Method for creating of grape sorts

FIELD: viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating inflorescence of mother bushes of cutting and graft with oxalic acid solution of 5-7% concentration at consumption rate of 100 ml per bush; covering with film; subjecting resulting seeds to thermal treatment and sowing on sterile substrate; growing seedlings and providing clone selection.

EFFECT: provision for producing of grape sorts free from bacterial and viral infection and preventing said sorts from repeated infection.

1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the selection of grapes and other agricultural crops, as well as in the creation of nurseries super-intensive type for production of certified seed.

A method of obtaining beznakazanno material, which consists in obtaining a healthy clones of grapes and their reproduction in conditions that exclude secondary infection (Sheflin, PAAs, 1973).

Originally vineyards produce particularly outstanding bushes with high yield strength growth, crop quality, separately for each hive receive the source material - the original clones. Then the clones are subjected to verification of the bushes in the absence of chronic diseases and competitive testing. The selected clone is assigned a number, and received them planting material called basic. Basic seedlings certified lay manifold, designed for secondary multiplication. The known method is tedious and requires expensive diagnostic methods, long time to get healthy clones.

A known method for the production of virus-free planting material based on in vitro (RI. III all-Union and Dr) including the production of calli on nutrient environment and then transfer them to an environment conducive to education is the eyeglasses and development of these plants.

In General, this direction of improvement of planting material of grapes requires specially equipped laboratories with a staff of highly qualified professionals.

There is a method of creating varieties of grapes, including the production of seeds and planting. growing seedlings, clonal selection, heat treatment plants (prototype) Cilmer, Kelts, 1968., Vynato, Faschenberg. Hummer, 1992., Daxdham, Kranke, 1982.

The disadvantage of this method is that the grape seeds used for growing seedlings infected with viral and bacterial diseases, and receive a grade at the beginning of vegetative propagation is already sick. With further growing them in the open ground the secondary infection of plants. As clonal selection and testing of clones of viral disease takes a long period of time because of high material costs, and future varieties, planted in a permanent place are unproductive.

The aim of the proposed invention is to obtain varieties that are free from bacterial and viral infections and the absence of re-infection.

The constant aim is achieved in that in the method of creating clones of grapes, including, obtaining seeds and sowing, cultivation of seedlings, clonal selection, heat treatment plants, uterine bushes varieties of rootstock and Scion is treated with the solution of oxalic acid at a concentration of 5-7% with a flow rate of 100 ml per hive, with the shelter of the bushes with plastic wrap and seeding, and maintenance of the manifold is carried out on sterile substrate.

What's new is that the method allows to produce a healthy offspring from infected maternal bushes even in cases where the grade is fully infected with the cancer and viral diseases, and to obtain healthy plants by the method of selection is not possible.

In our method the basic varieties of this plant populations, all members of which are obtained by genetic mutations in seed multiplication, get them under sterile conditions. Pollination occurs in a controlled environment that eliminates the infection.

Significant is the fact that to increase the output of the seeds, get petracovich and Queen cell virus-free bushes of rootstock and Scion is treated with a solution of oxalic acid at a concentration of 5-7% with cover with plastic wrap, and seeding and maintenance of the manifold is carried out on sterile substrate.

The proposed method is as follows. 10 days before flowering grapes are selected 8-10 buds on the Bush the most developed, is treated with oxalic acid and cover with plastic wrap. The amplitude of the oscillations of air temperature ranges from 20°night to 53°day, during flowering vine tying and growth of berries. Received healthy seeds from berries suleka the t immediately after harvest grapes and avoid fermentation of sugars on the surface of the seeds, washed and become deposited in the glauconite in the room at a temperature of +15-20°C. 20-30 days when the seeds are free from sugar, blacken, they put the stratification in the heat chamber. The bottom plastic boxes covered with a layer of filter paper, which are moistened with water and seeds on top cover with plastic wrap to avoid evaporation of water. Temperature holding stratification 0 - +2°C.

In mid-January, the temperature is adjusted from 0 to +2°to 15 hours up to +30°and then again decreases for 3 hours to +2°C. it was Established that grape germ most actively awakened at 2-fold as the temperature increases, and it is in that order. Seed germination begins after 7-10 days.

Thus obtained seeds are sterile clean planting material without wounds and injuries which might become infected.

In the greenhouse before planting seeds, also are sterilizati ambient air generally accepted way. After that, the assemblies are placed pravilnoe plate density 150-180 kg/m3the thickness of 25-30 cm, width 50 cm, length 400 cm and manually gloves hold the seed in the middle of the plate to a depth of 5-6 cm with an interval of 10-15 cm between plants ' futures.

Water restoree the nutrients and carries them through the plant, regulates thermal condition of the plants involved in the construction and activity of cells in all tissues of plants. Further watering spend a hydroponic solution containing in its composition components: potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, boric acid, manganese, zinc, copper, iodine.

Thinning seedlings spend in phase 7 of the leaves, leaving a row of plants through 50-55 cm between rows 50-70 see

After thinning in a greenhouse set trellis. When the shoots of the top wire of the trellis (15-20 knot) tip pinch. All pasiki developed on 2 major shoots pinch, except the top, which form in the phase of 3-4 true leaf.

Care of the remaining plants is watering, the frequency of which 1-1 times a day, and after reaching the shoots length of 30-40 cm is supported by the humidity of 80-85% of the HB.

Sowing seeds in February allows you to get by may the seedlings from Mature shoots. In effect fiziologicheskii features, the growth of shoots is delayed and whatever happens, ripened shoots in may briefly cut off, leaving 2 of the lower eye. Create favorable conditions for germination kidney wintering buds and plants start growing again. Artificial breeding of plants and their physiological state of rest allows you to identificirovat plant growth in the first year. Shoots relativit to the trellis and, where necessary, conduct 2-3 Pasynkova.

As can be seen, the proposed method eliminates the testing of elite bushes new varieties to bacterial cancer and viral disease, and the results of the first study of the vegetative progeny plants emit in the harvesting of cuttings, which further ensures a high yield of a cutting material, which are healthy seedlings (table 1).

Table 1

Evaluation of yield and disease susceptibility of seedlings grown their cuttings patients bushes, seed and vegetative reproduction (Berlandieri x Riparia the Kobior BB OPH "Key", average 1996-1997).
The origin of the seedlingsThe survival of seedlings, %An average increase of 1 plant, cmThe yield of seedlings, %Seedlings with symptoms, %
Vegetative progeny seedlings from plants, patients with short nodes81,4170,475,30
Prolonged vegetative-propagated patients with short nodes59,7124,641,111,5
Vegetative progeny seedlings of plants, the patients proalcool mosaic80,6164,9to 91.6
Long vegetatively propagated and the patients proalcool mosaic71,7131,732,40,8
Vegetative progeny seedlings from plants, patients ocaml. veins grapes65,9162,554,70
Long vegetatively propagated patients ocaml. veins grapes51,3100,030,23,4

Vegetative progeny seedlings from plants, patients with infectious chlorosis85,4159,482,00
Long vegetatively propagated patients with infectious chlorosis50,2111,341,05,3
Vegetative progeny seedlings from plants, cancer patients79,3149,470,30
Long vegetatively propagated cancer patients39,861,514,76,2

Cuttings from the bushes, cancer patients, grown from seeds, had a survival rate 79.3 percent, and from cuttings, from constantly vegetatively propagated, cancer patients, or 39.8%. Cuttings seed generation than the s with vegetative offspring of the original varieties better regenerates, more intensive root differed growth and development. Average increase per plant is higher by 87.9 cm or 2.2 times the output of seedlings of 55.6% compared with plants vegetative offspring.

And most importantly, seed propagation allows to obtain seedlings, 100% free from bacterial cancer and viral diseases. Vegetative progeny of plants grown from cuttings harvested from patients bushes, was infected with cancer by 62%. There were seedlings with opukholeobrazovanie as on the roots and stems of seedlings.

Thus, the method can reduce the effort required to obtain varieties that are free from bacterial and viral infection, even in those cases when uterine Bush fully infected with these diseases and get healthy plants by the method of selection is not possible.

The way to create varieties of grapes, including the production of seeds and planting, growing seedlings, clonal selection, heat treatment plants, characterized in that the inflorescences uterine bushes of rootstock and Scion is treated with a solution of oxalic acid at a concentration of 5-7 % with a flow rate of 100 ml per hive, cover with plastic wrap, and seeding and maintenance of the manifold is carried out on sterile substrate.



 

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FIELD: viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating inflorescence of mother bushes of cutting and graft with oxalic acid solution of 5-7% concentration at consumption rate of 100 ml per bush; covering with film; subjecting resulting seeds to thermal treatment and sowing on sterile substrate; growing seedlings and providing clone selection.

EFFECT: provision for producing of grape sorts free from bacterial and viral infection and preventing said sorts from repeated infection.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fruit and ovules sterilization processes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing two-staged sterilization procedure with the use of 0.8%-silver nitrate solution: initially treating fruits for 8-10 min, followed by treatment for 5-6 min of ovules released from fruits.

EFFECT: reduced infecting of ovules upon introducing thereof into in vitro culture and, correspondingly, increased efficiency of selection works.

4 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grafted plants; setting supports; cutting and forming grape bush and fruit-bearing zone; attaching bush to support. Fruit-bearing zone and replacement zone are formed on vine parts adjoining ground surface by means two groups of vines: branches for renewal of fruit-bearing zone are formed from first group of vines and fruit-bearing zone and renewal branches are formed from second group of vines, said zones being yearly interchanged with places.

EFFECT: increased stability, prolonged life time of grape bushes, and provision for utilizing training system in uncovered and covered viniculture.

7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of grape seedlings by green grafting method.

SUBSTANCE: method involves grafting on rootstock by bud attachment method, said grafting being provided immediately within nursery on growing seedlings of rootstock produced by planting of wood cuttings into ground mulched with black polyethylene film.

EFFECT: reduced time for growing of high-quality planting material, and increased yield of grafted seedlings grown in nursery.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, grape bush training method.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grape bushes; setting support; grafting, cutting and forming bushes. Bushes cut in the current year for fruit bearing purposes are to be cut next year for recovery of fruit bearing zone, and bushes cut for recovery are further cut for fruit bearing purposes.

EFFECT: increased yield, improved quality of berries, prolonged life of grape bushes, and increased resistance of plants to stress factors of habitat.

10 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, grape bush training method.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grape bushes; setting support; grafting, cutting and forming bushes. Bushes are formed with two parts, each of said parts presenting individual sort contrasting as to ripening time. Said parts are positioned at different planes of trellis.

EFFECT: increased yield, improved quality of berries, prolonged life of grape bushes, and increased resistance of plants to stress factors of habitat.

6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, grape bush training method.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grape bushes; setting support; cutting and forming bushes and fruit-bearing zone; attaching bushes to support. Bushes are formed with one or two zigzag-shaped cordon arms on two parallel wires of bi-planed trellis by attaching cordon arms in zigzag and alternating manner to upper wire and to lower wire in bending portions. Fruit-bearing parts are positioned at bending portions of cordon arms.

EFFECT: increased resistance of plants to stress factors of habitat, increased yield and improved quality of berries, prolonged life of bushes and widened crown space.

5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves producing and sowing seeds; growing seedlings; forming mother plantation; pinching rootstock seedling growth upon formation thereon of seven leaves while leaving two buds and forming two sprouts; training one bud grafter to 80-90 cm height and other bud grafter to 5-10 cm height from soil surface for forming grafter with two strains of different height. On laying of vineyards, seedlings are placed into holes so that grafter of first underground strain is at 40- cm depth and it grows at an angle of 10-15 deg from second vertical strain. Single-sided branch is alternatively formed from first strain to one side and to other side, with second strain grafter being 30 cm above soil surface.

EFFECT: provision for creating vineyards of grafted plants resistant to unfavorable conditions and free from bacterial and virus diseases.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: viniculture, in particular, methods for predicting and evaluating of wine quality.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining structural features of crude material such as sugar content, titratable acidity, yield, selection of processing trend, degustation evaluation; measuring under different ecological cultivation conditions values of outside limiting factors at ontogeny phases of grape sort; designing, on the basis of data received, multiple regression models of association among structural features with outside limiting factors; selecting by parameters of model optimal harvesting time, cultivation zone, ecological conditions of which zone maximally correspond to genetic requirements of sort; building multiple regression models of association of degustation evaluation of grape wine with its structural features and, on the basis of data received, building nomograph; on the basis of said nomograph, judging kind and quality of wine by forming four quadrants defined by horizontal and vertical boundaries, first of which extends along line according to which wine has constant degustation evaluation regardless of level of titratable acidity and constant sugar content value, and second of which extends through point of intersection of all the lines on nomograph, with sugar content-acidity interval values lying on lines in left-hand and right-hand upper quadrants corresponding to higher-quality dry and special wines, correspondingly, and left-hand and right-hand lower quadrants corresponding to lower-quality special and dry wines.

EFFECT: provision for selecting grape sort or cultivation zone corresponding to genetic requirements of sort with predetermined quality and productivity factors, and defining optimal harvesting time owing to consideration of effect thereon of outside limiting environmental factors by ontogenesis phases to enable formation of quality and kind of wine.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating bushes on multilayer trellis; growing vertical stem and forming productive heads at the level lower than respective level of wire; forming on each of rootstock bushes only two heads with productive zones; placing said heads along trellis in staggered arrangement and forming heads on shortened sleeves at distance of 10-20 cm beyond stem.

EFFECT: increased longevity and vitality of productive zones arranged on stems of parent bushes of rootstock, improved spatial and light modes for production of grafted cuttings.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

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