Contact device for separating components of mixture in the rectifier

FIELD: physical or chemical processes and apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: device is made of cylindrical housing with horizontal axis and rotatable shaft with nozzle having developed surface that is made say of disks. The bottom section of the housing is provided with receiving and overflow recesses provided with branch pipes for supplying and discharging liquid. The top section of the housing is provided with branch pipes for supplying and discharging vapor. The horizontal size of the recesses and branch pipes for supplying and discharging vapor is equal to the length of the housing generatrix.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and efficiency.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for contacting steam (gas) and liquid and can be used in technological processes of rectification used in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries.

Known contact devices distillation units (columns) - / tube sheet plates containing suction and overflow pockets for liquid and provided with holes of small diameter, through which the steam barbthroat through the layer of liquid (pages 20-30, Distillation and absorption columns with new designs of plates. Thematic review. 1966, Issue 2, Series: Petrochemistry and oil refining, Central research Institute of information and technical-economic studies refining and petrochemical industry, Moscow.)

The disadvantages of contact devices of this design are:

the small surface area of contact of vapor and liquid, which increases the number of plates required to achieve a given degree of separation, and, as a consequence, leads to an increase in the size and metal design of distillation plants, increase the cost of their manufacture, installation and operation;

- high resistance to the passage of vapor through the liquid layer, the performance-limiting process;

- narrow range of stability, because the fluid layer on si is striated plates held steam flow;

- drop transfer of liquid from the lower plate to the upper plate by increasing the speed of steam more than 0.6 m/s, which limits the productivity growth process and reduces the purity of the separation of the products;

the inability to adjust the time of contact of vapor and liquid, which is necessary to solve some technological problems, for example, by separation of coking, thermally unstable and polymer products;

- the inability to work effectively in a wide range of loads, for example, in the absence of a permanent boot installations, raw materials, change in the quality of raw materials, change in load on the couple and the liquid height of the distillation column.

Known accepted as the prototype device is a rectifier of Podbielska (p.28-30, Vmouse, Wroczynski. Rotary-film heat and mass exchangers. Ed. "Chemistry", Moscow, 1977), which contains equipped with nozzles for the supply and removal of liquid and vapor cylindrical body with a horizontal axis, on which is mounted a rotary shaft with a fixed nozzle with a developed surface, made of a metal strip in the form of an Archimedean spiral or in the form of coaxial cylinders with holes for discharge of liquid from each of the smaller cylinder to the adjacent higher and for the passage of steam from the periphery to the center is. In the rectifier of Podbielska the liquid film on the developed surface of the nozzle is created by centrifugal force caused by rotation of the shaft with a fixed nozzle.

The rectifier of Podbielska has some advantages in comparison with / tube sheet plates. For example, the stability of the workflow in it, unlike / tube sheet plates, does not depend on the flow rate of the steam as the liquid film retained on the contact surface of a vapor-liquid centrifugal force; therefore, the rectifier does not lose health when you change the performance of a liquid and a couple of; specific surface area contact of vapor and liquid in the design of the rectifier of Podbielska more than design / tube sheet plates.

However, the design of the rectifier Podbielska has the following disadvantages.

- High resistance to the passage of steam due to the presence of numerous local resistance in the form of bends with different radii in a slit channel formed by the spiral of Archimedes, or sudden contractions and extensions of the channels for the passage of steam (when performing the nozzle in the form of a set of coaxial cylinders with holes on their surface), which increases the energy consumption for pumping vapor through the device.

- Drip entrainment of liquid with steam flow due to intensive turbulence in the flow n the RA when passing through the hole and turns, formed by the nozzle with a developed surface, and also due to disruption of the liquid droplets from the edges of holes on the surface of the nozzle under the action of centrifugal force, which reduces the quality and completeness of the separation of the fractions, as pairs of low-boiling fraction is contaminated with a liquid high-boiling fractions of the mixture.

- The speed of the nozzle in the design of the rectifier of Podbielska may not be reduced below a certain value, providing the movement of the liquid film from the Central axis of the cylindrical body to its periphery by centrifugal force. At lower speeds of rotation of the nozzle the liquid flows into the lower part of the body and not distributed to the developed surface of the nozzle. By increasing the speed of rotation of the nozzle above values, providing movement of the liquid film from the Central axis of the cylindrical body to the periphery, a significant increase in the rate of passage of fluid through the device (change the time of contact of liquid and vapor) does not occur, as by increasing the speed of rotation of the nozzle increases the centrifugal force holding the particles of a liquid to the surface of the nozzle and, accordingly, the frictional force preventing the increase of the movement of the fluid over the surface of the nozzle. Thus, the design of the prototype does not allow you to adjust the contact time fluid is STI and a pair of speed change of the rotation of the nozzle. As a result, the rectifier of Podbielska difficult separation of liquids with special properties (coking, cured, thermally unstable), requiring in its processing accurately and strictly maintained the largest time of contact of liquid and vapor.

The aim of the proposed invention is to improve the efficiency of a distillation unit by eliminating the aforementioned disadvantages.

This goal is achieved in the design of the contact device for separating components of a mixture in a distillation installation comprising a cylindrical body with a horizontal axis, on which is placed a rotary shaft with a fixed nozzle with a developed surface, inlet and overflow pockets with connections for inlet and outlet fluid connections for supply and discharge of steam, so that the nozzle is made in the form of discs, inlet and overflow pockets are placed under the horizontal diametral plane of the device, and connections for inlet and outlet pair is placed above the last, and the horizontal size of the target and the overflow pockets and fittings for inlet and outlet the pair is equal to the length of the generatrix of the cylindrical body of the device.

Figure 1 presents the proposed device is a longitudinal section; figure 2 is a section a - a of figure 1; figure 3 presents the scheme of rectification installation periodic actions proposed by the contact device.

The device (figure 1 and 2) consists of a cylindrical body 1 is placed on the horizontal axis of the rotary shaft 2, mounted on the shaft 2 by the attachment of thin, parallel disks 3. The housing 1 is equipped with placed under the horizontal diametral plane of the receiver 4 and overflow 5 pockets with connections for inlet 6 and outlet 7 of the liquid and the nozzle inlet 8 and outlet 9 pair above the horizontal diametral plane of the housing 1. The pockets 4, 5 and nozzles for the steam supply 8 and 9 is made with a horizontal size equal to the length of the generatrix of the cylindrical housing 1.

The device operates as follows. The liquid through the pipe 6 and through the receiving pocket 4 fills the lower part of the housing 1 (Fig 1) and through the overflow pocket 5 and the nozzle 7 leaves the housing 1. When turning (rotation) of the shaft 2 above the liquid surface in the upper part of the body (above the horizontal diametral plane) formed by the extended surface of the liquid film on both sides of the upper half of each disk of the nozzle 3. The liquid film in contact with the steam flow, sequentially passing through the pipe 8, the upper part of the housing 1 (above the horizontal diametral plane) and the nozzle 9. The limit value for the speed of rotation of the disk 3 is the value at which begins the breakdown of fluid particles from the surface discov under the action of centrifugal force. Limit value of the speed of movement of vapor in the channels formed by the disks 3, is determined by the conditions of preservation of the current regime, in which there is no disruption of fluid particles from the film surface and drift with the steam flow.

The uniform distribution of liquid and vapor through the gaps between the disks 3 nozzles is achieved by performing the pockets 4 and 5 and the nozzles 8 and 9 with the value of the horizontal size equal to the length of the generatrix of the cylindrical body 1 (figure 2). The result is a constant process parameters (temperatures, pressures, concentrations) in the entire working volume (in the gaps between the disks 3) the proposed design of the device, thereby increasing the degree of separation and purity of the partial products.

The step of placing the disk 3 on the shaft 2 may be equal to 5-10 mm when the thickness of a single disk of 0.5-1 mm, so the number of disks 3 nozzles and created by them, the surface of contact of liquid and vapor can reach significant values. So, if we accept for the most commonly used in the practice of the rectifying device / tube sheet plate: diameter 2m, when the hole diameter is 5 mm, the step placement of the holes is 10 mm, the height of the foam layer of the liquid on the plate is 100 mm; to accept that the contact of the liquid with steam is carried out on the lateral surface of a cylinder with a diameter of 5 mm episotomy 100 mm (for all holes on square plates), the total surface of contact of the liquid with steam in 1 m3the working volume of the installation will be equal to 50 m2. And if to take for the proposed device is the disk diameter, the nozzle 1 m when the thickness of the disks 1 mm, the step of placing disks equal to 5 mm shaft length 1.5 m, then the total surface of contact of the liquid with steam in 1 m3the working volume of the installation will be equal to 235 m2. As a result of this significant increase in surface area of contact of liquid and vapor for the proposed device in comparison with a standard (plate / tube sheet) number of contact devices of the proposed design in a distillation plant with a given degree of separation of components of a mixture will be minimal with a corresponding reduction in the size and metal of installation, and cost of manufacture, installation and operation.

In the working area of the proposed device (in the upper half of the housing 1 above the liquid level) resistance to the passage of a pair of parallel channels between the disks is significantly lower than when the burst of steam through the layer of liquid on / tube sheet plates or steam passage through the narrow rectangular channel of great length, with many turns, the radius of which varies in magnitude, or through a sharp narrow (holes) on the surface of coaxial cylinders in the design of the rectifier Selection is lnaka. The resulting increase in performance by a couple in the proposed device is compared with the known does not require a substantial increase in energy costs for pumping steam.

In the proposed device, the film thickness of the liquid wettable (hydrophilic), the vertical surface of the disc 3 is determined by the forces of gravity-viscous and gravity-capillary interactions. The film thickness is also affected and the roughness of the surface of the disc 3. The magnitude of the adhesion forces of the molecules of the liquid from the hydrophilic surface of the disk 3 is greater than the magnitude of the adhesion forces of the molecules of the liquid between them, so the steam flow is more difficult to break and carry away particles of liquid wetting the surface of the disk 3. In the breakdown of fluid particles from the film surface and drip ablation fluid steam flow in the proposed device is missing and can only take place at a much greater velocity of steam flow in comparison with known devices and prototype, which increases the purity of the shared substances and the degree of their separation in a wide range of expenses pair.

The speed of rotation of the shaft 2 in the proposed device can be changed (for example, when using the drive shaft 2 of a DC motor). The result is proportionally the contact time of the liquid is barb with steam, ensuring effective operation in a wide range of changes in the properties of the partial products through precise and strict keeping of time of contact of the liquid with steam or gas.

If the reduction in the rate of steam (steam flow) is necessary to reduce the fluid flow, it is sufficient to reduce the number of revolutions of the shaft 2 disk 3 and the exit of fluid into the working area in the form of a film on the surface of the disc 3 will be reduced. That is, the proposed device works reliably in a wide range of cost changes of liquid and vapor, which makes more efficient operation of the proposed device in comparison with the known.

Example I use of the proposed device is presented on figure 3 diagram of a distillation unit periodic operation, which includes alembic 10 with the pipe 11 to drain phlegmy in alembic 10 steam line 12, the proposed contact device body 1 (the device is presented in figure 1 and figure 2), the pipe 13 for removal of vapor in the reflux condenser 14, pipe 15 to return phlegmy in the housing 1 of the contact device and the pipeline 16 for removal neskondensirovannyh vapor in the condenser 17 and a pipe 18 to drain the condensate.

Installation (figure 3) works as follows. Pair mixture of the partial fluids from p is regunova cube 10 through the pipe 12 are received in the upper part of the housing 1 of the proposed device, where a pair of contact with the liquid (phlegm) on the surface of the disk nozzle (POS. 3 of figure 1 and 2), increasing the volatile fraction of the mixture and giving the phlegm trudnootdelyaemoy fraction of the mixture. Further along the pipe 13 and the pair arrive in the reflux condenser 14, where it is partially condensed. The condensed portion (phlegm) in the pipe 15 is returned into the housing 1, and nscontainerframe part of the pipe 16 enters the condenser 17 and the pipe 18 in kondensatornii (not shown). Phlegm, enriched trudnootdelyaemoy fraction, the pipe 11 is supplied from the housing 1 in an alembic 10. As a result, in Cuba 10 accumulates trudnoispolnimaya fraction of the mixture and store condensate - volatile fraction of the mixture. The workflow is to obtain a given degree of separation of the mixture. In the result of replacing in a typical installation, distillation columns proposed by the contact device becomes compact and stable operation in a wider range of loads and properties shared substances.

Contact device for separating components of a mixture in a distillation installation comprising a cylindrical body with a horizontal axis, on which is placed a rotary shaft with a fixed nozzle with a developed surface, inlet and overflow pockets with connections for inlet and outlet fluid connections for supply and discharge of steam, characterized in that the nozzle is made in the form of discs, inlet and overflow pockets are placed under the horizontal diametral plane of the device, and connections for inlet and outlet pair is placed above the last, and the horizontal size of the target and the overflow pockets and fittings for inlet and outlet pair is equal to the length of the generatrix of the cylindrical body.



 

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