Pneumatic hammer with throttle air distribution structure

FIELD: mining, particularly hand tools or hand-held power-operated tools specially adapted for dislodging minerals.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer comprises arm with cup, executive tool, body with outlet channel closed with lid from arm side and defining annular prechamber for system air between cup and lid, working and idle stroke chambers, displacement chamber located between lid and larger body step and pressurizing chamber defined by recess with cut-off edges permanently formed on inner side surface of central stepped channel by annular prechamber communicated with compressed air system. Hammer also has inlet throttle channel formed in pressurizing chamber wall, annular neck portion located in central stepped lid channel between pressurizing and displacement chambers, bypass displacing channel having radial outlet formed in the body and communicating with working stroke chamber arranged between pressurizing chamber and outlet channel formed in the body and striker with upper and lower cut-off edges located in central stepped channel along body axis. Distance between the striker edges is greater than distance between displacement chamber outlet and cutoff edge of larger central channel step. Hammer is additionally provided with inlet throttle channel made in the lid and permanently communicated with annular prechamber. Radial bypass displacing channel inlet is formed in the annular neck portion between pressurizing and displacing chambers from displacing chamber side so that distance between cut-off edges of displacing chamber on side central stepped body channel surface is greater than distance between cut-off striker edges.

EFFECT: increased power of hammer stroke.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to devices percussion, used for destruction of solid natural and artificial materials.

Known pneumatic hammer with butterfly distribution (see, for example, as the USSR №1454961, CL E 21 3/24, 37/24, 1989)containing the handle, the body with a cover forming a chamber provided with a network of compressed air, located along the axis of the housing drummer, separating the cavity of the cylinder chamber of the working and idle strokes, situated in the body of the cumulative n depreciation chambers separated annular ledge of the neck of the casing, the axial channel inlet, made in the annular ledge of the isthmus and constantly telling depreciation and cumulative camera made along the casing wall channel reporting the camera idling with antechamber and a network of compressed air, and a working tool, and the annular protrusion of the neck of the body is the intersection of the axial channel of the additional radial inlet channel release air into the chamber of the stroke with speed reduced cross-section.

The specified technical solution has drawbacks: the presence of the depreciation of the camera causes a significant increase in air pressure in it at the end of idling and at the beginning of the stroke of the striker, which is syvaet significant amount of recoil forces which must be compensated by the force pressing the handle of a hammer, which, however, does not exclude the negative effects of vibration on the operator's hands. Except where noted, the decision of the depreciation of the camera during communication with the chamber pressurization leads to alignment and reducing the air pressure from both chambers, decrease in pulse pressure and as a consequence of lower initial velocity, energy, and purity of blows of a hammer.

Also known pneumatic hammer with butterfly distribution (see, for example, patent RF №2015322, CL E 21 3/24, 37/24, 1994), containing the handle, a working tool, a housing with an outlet channel and the Central channel, inside of which is placed a drummer, separating the Central channel at the camera - groove, the camera of the stroke and the camera is idle, periodically communicating with atmosphere and an outlet channel, the inlet throttle channels in the lid of the enclosure, permanently connecting the camera of the stroke and the camera idle network compressed air, and the channel displacement from the chamber of the stroke with cutting edges in the Central channel of the body, and the channel length of the displacement between the cutting edges is greater than the length of the side Seating surface of the striker. Channel displacement is in the form of a groove on the inner surface of the Central channel, in the form of closed about the Aulnay channel, in the form of a tube outside of the body.

The specified technical solution has drawbacks: the camera-grooves and overlapping channel displacement causes at the end of the idling drummer sufficient air pressure in the chamber and sufficient braking drummer. However, when working stroke with increasing volume of the chamber air pressure therein decreases, and when the channel opening displacement air pressure in the chamber is reduced significantly due to the removal of the major part of air, which reduces pulse pressure stroke of the striker, reduced the speed of his movements. When the channel overlapping the total volume displacement chambers-groove and the camera of the stroke cannot be filled with air from the network through the throttle channel of the lid to the desired value, resulting in reduced pulse pressure stroke of the striker, the loss of speed and as a consequence reducing the frequency and impact energy with the increase in the specific consumption of air hammer.

It is also known technical solution of the pneumatic hammer with butterfly distribution (see, for example, patent RF №1460233, CL E 21 3/24, 1989, prototype), containing the handle with a glass, a working tool, a housing with an outlet channel and a Central stepped channel access cover is on the side of the arm, forming between the glass and the housing an annular chamber of a network of air, camera blank and stroke reported with the latter, the camera displacement between the cover and the stage housing, the pressurization chamber formed by the bore with the cutting edges on the side of the stepped surface of the Central channel, continuously through the ring prelimary provided by a network of compressed air throttle channel, made in the wall of recompression chambers formed in the housing of the bypass channel displacement from the entrance, located in the camera displacement, and an exit located in the chamber of the stroke, placed in the Central stepped channel along the axis of the housing drummer with the top and bottom relative to the working tool the cutting edges, an additional throttle channel in the lid Central stepped channel, constantly communicated with a network of compressed air, and move the bypass channel displacement in the camera displacement is placed in the axial gap between the primary and secondary throttle channels, the distance between the cutting edges of the striker is greater than the distance between the output of the bypass channel displacement and the upper cutting edge is wider Central stepped channel.

The specified technical solution as having the greatest number of things the public signs in relation to the claimed solution, taken as a prototype.

The lack of constructive solutions of the prototype is the constant message of the sign by-pass channel displacement in the housing by means of the camera displacement and additional throttle channel in the lid with the chamber of a network of air. Marked leads to a significant reduction of air pressure in the chamber, the displacement at the end of the blank and the beginning of the working stroke of the striker, and therefore, the decrease in the intensity of its deceleration and acceleration, which increases the time period of deceleration and acceleration of the striker and causes a reduction in the frequency and kinetic impact energy generated by the initial velocity of the striker.

The disadvantage of the prototype is excluded by the overlap of the firing channel input displacement at the end of the blank and the beginning of the stroke of the striker. Marked increases air pressure in the chamber displacement due to the receipt of its additional throttle channel in the cover during the period of deceleration and acceleration of the striker, which provides greater intensity of deceleration and acceleration.

The technical problem of the invention is to increase the shock power of the pneumatic hammer by increasing the frequency of strokes and the kinetic energy of impact of the striker on the instrument.

The aim is achieved in that the pneumatic hammer the throttle Vozduha is the definition contains the handle to a glass a working tool, a housing with an outlet channel and a Central stepped channel, closed the lid side arm forming between the glass and the housing an annular chamber of a network of air, the camera is idle, the camera displacement between the cover and greater degree of enclosure, camera, charge, formed Vitocell with cutting edges on the inner side of the stepped surface of the Central channel, continuously through the ring prelimary communicated with a network of compressed air, an inlet throttle passage in the chamber wall charge formed in the Central channel of the body between cameras pressurization and displacement of the ring isthmus, made in building the bypass channel displacement with radial access the camera of the stroke, which is located between the pressurization chamber and an outlet channel in the housing, located in the Central stepped channel along the axis of the housing drummer with the top and bottom relative to the tool cutting edges, the distance between which is greater than the distance between the channel output displacement and the upper cutting edge is wider Central stepped channel, additional intake throttle channel in the lid, constantly communicated with the annular chamber of a network of air, and a radial inlet bypass channel superseded by the I-side of the camera displacement is made in the annular neck of the housing between the chambers pressurization and displacement so what is the distance between the cutting edges formed respectively radial inlet and outlet of the bypass channel displacement exceeds the distance between the cutting edges of the striker. The performance of a pneumatic hammer with throttle distribution is illustrated by a drawing, which shows his General view, longitudinal section.

Pneumatic hammer consists of a casing 1, a Central stepped channel 2 which is divided by drummer 3 the displacement chamber 4 and the camera 5 idling. The Central channel 2 has a recess 6 forming chamber 7 charge limited top 8, the arm 9 and the bottom 10, the side of the working tool 11, the cutting edges. In the side wall 12 of the chamber 7 is made of an inlet throttle channel 13, constantly telling annular chamber 14 network of air formed by the Cup 15 of the handle 9 and the housing 1. In the housing 1 has a longitudinal channel 16 for release of air into the chamber 5 and the radial outlet channel 17. Channels 13 and 16 are constantly reported an annular chamber 14 network of air in accordance with the pressurization chambers 7 and bachelors 5 turn. 4 camera displacement from the stroke also constantly communicated with the annular chamber 14 of compressed air through the throttle channel 18, is made in the cover 19, which separates the annular predc the measure 14 from the camera 4 eviction.

In the housing 1 is made the bypass channel 20 displacement, having a radial inlet 21 on the inner surface of the neck 22 of the Central stepped channel 2 between the chambers 7 and 4 side cover 19, and a radial outlet 23 located on the inner side of the stepped surface of the Central channel between the radial outlet channel 17 and the recess of the camera 7. The channel 20 of their displacement radial inlet 21 and outlet 23 forms the cutting edge 24 of the inlet 21 and 25 to exit, respectively. The distance between the cutting edges 24 and 25 is less than the distance between the cutting edges 26 and 27 of the striker 3, respectively, from the side of the arm 9 and the working tool 11.

When the overlap drummer 3 channel 20 displacement, namely, when the overlapping of its radial inlet 21 or radial outlet 23, the displacement chamber 4 performs the functions of the camera of the stroke. Message camera 7 charge with camera 4 displacement causes for camera 7 functions afterburners, and the joint work of the chambers 4 and 7 characterizes them as the camera of the stroke. At idle drummer 3 and the open channel 20 of the displacement chamber 4 performs the functions of camera displacement, and when his working course - the camera features a purge.

Camera 4, 7 and 5 periodically through the outlet radial channel 17 in the housing 1 and the discharge chamber 28, formed vozduhoobmenu ring 29 and the casing 1, communicated through channels 30 with the atmosphere.

The working tool 11 is provided with a device to hold it in place relative to the housing 1, for example in the form of an annular spring 31.

Pneumatic hammer works as follows.

Compressed air from the network enters an annular chamber 14, where served on the channel 13 in the chamber 7, through the channel 18 in the chamber 4 and 7, and channel 16 in the chamber 5. The pressurization chamber 7 and the displacement chamber 4 during this period, communicated to each other (in this period, they almost form a single camera - the camera of the stroke) and communicated with the atmosphere, causing the air pressure in these chambers is close to atmospheric, since the total flow section of the channel 13 and 18 is substantially less than the flow area of the exhaust channel 17.

In the chamber 5, as it is with the atmosphere divided, the air pressure increases and drummer 3 begins to move from tool 11, making idle. Subsequent movement of the striker 3 lateral surface with the cutting edge 26 will block the outlet channel 17, as a result of the camera 4 and 7 with the atmosphere becomes disconnected and the air pressure in them begins to rise. In the next period begins the separation of the chambers 4 and 7, which terminates upon reaching the cutting edge 26 of the striker of the cutting edge 8 of the undercut 6, resulting in the receipt of a network of air from prelimary 14 in Cham is at 7 on channel 18 will cease and network air in the chamber 7 will flow through the channel 13.

After separation of the chambers 4 and 7 drummer 3 the cutting edge 27 on the side reveals a radial exit 23 of the channel 20 displacement, limited cutting edges 25 and 24. To this period of time the air pressure in the chamber 5 will be close to atmospheric, due to the incident of her release that occurred after the opening of the cutting edge 27 of the side surface of the striker 3 exit the outlet port 17.

Since the distance between the cutting edges 26 and 27 is less than the distance between the cutting edges 24 and 25 of the outputs of the radial channels 21 and 23 of the channel 20 displacement, it will be the displacement of a substantial portion of air from the chamber 4 through the channel 20 into the chamber 5 under the end of the striker 3 against the side of the cutting edge 27 and the exhaust channel 17 into the chamber 28 is released, and then through the channels 30 vozduhoochistnogo ring 29 to the atmosphere. Due to displacement of air from the chamber 4, the pressure therein is reduced despite the decrease in the volume of this chamber, which leads to significantly less back pressure on the striker 3, and therefore, helps to increase its flow. In addition, the decrease in air pressure in the chamber 4 causes the reduction of the pressure pulse acting on the cover 19, the Cup 15 of the handle 9 and the housing 1 hammer. When this air pressure is reduced to near atmospheric, and therefore it is not vyzyvae the strength and movement of the body towards the arm 9. Subsequent movement of the striker 3 the cutting edge 26 at its side surface overlaps the cutting edge 24 of the radial channel 21 and expulsion of air from the chamber 4 is stopped. Due to the flow of air from prelimary 14 to the exhaust channel 18, the pressure in the chamber 4 will begin to rise, but due to the slower movement of the striker 3 the air pressure in the chamber will increase. The magnitude of the pressure pulse of air in the chamber 4 to the stop time drummer 3 reaches a sufficient magnitude to provide intensive acceleration of the striker at the beginning of the stroke.

Note that after closing drummer 3 camera 7 in the recess 6 will accumulate air, due to its leakage from the chamber 14 through the outlet channel 13. Increasing the air pressure in the chamber 7 to the value network has no back pressure on the striker 3 and does not form the recoil impulse, and therefore causes forces for movement of the housing 1 in the direction of the arm 9 and does not require increasing the pressure to compensate for the forces of bestowal. Thus the calculated stroke of the striker 3 can be carried out at a lower pulse pressure, acting on the striker side of the camera 5, which reduces the cross section of the channel 16, and hence to reduce the air flow.

After idling, drummer 3 stops under the action of a pressure impulse in what suham side camera 4 will begin an intensive movement in the direction of the tool 11, making the stroke. Required air pressure from chamber 4 is provided with calculated cross-section of the channel 18 of the cover 19 in accordance with the increasing volume of the chamber 4.

When the movement of the striker 3 in the direction of the tool 11 and he opens the cutting edge 26 of the radial channel 21 channel 20 and the displacement chamber 4 is communicated through outlet channel 23 and the outlet channel 17 with the chamber 28 and through the channels 30 with the atmosphere. During the blowing chamber 4 in a given period of time the speed of the striker 3 is already increased significantly and overlap of the cutting edge 27 of the striker radial channel 23 displacement occurs very quickly, and therefore, the share of consumption of air during the blowing chamber 4 in total consumption is not significant and it involves a certain air pressure, providing acceleration of the striker 3.

At the moment of opening of the cutting edge 26 of the striker 3 of the cutting edge 8 of the undercut 6 camera 7 air pressure reaches the value of the network and its subsequent impact on the increase in pulse pressure drummer 3 with the side of the camera 4, in which the air pressure also increased significantly.

Thus, the increase in pulse pressure air from the chambers 4 and 7 increases the speed of the striker 3.

Making a working stroke, the striker 3 the cutting edge 27 of the side surface of the block radial Vyhod channel 20 displacement, and then the outlet channel 17 divides the chamber 5 with the atmosphere so that the pressure will begin to rise due to compression clipped in her air and air entering via the inlet channel 16 from prelimary 14 network of air.

Subsequent movement of the striker 3 the cutting edge 26 of the side surface opens the outlet channel 17, so that the air pressure in the chambers 4 and 7 will be reduced to atmospheric values, since the total flow section of the exhaust channels 18 and 13 is substantially less than the flow area of the exhaust channel 17. Overcoming the increasing pressure from the chamber 5, the drummer 3 strikes on the working tool 11, and the above process is repeated. When the pressure pulse of air from the chamber 5 is supplemented by the momentum of the rebound of the striker 3 from the working tool 11, which increases the total momentum of idling.

Pneumatic hammer with throttle distribution that contains the handle with a glass, a working tool, a housing with an outlet channel and a Central stepped channel, closed the lid side arm forming between the glass and the housing an annular chamber of a network of air, the camera is idle, the camera displacement between the cover and greater degree of enclosure, camera, charge, formed wytock the th with cutting edges on the inner side of the stepped surface of the Central channel, constantly, through the ring prelimary provided with a network of compressed air, an inlet throttle passage in the chamber wall charge formed in the Central stepped channel housing between cameras pressurization and displacement of the ring isthmus, made in building the bypass channel displacement with radial exit in the middle of stepped channel of the hull between the pressurization chamber and an outlet channel in the housing, located in the Central stepped channel along the axis of the housing drummer with the top and bottom relative to the tool cutting edges, the distance between which is greater than the distance between the channel output displacement and the upper cutting edge is wider Central stepped channel, additional the intake throttle channel in the lid, constantly communicated with the annular chamber of a network of air, characterized in that the radial input bypass channel displacement from the camera displacement is made in the annular neck of the housing between the chambers pressurization and displacement so that the distance between the cutting edges formed respectively radial inlet and outlet of the bypass channel displacement exceeds the distance between the cutting edges of the striker.



 

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FIELD: mining, particularly hand tools or hand-held power-operated tools specially adapted for dislodging minerals.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer comprises arm with cup, executive tool, body with outlet channel closed with lid from arm side and defining annular prechamber for system air between cup and lid, working and idle stroke chambers, displacement chamber located between lid and larger body step and pressurizing chamber defined by recess with cut-off edges permanently formed on inner side surface of central stepped channel by annular prechamber communicated with compressed air system. Hammer also has inlet throttle channel formed in pressurizing chamber wall, annular neck portion located in central stepped lid channel between pressurizing and displacement chambers, bypass displacing channel having radial outlet formed in the body and communicating with working stroke chamber arranged between pressurizing chamber and outlet channel formed in the body and striker with upper and lower cut-off edges located in central stepped channel along body axis. Distance between the striker edges is greater than distance between displacement chamber outlet and cutoff edge of larger central channel step. Hammer is additionally provided with inlet throttle channel made in the lid and permanently communicated with annular prechamber. Radial bypass displacing channel inlet is formed in the annular neck portion between pressurizing and displacing chambers from displacing chamber side so that distance between cut-off edges of displacing chamber on side central stepped body channel surface is greater than distance between cut-off striker edges.

EFFECT: increased power of hammer stroke.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly hand tools or hand-held power-operated tools specially adapted for dislodging minerals.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer has body with radial outlet channel and central channel, lid with annular shoulder and central orifice supported by body end in air-tight manner, striker with through axial channel dividing central body channel into working and idle stroke chambers, tube having blind shoulder arranged from lid side, longitudinal and radial channels. The tube is installed coaxially in central body channel and cooperates with through axial channel of the striker and with central lid orifice by side wall thereof so that annular dap is created between tube and lid. The annular gap may be closed with blind lid shoulder. Hammer has cup, which is air-tightly installed relative annular shoulder and body so that annular accumulation chamber is formed between side cup surface and lid. Annular accumulation chamber is permanently communicated with idle stroke chamber by radial bypass channel in the body. Annular lid shoulder and cup with air inlet channel define prechamber. Air inlet channel permanently communicate prechamber with compressed air system through air hose and nipple releasable connected to the cup. Hammer comprises ring with outlet orifices forming outlet chamber between the body and outlet channel, executive tool with shank and shoulder cooperating with body end and with shank cooperating with hammer, cap with annular shock absorber retaining executive tool from falling out of central body channel. Executive tool shank is provided with central blind hole for receiving tube rested upon bottom thereof. Side surfaces of the tube and central blind hole cooperate to define annular channel having throat, which is not less than that of longitudinal tube channel.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability and power of hammer stroke.

2 dwg

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