Ultrasonic vibration-percussion tool
FIELD: ultrasonic tools for vibration-percussion working of ductile metals and alloys by plastic deforming, possibly relaxation-strengthening and passivation treatment, for example of welded joints, surfaces of metallic structures subjected to action of atmospheric, water and soil corrosion.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic vibration-percussion tool includes sleeve mounted in wave-guide acoustic transformer at interference whose effort corresponds to its radial deformation exceeding amplitude of cross oscillations of wave-guide acoustic transformer in node of longitudinal oscillations when transformer operates in idle mode. Guides are joined to body of tool through elastic vibration-insulation gaskets.
EFFECT: lowered harmful action of vibrations acting upon operator or upon apparatus controlling operation of tool used as part of manufacturing system.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates mainly to an ultrasonic instruments for vibroimpact machining ductile metals and alloys plastic deformation and can be used for relaxation-hardening and passivating treatment, for example, welded joints, surfaces of steel structures exposed to atmospheric, water and soil corrosion.
Invented the tool can also be used for stamping, riveting, removing scale and rust, chipping, dismantling mechanical joints with tension, such as the shaft sleeve and the screw-nut, particularly subjected during operation of the corrosive effect.
Known ultrasonic instrument for shock treatment of welded joints , which can be used as manual [2, 3], consisting of a source of excitation of electroacoustic magnetostrictive radiator with acoustic waveguide transformer (hub) and attached the working body in the form of a clip, which is inserted deforming elements jaunty in the form of a stepped cylindrical rods with freedom of axial movement and held against falling out of the thickening on the inner end.
In operation the tool is pressed against the processing surface so that, IU the greater extent, one of the heads is in mechanical contact with its outer end and an inner, thicker end with an end face of the acoustic waveguide transformer. Due to its rigidity and the firing pin transmits the vibrational energy of the excitation source in the object to be processed. In this transfer of energy after each contact with the object is the recoil due to the part of the collision energy, which has not trashdolls on the plastic deformation and movement of the object and is part of the kinetic energy at the beginning of the collision is proportional to the square of Newtonian coefficient of restitution .
The absence of this instrument cushioning and damping elements causes excessive rigidity, and hence a weak vibration protection, which is a significant disadvantage of this tool and prevents the achievement of specified following technical result of the invention.
In moments of repeated mechanical contact elements of the tool between themselves and with the object being processed through the system hard links: die - waveguide transformer - casing, the operator will experience vibration loads. If the tool during operation is held or moved relative to the object to be processed using any technical means, the IP is with a direct participation of the operator, the harmful vibration impact will be a technical tool that can lead to its damage or destruction.
Known hand-held ultrasound tool for strain hardening and relaxation treatment , containing the excitation source in the form of a magnetostrictive transducer rigidly connected with the acoustic waveguide transformer, placed in a sealed housing with a lid. Free volume between the inner wall of the housing and the excitation source is used for circulation of cooling fluid through which it is removed and carried away the heat generated during operation of the excitation source from the dissipation of electrical energy in the winding of an emitter of electromagnetic energy in the core and mechanical energy to internal friction in the core and waveguide acoustic transformer.
In this tool to reduce vibrations that occur during operation and affecting the operator, the excitation source is connected with the tool body by means of elastic sealing rings located between it and the tool body near the plane of the node vibrational displacement of the waveguide transformer. In addition, the tool is provided with pnevmoskleros installed in the cover in alignment with the emitter, which is based on it is ilnam end. The source of excitation is the possibility of axial reciprocating movement, in which the elastic strip play the role of packing liquid cooling system tools, and pneumonia plays the role of shock absorber. The length of this travel set size pnevmostartery.
Factor hindering the achievement of specified following technical result of using this tool is based on the fact that the lower level of vibro-impact loads experienced by the operator when working with him, is achieved mainly due to the dissipation of kinetic energy bounces on the viscous friction and the sliding friction of the elements of its design. It is ineffective against vibration protection.
Known vibro-impact tool with ultrasonic agitation and air cooling, which is taken as a prototype . The tool includes a housing, a source of excitation, consisting of series-connected electro-acoustic magnetostrictive transducer and the acoustic waveguide transformer and located inside the housing with the possibility of the reciprocating stroke of a given length, and the clip with strikers mounted coaxially with the acoustic waveguide transformer. The excitation source when this is fixed in the sleeve disposed with a gap inside to the pus on slideways, made in the form of pins, which are incorporated in through the slots of the housing and at least one of them laid in a hollow groove in the sleeve. The length of the groove in the sleeve greater than the length of its guide on the possible value of the reciprocating stroke of the excitation source.
In this tool, the elastic element is air inside the building, which is in contrast to the cooling fluid is a compressible medium. The role of the friction element, which is the energy dissipation play a part of the structure, providing the slide with a reciprocating movement of the sleeve relative to the body - napravlyayus, as well as the viscosity of the air, which is much lower than the viscosity of the liquid.
However, because the friction on the guides still there, the reaction of the body in the form of vibrational forces will affect the operator or the technical means to control the operation of the tool through the restraint of the tool during operation: the handle housing. This explains the lack of which prevents the achievement of a technical result.
The technical result - the reduction of harmful vibration exposure of the operator or the technical means to control the operation of the tool if it is used as part of the technical system.
The result is achieved by changing the design, the products of the tool so to provide increased mechanical flexibility of moving the movable part relative to the body.
The invention consists in the following.
It is known that the frictional force is proportional to the compression force of the rubbing surfaces together with the strength of the van der Waals attraction of these surfaces is proportional, in turn, the total area of their contact. The second component of the friction force causes the static friction or static friction force more friction movement or kinematic friction . It is also known that when applying vibration to at least one of the friction surfaces of the friction force is reduced, since this eliminates the static component of this force. This property is used, for example, when cutting metals ultrasonic tools in which the cutting edge of the cutter is reported reciprocating motion of the ultrasonic frequency . These tools cutting force is less than conventional cutters, by reducing friction, among other effects.
In the present invention used another useful property of waves propagating in a solid body with ultrasonic frequency, not previously known in connection with the use of it to reduce friction in order to reduce vibration of the buildings of the vibro-impact tools. This property - Mack the distribution panel is minimal possible reduction in the contact area of the friction surfaces due to message one of them bending against another hesitation.
Thus, the formulated technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the known ultrasonic vibration impact tool comprising a housing, a sleeve mounted on the chassis rails with a gap between its outer surface and inner surface of the housing, as well as the excitation source, which sleeve is fixed for acoustic waveguide transformer in the node of longitudinal vibration, the difference is that the sleeve is fixed to the waveguide acoustic transformer with a preload force which corresponds to its radial deformation exceeding the amplitude of the transverse oscillations of the acoustic waveguide transformer at a node of longitudinal vibration when idling. Another difference is that the guides are connected with the tool body by means of elastic vibration-damping pads.
The fact that the sleeve is fixed to the waveguide acoustic transformer excitation source with an interference fit provides its acoustic contact. When the excitation source at a node of longitudinal vibration, where the fixed sleeve, there is an antinode of the transverse oscillations. These oscillations are transmitted to the sleeve, excite bending it towards guiding oscillations in the form of traveling waves. In any usloviahtabl contact between the bushing and the guide in the greater part of their surfaces of contact will be minimal, as the sleeve at any point in time will have a Flexural deformation relative to the guides, and the contact will only occur on ridges running down the sleeve of an acoustic wave.
In order for the energy of the transverse oscillations of the waveguide transformer is not allocated in place of the fixing sleeve in the form of heat of friction, it is necessary, that would have been provided acoustic contact between the bushing and the transformer. For this purpose, the sleeve shall be secured with effort, providing a compression - tension. This effort should be such that at the moment of maximum tension waveguide transformer in the longitudinal strain of his compression in cross-section does not exceed the deformation of the sleeve from the efforts of tightness. It is clear that the maximum deformation of the waveguide transformer possible when in idle mode, when provided mechanical resonance.
To transverse vibrations of the sleeve is not transmitted to the housing through the guide, the last set with rubber mats between them and the hull.
When such a tool is friction between the excitation source and the housing is less than that of the prototype, therefore, will be less and vibrating efforts that are passed to the case when the rebound. This will provide better protection of the operator or the device Manager in which the instrument.
Thus, a comparison of the claimed tool prototype, which is the closest analogues of the technical solution, characterizing known to the applicant, the prior art shows that the tool has a set of distinctive features, significant in relation to the specified technical result.
Figure 1 - design claimed ultrasound vibro-impact tool (General view). The ratio of the conditional.
Figure 2 is the same cross section.
Ultrasound vibro-impact tool includes a housing 1, the excitation source consisting of electroacoustic magnetostrictive transducer with elektroobmotka 2 and the waveguide acoustic transformer 3, is located inside the housing and having regard to him the possibility of the reciprocating stroke, the ferrule 4 with 5 strikers.
The excitation source is fixed in the sleeve 6, is located inside the housing with a gap 7 on the sliding guides 8, made in the form, for example, rectangular keys, which are incorporated in through the slots of the housing 9 through the elastic vibration-insulating strip and at the same time in the blind grooves 10 in the sleeve. The length of the groove in the sleeve exceeds the length of its guide on the value of the specified reciprocating stroke of the excitation source inside the enclosure. Nab is awsome with rubber mats are held in the through the slots on the chassis with put on him by the casing 11, which is fixed with curly nuts 12. Freeplay sleeve is additionally limited by a spring-damper 13.
Cooling air is supplied through the orifice 14, which is secured in one of the two channels 15, available at the base of the handle of the tool 16. The second end of the channel, is screwed into the fitting 17 for connection with the line of compressed air through a flexible hose. These structural elements form together with a gap between the sleeve and the casing of the air cooling system of the excitation source.
Through the second channel in the base of the handle removed wires 18 electroosmotic excitation source.
In the handle 16 of the tool is a switching device with a trigger switch 19 system remote start-stop ultrasonic generator supplying the excitation source.
The excitation source is fixed in the sleeve shrink the shrink-fit method, in which the sleeve prior to its consolidation has been heated and expanded inner diameter due to thermal expansion of the metal. Its inner diameter was performed on 0.1 mm smaller than the outer diameter of the flange 20 of the waveguide acoustic transformer, which is located in the antinodes of the transverse oscillations. The maximum amplitude of these oscillations, which should not exceed 0.1 mm, calculated by multiplying the Poisson's ratio #x003BC; equal to 0.25, the value of double the amplitude of the resonant oscillations of the acoustic waveguide transformer in part, connected to the magnetostrictive radiator. This value, in turn, is equal to the maximum amplitude AndSSmaterial from which made the emitter (alloy CF, A=7 μm) at a frequency 22000 Hz what happened:
2·μ·AndSS=3,5·10-3mm < 0,1 mm
Clip 4 strikers 5 screwed on the end of the transition tube 21 by means of a cap nut 22 held together by a retaining ring 23, and has the ability when loosened the nut to be rotated at a desired angle relative to the handle of the tool. The reducer 21 is fixed in the sleeve 6 through the elastic cuff 24 by pins 25.
For convenience of Assembly of the tool casing consisting of two parts connected by a plug connection 26.
The tool works as follows.
After the filing of the cooling air which enters the tool through the nozzle and out through the clearance between the casing and the sleeve, the movable part of the tool, consisting of a source of excitation of the sleeve, the transition pipe clamps with nut and retaining ring, progressive moves in the direction from the housing under the action of excess pressure arising inside the tools. Rotational movement of the sleeve within the housing, which could result in entanglement and breakage of the lead wires electroosmotic excitation source, prevents keyed connection, consisting of rails, grooves in the housing and the sleeve. The length of longitudinal travel of the movable part of the instrument is limited to the amount by which the length of the slots in the sleeve is greater than the length of the guides. This eliminates the loss of the movable part of the tool from the housing under the action of excess pressure of air inside the instrument.
After starting the generator by pressing the trigger switch on the handle of the instrument excitation source starts to oscillate relative to the nodes of the longitudinal vibration, one of which is in the plane of the flange, which is fixed to the sleeve. If the contact of the front end face of the waveguide transformer with strikers missing, there is no vibration of the tool body in the longitudinal direction, since the fluctuations in the source mutually offset relative to the center of its mass. From the transverse vibrations due to transverse vibrations of the source and Flexural vibrations of the sleeve, the body is protected by the spacers between the plates and the casing with the casing.
When the body of the instrument applied external force, the source, jaunty and processed about the project are in mechanical contact, with a force equal to the external force. Under these conditions, as described above, is initiated by the shock process involving bounces source. If the external force exceeds the force of the air pressure on the movable part of the tool, resulting in free play is selected, the inner end of the sleeve is in mechanical contact with a spring shock absorber.
Since the middle of each collision, the energy stored in the system during impact due to the elasticity which is in mechanical contact with the object to be processed, Boykov and the excitation source is a return movement of the movable part of the instrument - the rebound. The moving part has a piston effect on the air inside the case, and in the case of "choice" free running - pressure absorber, while working against the elastic forces, i.e. the transformation of the kinetic energy of your moving mass in the potential energy of his position.
Part of the volume of air in the instrument, when it is displaced through the gap between the housing and sleeve. This process takes place practically without energy dissipation, since the viscosity of air is small.
After the force of air pressure (or air pressure and spring shock absorber) will balance the inertial force of the moving part of the instrument is enta, the air inside will begin to restore its original volume, giving the Bush and all that therein is fixed, the acceleration of the opposite sign. Because the emitter in the sleeve are excited bending oscillations about its pin and accordingly guides the energy dissipation of the friction sleeve on rails is practically absent. Therefore, unlike the prototype pulses of the reaction force of the tool body when removed from the object and intimacy with him will be equal.
The vibration force is experienced by a stationary part of the tool body and, accordingly, the holding by the operator are equal, as is well known , the difference of average values of reaction forces return and translational motions, this will be practically absent.
Sources of information
1. Badalyan VG, Kazantsev V.F., Statnikov ES, Shvetsov E.M. Mechanism of ultrasonic impact treatment of welded joints //Bulletin of engineering. - 1979. No. 8. - P.56-58.
2. EN 2031144, 21 D 1/04, 11/00.
3. SU 472782, 24 In 39/04, 23 D 1/00.
4. Panovko AG introduction to theory of mechanical shock. - M.: Nauka, 1977. - 224 S.
5. SU 1759611, 24 In 39/04.
6. EN 2179919, 25 D 9/14, 06 / 1/08, 1/12, 24 In 39/04.
7. Jaworski BM, Detlef A.A. physics Handbook. - M.: Nauka, 1974. - 942 S.
8. Mukhanov I.I., Golubev, Y.M. Hardening of steel parts ball, vibrating with ultrazvukovoy frequency //Bulletin of engineering. - 1966. No. 11. - P.52-53.
9. Bykhov I.I. fundamentals of theory of vibrating equipment. - M.: Nauka, 1969.
10. Their application D.A., Friedman V.M. Ultrasonic equipment for industrial use. - M.: Energy. - 1967. - 264 S.: ill.
1. Ultrasound vibro-impact tool including a housing, a sleeve mounted on the chassis rails with a gap between its outer surface and inner surface of the housing, as well as the excitation source, which sleeve is fixed for acoustic waveguide transformer in the node of longitudinal vibration, characterized in that the sleeve is fixed on the acoustic waveguide transformer with a preload force which corresponds to its radial deformation exceeding the amplitude of the transverse oscillations of the acoustic waveguide transformer at a node of longitudinal vibration when idling.
2. Ultrasound vibro-impact tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the guides associated with the tool body by means of elastic vibration-damping pads.
FIELD: plastic metal working, namely surface plastic deforming of non-complete spherical surfaces, for example surfaces of automobile ball pins.
SUBSTANCE: deforming tool is in the form of ring mounted in housing in bearing assembly and having inner spherical surface with radius Ri. Tool embraces worked blank and due to imparting to housing planetary rolling out motion provides movement of contact zone of tool and blank along circle. Inner radius of spherical surface of deforming ring of tool is determined according to given relation. Lengthwise axis of planetary rolling out motion is set by inclination angle α relative to plane normal to blank axis and passing through center of sphere determined according to given expression.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, lowered cost price, enhanced efficiency, improved quality of product.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic metal working, namely surface plastic deforming of cylindrical surfaces of eccentric non-rigid shafts and screws with large pitch and small eccentricity value such as screws of oil producing pumps.
SUBSTANCE: head is provided with two discs, both having central opening. One disc is rigidly secured to housing; other disc is rigidly secured to end of first disc by means of spacing sleeves and screws. Holder carrying deforming members is freely mounted between said discs with use of several tension springs. Holder supports by means of brackets deforming members tore like rollers with doubled shaped bands formed by two profiled radiuses. Band formed by maximum radius is smoothing one; band formed by minimum radius is strengthening one, Rollers are mounted in bearing assemblies on axles with cone ends engaging with reciprocal inner cone surfaces of rings-nuts screwed by means of left-hand and right-hand threads into respective end openings of holder. Holder last includes peripheral handle for preventing its rotation and supported by means of roller with axle mounted between discs. Above mentioned tension springs are mounted on spacing sleeves.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, lowered cost price, enhanced efficiency, high quality and accuracy of products.
8 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic metal working, namely surface plastic deforming of cylindrical surfaces of eccentric, non-rigid shafts and screws with large pitch and small eccentricity value such as screws of oil production pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method provides effect of smoothing and strengthening with use of deforming members mounted in brackets of holder and being in the form of tore like rollers with doubled shaped bands formed by two profiled radiuses. Band formed by maximum radius is smoothing one; band formed by minimum radius is strengthening one. Said rollers are mounted in bearing assemblies on axles with cone ends engaging with reciprocal inner cone surfaces of rings-nuts screwed with use of left-hand and right-hand threads into respective opening of holder. Holder is arranged between two discs, both having central opening and it is freely mounted by means of several tension springs. One disc is rigidly secured to housing; other disc is rigidly secured to end of first disc by means of spacing sleeves and screws. Holder is provided with peripheral handle preventing rotation of holder and supported by means of roller with axle arranged between discs. Said tension springs are mounted on spacing sleeves.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, lowered cost price, enhanced efficiency, improved quality and accuracy of products.
8 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacturing processes with use of ultrasound for releasing residual stresses and strengthening metal surfaces in machine engineering and in other branches of national economy.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic tool includes ultrasound irradiator in the form of wave-guide on end of which detachable working tip is mounted. Said tip is made of material whose physical and mechanical properties correspond to those of worked material and it has shaped contour corresponding to topography of worked metal. Ultrasound irradiator with working tip is secured directly to end of concentrator and forms one-piece unit with it. Ultrasonic tool also includes detachable compression spring designed for changing and controlling effort of forcing ultrasound irradiator to worked surface of metal; lug for securing tool to machine tool at operation in stable mode; sleeve mounted in zero plane of wave-guide with possibility of motion along wave-guide for aligning position of plane of irradiator relative to plane of worked surface of metal and having braking member arranged in sleeve at side of worked metal surface; handles designed for operation of ultrasound irradiator in manual working mode when compression spring is arranged along lengthwise axis of acoustic system between magnetostriction converter and housing at opposite side relative to concentrator and when lug with one handle is secured to housing of acoustic system and other handle is secured to sleeve.
EFFECT: enhanced wear resistance, increased useful life period of articles, enlarged manufacturing possibilities of tool.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacturing processes in machine engineering, namely manufacture of tools, possibly for surface hardening of working surfaces subjected to intensified wear of steel and cast iron parts.
SUBSTANCE: tool with corrugated elastic ring for friction surface hardening includes friction disc in the form of narrow friction ring secured by means of pressure disc and key to housing peripheral surface having two steps. Thread is cut on small-diameter step and nut with cone outer surface engaged with elastic member is screwed on to said step. Elastic member for controlling effort for forcing friction ring to worked surface is in the form of corrugated elastic ring made of flat springy strip whose corrugations are filled with elastic material. Inner cone surface of corrugated elastic ring is reciprocal to outer cone surface of nut. Pressure disc is centered on housing by means of special shoulder; it has slots for driver arranged along circle in front of end openings for driver of said nut and secured to housing by means of bolts. Tool provides efficiency increased by 1.5 -2 times and roughness of surface improved by 1 - 2 classes.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of surface, increased rigidity and wear resistance of worked surface, enhanced efficiency, simplified design and high operational reliability of tool.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering, namely surface hardening of subjected to intensive wear working surfaces of steel and cast iron parts.
SUBSTANCE: friction disc in the form of narrow friction ring having inner cone surface is mounted on peripheral surface of housing with use of pressure disc and key. Housing has two steps; less-diameter step is cone one and it is adjoined with elastic member in the form of ring having trapezoidal cross section and provided with rigidity varying mechanism having washer and screws. Before working, real deviation of worked surface from regular geometrical shape is determined; change of effort for forcing tool at such deviation is determined for correcting rigidity of elastic member in order to provide its value inside range preset according to technological operations.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of hardened layer, lowered cost price of the whole process, simplified design of tool, reduced balanced mass and possibility for varying rigidity of elastic member.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering, namely manufacture of tools for surface hardening of subjected to intensive wear working surfaces of steel and cast iron parts.
SUBSTANCE: tool has friction disc in the form of narrow friction ring mounted on periphery of housing with use of pressure disc and key. Cone inner surface of ring is adjoined to elastic member. Peripheral surface of housing includes two steps, less-diameter step is cone one and it is adjoined with elastic member. The last in the form of ring having trapezoidal cross section and provided with rigidity varying mechanism that includes washer and screws.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of hardened layer, lowered cost price of hardening process, stable value for forcing peripheral ring of tool to blank surface.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of needle-milling with a hardening and is dealt with the field of mechanical engineering, finishing machining of materials by cutting. The method is characterized by the fact, that for expanding technological capabilities and upgrading the hardened layer they use a combination tool containing a body in the form of a cartridge with installed in it discs, one of which is smooth with an effective surface on its periphery and other discs have the holes placed on periphery for fixing U-shaped bunches of wire frieze and flanges for fixing discs on the cartridge. A billet and a tool are subjected to a rotary motion and movement along the working surface. At that the mentioned discs are installed at an acute angle to a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. At that the smooth disc is made as hardening one out of a material with low coefficient of thermal conductivity, and other discs are installed with displacement to each other, at which bunches of wire frieze of one of them are located between bunches of the other, and a space between axes of holes of two near-by located discs along the cartridge length is equal to a half of space between the axes of a pair of holes in a disc. The combined tool may have four taper washers, two of which are located between a fixed flange and the discs and make it possible to change smoothly an angle of the discs inclination from zero up to a peak value. At that the angle between butts of a taper washer is equal to the half of a maximum angle of inclination of the disks.
EFFECT: the invention allows to expand technological capabilities of needle-milling with a hardening and to improve the hardened layer.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: stationary and portable apparatuses for forming vertical, horizontal or inclined holes in glass, concrete, ceramics, stone or similar materials.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic oscillation system is subjected to rotation and abrasive suspension is fed under pressure through center of working tool. Novelty is contact free inductive transmission of energy from generator to electrodes of rotating piezoelectric transducer.
EFFECT: high velocity of dimension working, possibility for making deep holes.