Tunneling method

FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.

EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.

4 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to underground construction, namely for the construction of tunnels and reservoirs semi-closed mode using a mechanized shield.

The known method of tunnel construction using mechanized shield (V.P. Volkov, Naumov, S., Pirozhkova A.N., Snoring VG Tunnels and subways. Ed. 2nd Rev. and ext. M.: Transport, 1975. s-316), in which soil (rock) in the slaughter destroy rotary body and loaded rotating buckets on the conveyor. Permanent lining (the lining) is performed under the protection of the shield. The space between the lining and the ground (stubenhofer space) plugging with cement mortar through the holes in the tubbing lining of the tunnel.

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of supporting in rotary part of the shield that does not exclude breakthrough unstable rock from the bottom through the rotor.

The prototype of the invention is a method of construction of tunnels using mechanized shield semi-closed mode with grantprogram in the rotor part. ("The underground world" No. 5-6, 1998. p.30-31), which separated (destroyed) in the bottom soil is not immediately gets on the conveyor, and remains to some extent in the rotor chamber to resist the free, uncontrolled release of weak soil in the rotor chamber. The magnitude of protopterus determined on the basis of giving the value of the ground shell of the shield, which comprise analytical way. Plugging stubenhofer space are carried out through special openings in the precast lining and technologically able to perform it immediately after podvigina shield on one ring or with a certain interval in time and space.

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of accurate data on the size of the mountain soil pressure on the shell of the shield at this particular point in time, as science has no analytical methods used for accurate pressure of the soil. In addition, the pressure protopterus in a rotary camera set on the basis of the magnitude of the horizontal component of the pressure of the soil, the latter is equal to the vertical pressure multiplied by the ratio of the lateral thrust, which, depending on rock properties (soil) ranged from 0.19 to 0.43. The inability to accurately determine analytically the vertical component of the pressure and the coefficient of lateral spreading of soils, which in flooding of some soils, approaches unity, leads to the fact that you enter in the system the pressure protopterus, equal to the settlement, does not match the actual soil pressure. This situation leads to the fact that the overestimation of the calculated soil pressure on the shell of the shield and the rotor compared with the actual accordingly, Tanglewood inflated pressure value of protopterus. The latter causes swelling of the soil on the surface or deformation of the nearby underground utilities, understated design pressure of the soil - its subsidence. The other case negatively affect nearby existing facilities and communications. The formation of voids between the soil and the lining at the time of the gathering shield with another tubbing rings lining and the absence of a rigid connection between the promotion of the shield on the bottom and start to plug stubenhofer space in weak soils leads to their collapse directly on the lining. The latter promotes the formation of gaps in these places grouting cement-sand layer that functions as additional waterproofing tubbing lining. In other words, waterproofing in direct contact soil and the lining will be partially weakened. Complete violation of the waterproofing of the tunnel lining (in this place) can occur as a result of a slight shift tubbing rings, due to the action of dynamic, seismic and other loads, as well as the inability of a hard, brittle cement layer to prevent the arising of even minor bending and stretching deformations. In turn, a violation of hidroizolatii the tunnel lining can lead to supposea is ynos soil and emergency condition. The inconsistent performance of grouting pump and the speed of movement of the shield leads to a lifting of the solution in the process of bridging stubenhofer space.

In the existing method using a tunnel complex (TLC) with grantprogram, the magnitude of protopterus in the rotor chamber to regulate the degree of closure of hydraulically operated valves and including a screw conveyor which carries out the metered removal of the destroyed soil from the bottom (rotary) camera on the tunnel conveyor belt. The amount of protopterus, and hence the operation of the hydraulic valves of the rotor, the start and stop of a screw conveyor is regulated not existing the actual external pressure of soils and settlement (set), with the result that (as mentioned above) leads to swelling or soil subsidence and deformation of nearby objects.

The invention is aimed at preventing deformation of the ground and objects in the zone of passage tunnel complex), improving water resistance of the tunnel lining.

The result is achieved that the method of construction of tunnels and reservoirs using a mechanized shield (for example, "Lovat", "Herrenknecht" and others), including the development of a ground working body, regulation of the pressure of the weights in the chamber of the rotor, that is panag stubenhofer space, the pressure in the rotor chamber will auto-negotiate with the pressure capacity of soils on the shell of the shield through membranes (diaphragms)that are installed in the shell of the shield and are constantly under the pressure capacity of the soil, and backfill stubenhofer space is produced through the tail end portion of the enclosure directly behind her podviganiem.

The result is that as the plug stubenhofer space use elastic material (for example, on the basis of polystyrene, polyurethane resins and the like).

The result is that the performance of grouting pump will coordinate with speed prodigene shield.

The result is that the value of closing the valves on the rotary part of the harvester and the inclusion of the screw conveyor will agree with the actual external soil pressure on the shield and the membrane.

The essence of the method is illustrated by drawings, where:

- figure 1 shows a schematic longitudinal section of a mechanized shield under the current method of construction of tunnels;

- figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of the upper part of the ring of the tunnel lining at the moment to plug his stubenhofer space (filling the gap between the tubbing ring lining and ground array) in relatively stable soils, after with the ode of the enclosure with another tubbing rings with the existing technology;

- figure 3 shows the same section in the end to plug gaps in fragile wood thrown soils;

- figure 4 shows a schematic longitudinal section of a mechanized shield on the proposed method defined membranes (diaphragms) in the rotor part of the shield and backfill stubenhofer space directly after the beginning of the promotion of the enclosure;

- figure 5 shows the moment of filling of cement slurry stubenhofer space in soils of any sustainability (including weak) by the proposed method;

- figure 6 shows a variant of the fastening of the membrane to the shell of the rotor chamber.

The proposed method is as follows.

On the shell of the rotor chamber 1 shield 2 set horizontally (and, if necessary, vertically) of the membrane (diaphragm) 3. Membrane sealed and can bend inside of the shield and back depending on the pressure in the rotor chamber and the external pressure of the soil, as well as using Electromechanical coupling to control the operation of rotary valves, screw conveyors, compressor.

To reduce friction between the soil and the membrane 3 into the space between them on channel 10 (with check valve) serves friction, elastic solution (e.g., bentonite).

To the inner side of the membrane 3 is fixed to the stem 11, the cat the rum install electronic sensors 12 for fixing of external pressure and control (analog device) this pressure.

The membrane 3 is fixed to the circuit 14, which is inserted inside the rotor chamber 1 and fastened to the ledge 15 by bolts 16.

To cover the membrane (in case of repair or replacement) is provided by the valve 17 in a special pocket 13 on the shell 2 of the rotor chamber 1.

To reduce friction between the ground and the pocket 13 is provided for feeding elastic solution on channel 10.

Grouting mortar 4 serves in stubenhofer space 5 (the gap between the array ground 6 and the lining 7) through mechanical part of the enclosure 2 (at several points along the periphery of the lining), followed by podviganiem shield. To prevent formation of a gap between the plugged section 8 and sogenannten the plug 4 performance of grouting pump will agree with the speed of movement of the shield. The holes 9 in the permanent lining 7 may serve, in this case, to control the completeness of the filling stubenhofer space 5 cement mortar.

When the shield, especially in weak, unstable soils vertical pressure P1and horizontal R2=P1λ (where λ - coefficient of lateral thrust) should be agreed upon (often justified) with pressure P3in the rotor chamber 1. This will prevent as swelling soils, a high pressure P3in a rotary camera)and subsidence (Saniga the nom). For this purpose, the valve 3 is adjusted so that at the same pressure (e.g., atmospheric) outside and inside the rotary chamber (P2=P3they took a neutral position. With increasing external pressure P1and R2membrane 3 subside inside of the shield and automatically include the compressor mechanized shield, raising the pressure P3in the rotor chamber up until it is equal to the pressure P2soils on the shell of the rotor chamber. Alignment of external and internal pressure membrane (diaphragm) 3 will take a neutral position and the compressor will shut down automatically. Membrane, if necessary, may be linked to the work of a screw conveyor and rotary action hydraulically controlled valves. With a sudden decrease in external pressure P2(for example, changed the soil, the trench on the surface above TPK) membrane (diaphragm) movement in the outer side includes a screw conveyor or open the discharge valve.

Automatic equalization of pressure P3in the rotor chamber to the external pressure P2(which is continuously recorded membranes) will nearly eliminate the swelling and shrinking of soils in the process of moving the shield and thus prevent deformation of nearby objects. Complete elimination of soil subsidence will provide one the belt plugging stubenhofer space 5 after the beginning of the advance of the shield 2, i.e. with the appearance of this nepatentovannoe stubenhofer space 5; for this on and off grouting pump and mechanisms for the promotion of the shield (e.g jacks) are performed simultaneously. By the way, the gap between the ground 6 and the casing 7, for example, when the outer diameter of the lining 5600 m and the diameter 5778 is 89 mm along the contour.

Plugging stubenhofer space (the gap between the rock completely and the tubbing lining) performed, as a rule, cement mortar, the strength of which tensile and bending much more lower strength in compression, so with a slight deformation of the tubbing lining tamping layer enveloping the lining, disturbed (rethermalized) and ceases to play the role of additional waterproofing of the tunnel lining. Replacement hard, not always continuous (61- hit the ground) backfill layer (for example, cement based) on a solid, elastic (for example, on the basis of polystyrene, polyurethane resins, etc. can improve the waterproofing of the tunnel lining. The obtained solid elastic layer can without its destruction, within certain limits, to absorb tensile and bending deformation of the tunnel lining and caving soils.

The performance of grouting pump, consistent with scrotumprivate shield (intensity education nepatentovannoe stubenhofer space), will prevent the formation of nepatentovannoe volume and lifting excess solution from stubenhofer space, simplify locking device.

The coordination of hydraulically operated valves, the turning of a screw conveyor with membranes (diaphragms) will allow you to manage the process of the equalization of pressure within the rotor chamber with the external (actual) pressure, eliminate deformation of the ground and nearby objects.

1. The method of construction of tunnels, sewers using a mechanized shield, including the development of a ground working body, regulation of the pressure of the weights in the chamber of the rotor, backfill stubenhofer space, characterized in that the pressure in the rotor chamber will auto-negotiate with the pressure capacity of soils on the shell of the shield through membranes installed in the shell of the shield and are constantly under the pressure capacity of the soil, and backfill stubenhofer space is produced through the tail end portion of the enclosure directly behind her podviganiem.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the bridging stubenhofer space use elastic material on the basis of polystyrene, polyurethane resins, etc.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that produced logicalnot grouting pump will coordinate with speed prodigene shield.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the value of closing the valves on the rotary part of the harvester and the inclusion of the screw conveyor will agree with the actual external soil pressure on the shield and the membrane.



 

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