 7, is it turning, stirring, which intensifies the process of pyrolysis. At the end of the processing cycle biomass 7 consumption conductive coal 6 is compensated by coal sludge from recycled biomass 7. Thus, the conductive layer 6 coal, performing the function of the heating element becomes persistent.

The resulting fuel gas passes through the valve 11 and the hydraulic lock 12 with catalyst 13, a compressor 14, the tank 15 and to the consumer.

When recycling plastic, linoleum, process p is rolisa in the composition of the gas component can be hydrogen, the sulfur oxide. To obtain useful substances, such as plaster or bleach, in the filter-trap can be used quicklime.

As the valve 11 can be used three way valve, which at the end of the pyrolysis process during cooling of the reactor can be installed in a position in which the internal volume of the reactor through gathogo pipe 3 communicates with the environment, preventing the formation of a strong vacuum inside the reactor 1.

Insulating sheath thermoreactor can be made of fine powder of coal, which will greatly reduce heat loss due to low thermal conductivity of coal.

The proposed installation in comparison with the prototype allows the most complete recycling of the components in the fuel gas due to the use of coal as a restorative environment and the heating element, while the fuel gas passes through the hot - thermoactive - volume coal, thereby more fully recovering. The casing thus also plays the role of a heat pipe, that is, removes thermal energy from the heating zone in the upper layers of the loaded biomass. The presence of the filter catalyst can improve the conditions of formation of the fuel gas and to avoid o is handled gas particulate coal.

Vertical type boot biomass easier and more horizontal. Besides thus the gravitational compaction of coal with biomass. The use of fine carbon powder as the insulating shell can significantly reduce heat loss due to low thermal conductivity of coal.

By minimizing parts of the plant, its design is much simpler prototype.

The proposed plant is capable of producing fuel gas, the most environmentally friendly way due to the absence of any emissions into the atmosphere, increasing its volume and thermal energy.

1. The apparatus for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-containing wastes thermoreactor and the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases, characterized in that thermoreactor mounted vertically and is made with vertical loading, the gate area of thermoreactor are a layer of conductive carbon and the insulating layer, the sealing thermoreactor, and inside thermoreactor is gazohoda pipe on the upper part of which is put on the casing so that the lower part of the casing is immersed in conductive carbon, and in the space between gazokhodny pipe and casing is located the filter catalyst, in the download area of thermoreactor installed feeder water, and the casing is of Armoracia provided with a heat-insulating casing, when the reactor vessel and gazohoda pipe connected to the appropriate terminals for the supply voltage, and gazohoda pipe through the valve connected to the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the drainage system of the pyrolysis gases consists of series-connected filter-trap with a catalyst in the inlet pipe of the compressor and the tank.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the insulating sheath thermoreactor made of fine powder of charcoal.



 

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