Watercraft and its hydraulic system

FIELD: watercraft.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.

EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.

9 cl, 11 dwg

 

The invention relates to devices of vehicles dual (civil and military) assignments with the ability to transport various cargoes by land and water, and can be used to provide terminal equipment through water obstacles. The hydraulic system of the vehicle, as an integral part of the device that promotes optimal provision of men qualities floating vehicle and its operating characteristics and can also be used in the control system of other vehicles such as hovercraft.

The main requirement for floating vehicles is the provision of the required capacity, buoyancy and stability when driving afloat, good maneuvering qualities of both afloat and on land, as well as the speed of loading-unloading works in terms of unprepared passages.

Known floating vehicle, developed by the applicant for patent for invention №2201353 priority from 17.04.2001,

This floating vehicle comprises a sealed enclosure with deck, power unit, transmission, propulsion and steering system for movement by land and water. A partitioned housing design provided high the traveler buoyancy of the vehicle. The use of reliable transmission and tracked undercarriage allows the vehicle to meet high demands for mobility and maneuverability on land, the special protection of the hull and cabin allows the use of such vehicle dual-use military and peaceful purposes.

Floating vehicle equipped with a device vector thrust-men propulsion, allowing it to adjust its pitch afloat.

However, this vehicle was not fully possessed effective means of ensuring high speed and maneuverability afloat. In addition, there were no devices that facilitate rapid loading and unloading.

Known floating vehicle title-3 family of machines title adopted for the prototype developed in the development of the PTS-2, see, for example, the article Zubrow Century, Stepanov A. "Engineering-crossing means", journal of engineering and weapons", October 2001, pages 8, men with high performance.

This floating vehicle comprises a sealed enclosure with deck, power unit, transmission, propulsion and steering system for movement by land and sea, meets the requirements of the dual-purpose on the level of protection of the crew and the specific power of the power from the system.

It is men thrusters increased efficiency through installation of propellers hydraulic nozzles and dual water rudders located behind buildings nasdaw controlling the rotation of the vehicle. Each men thruster hydraulic nozzles connected to the vehicle body with tie rods rigidly connected with the nozzle body, and is equipped with hydraulic lifting and lowering by turning the rods.

The vehicle is equipped with a hinged boot Board. In the transport position, the hinged boot Board interconnected by a plate with a side of the housing. To download vehicles (land) one member of the crew separates screed boards, followed by lowering the hinged boot side hydraulic cylinder used to raise and lower the nozzle, in the boot (at the bottom) position, in which the Board relies on the nozzle body, and therefore when loading a floating vehicle transported by the transport load is perceived by the nozzle body and transmitted to the ground. Then manually recline the entrance ramp hinged to boot the Board. These operations manual when the transfer Board from the transport position in the boot, also performed the manual when translating boot bead from the loading position to the transport.

Thus, the lack of automation for installing ramps at the charging side and for mutual locking of the hinged boot the Board with the Board of housing is the first disadvantage of the floating vehicle.

The second drawback predetermined fixed nasdaw on the rods. This leads to the fact that when downloading a floating vehicle transported by the transport and rough terrain you may encounter situations when one nasdaw is not resting on the ground, and the case of the second nozzle communicates with the ground only the front edge to allow the side. In this case, at the entrance of the transported vehicles on the boot Board, which, as mentioned above, when loading is based on body Asadchev, jet part of the body is loaded nozzle can get plastic deformation, which is unacceptable. At the same time (if possible difference location nasdaw height due to irregularities of the ground) possible distortion and twisting (plastic deformation) rod loaded nozzle relative to the hinge fixing rods on the body, which is also unacceptable from the positions of trouble-free operation of the vehicle.

Described here, the situation is compounded by the fact that at the initial entry of the transported transport on the boot Board floating vehicle panel is further suspension chassis floating means, located in the area of the stern, "SAG", additionally loading the rod and housing nasdaw and creating unmanaged (crews of vehicles) conditions of loading. It should be noted that for other gruzootpraviteli vehicles, such as elevating self-propelled cranes, avlb or reactive systems of volley fire, to avoid the phenomenon of sagging rear suspensions are applied remote outriggers located in the aft (see, for example, the invention according to patent No. 2217679, application No. 2002118403 from 08.07.2002 g) Such outriggers in a floating vehicle to place is not possible because of the installation in this area men of drivers and system management.

Thus, the disadvantages of the known floating vehicles are sub-optimal technical solution for installing the men of propulsion on a floating vehicle, which, along with the main function is used as the support element for the boot Board when handling.

These drawbacks reduce operational characteristics of floating vehicles and limit its applicability in terms insufficiently prepared ferries.

Known hydraulic system tracked transport is rest, for example, bridging systems, see, for example, decision 05.01.1988, of a certificate for a utility model System of nastolatka" application No. 96110727 /03 from 29.05.96,, CL E 01 D 15/127.

This hydraulic system includes a pumping station, safety relief device, mains power, hydroline with a system of hydraulic cylinders, which is the Executive bodies to lower the outrigger, installation of the lever mechanism leads and disclosure sections of the bridge. Each hydroline contains the sequence of hydraulic locks that are installed in pairs on each cylinder with lock one lock rod end, the second piston cylinder cavity. The described hydraulic system is perfect in relation to malolactic, but in the same regard, it is extremely difficult, and the use of a large number of hydraulic locks (expensive and relatively bulky and creates obstacles for the use of the technical solutions applied to the floating vehicle. In addition, the hydraulic system is not functionally suitable for use on a floating vehicle, where you want to perform other operations.

Known from the above-mentioned article Gabrova V. and Stepanov, A. "Engineering-crossing means" hydraulic system (hidrosis the EMA) PTS-3. The hydraulic system on the basis of text and illustrative materials article contains a pumping station, traditionally used in hydraulic safety relief device and pipelines, as well as the hydraulic cylinder control the position of men mover for transfer into transport (potatoe to boot the Board) or working position with electrical control the flow of operating fluid in the cylinder cavity through a three-position valve. This hydraulic system is adopted as a prototype for the inventive hydraulic system of the vehicle on the most essential features.

The disadvantages of the hydraulic system prototype stem primarily from the lack of floating vehicle - prototype of a number of modes, in particular automates the installation of ramps and mutual locking of the hinged boot the Board with the Board body. In the hydraulic system also lacks the ability to provide outrigger mode, eliminating the "deflection" floating suspensions of the vehicle during loading, and changing running trim afloat.

The task of the claimed invention is to improve the operational characteristics of floating vehicles and the creation of a hydraulic system for vehicles which, providing the required operation modes.

Following the decision of the specified problem is being addressed by two inventions related single design concept. The first invention is a floating vehicle (as a whole unit), and the second hydraulic system of the vehicle (as an integral part of that overall the device is used for the required functionality, as the hydraulic float control of the vehicle, but can be used in other, including optional floating objects, in particular in the courts of the air cushion with lively marching screws located in the nozzle, the nozzle, another guide apparatus).

This task is solved in that the floating vehicle containing deck sealed enclosure with a hinged boot Board, power unit, transmission, propulsion and steering complex with men thrusters, including propellers, installed in the hydraulic nozzles, and the device changes the men thrust vector of the propulsion provided by the carrier frame a streamlined shape for fastening devices propulsion and steering unit installed in the rear of the hull and formed two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams, hinged inner ends to the Corinthians the new piece of shell in the zone, located under the boot Board associated elastic cross beams in each pair and the reference beam between the pairs, and hydraulic nozzles pivotally mounted on the outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams and fixed on them, forming additional cross-connection between the beams, while the main frame is equipped with hydraulic power cylinders that are installed with the capability of raising and lowering nasdaw rotation of the supporting frame at the hinges of feed of the sheet, and the case of each hydraulic nozzle provided with an upper roller support, serving as a support roller for folding the boot Board at its opening, and the bottom platform, serving as a rigid base, interacting with the ground when the support flap boot flanges on the nozzle body in the loading position of the Board.

To solve this problem contributes to the fact that the hydraulic system of the vehicle, containing a pumping station, safety relief device, mains power and hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw engines, mounted on the carrier frame of the vehicle, equipped with two hydraulic cylinders installation of ramps, modification of the thrust vector, fixing the boot sides and locking the supporting frame, and the power of each shikolenko executed in parallel, associated with the main hydraulic lines with electrical control each of the hydraulic lines, the hydraulic supply line hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw drivers installed locking valve cut with the possibility of locking cavities of the cylinders, perceiving efforts posting aft of the vehicle on a frame and the weight and inertial load of the loaded equipment, throttle return valve, with the possible exception of self-oscillation mode in this hydraulic lines when opening the pilot-operated check valve and a two-position distributor with the ability to provide when applying the control signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic lines change the thrust vector is also fitted with a two-position distributor with the ability to provide when submitting the control signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the cylinder changes the thrust vector, and in the hydraulic line installation of ramps mounted throttle with check valve with smooth speed changes, extension of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder when setting up and folding ramp.

To achieve the best operational effect in a floating vehicle in according to the following assigned task:

the device changes the thrust vector is made in the form of a transverse shaft associated with the housings of the hydraulic nasdaw with the possibility of rotation of the lever mechanism, equipped with a hydraulic cylinder changes thrust vector that is installed on the bracket of the support beams of the supporting frame;

the transverse shaft of the device changes thrust vector provided with the compensating couplings, such as propeller type;

folding boot Board is made in the form of a frame, a tightly covered metal plates of the base, placed in the transport position in the continuation of the feed sheet housing, equipped with walls, fixed on both sides in the continuation of the hull sides and provided with entrance ramps, pivotally connected with the base and two shoulders lever driven by hydraulic cylinders mounted on the sides of the frame base with the ability to deploy ramps from transport to working position;

folding boot Board is equipped with hydraulic lock in the transport position, and the sides and base are equipped with a sealing gasket located around the perimeter of the docking area of the hull and boot the Board;

the sealing gasket is made in the form of a rubber stripe liner, placed in a docking ball is E. the vehicle body with the ability to interact with the sealing ledge connecting beams hinged boot Board;

the hydraulic mechanism of fixing the boot Board is made in the form of strips, mounted on the top wall hinged boot flanges overlapping the side wall of the vehicle body, provided with a hole in the protruding part thereof, for engagement with the rod latch operated by a hydraulic cylinder, placed on Board the vehicle body;

floating vehicle equipped with a hydraulic mechanism for locking the supporting frame on the hinged boot Board to allow movement by land and sensor-detector position of the stopper of the locking mechanism;

the side walls of the frame base formed of channel beams and cylinders and two shoulders levers deployment ramp installed in the cavities between the shelves mentioned channel beams.

Analysis of the distinctive features of the floating vehicle showed that:

- supply of floating vehicle carrier frame streamlined shape for fastening devices propulsion and steering unit installed in the rear of the hull and formed two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams, hinged inner ends to the feed sheet housing in the area located under the boot Board associated elastic cross beams in each pair and oporn the m beam - between pairs, as well as the installation of the hydraulic nasdaw hinged at the outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams and fastening them with the formation of additional cross-links between beams, avoids, even if not prepared crossings, plastic deformations in the frame elements connecting the housing of the hydraulic nasdaw to the vehicle body.

- supply frame hydraulic power cylinders that are installed with the capability of raising and lowering nasdaw rotation of the supporting frame at the hinges of feed of the sheet, provides the same position hydraulic nasdaw relative to the body afloat and in the transport position and simultaneous change their position relative to the body;

- supply of buildings each hydraulic nozzle upper roller support, serving as a support roller for folding the boot Board at its opening, aimed at reducing the friction of the hull hydraulic nozzle on the boot Board in the translation process the boot side of the transport position in the boot, and Vice versa;

- supply of buildings each hydraulic nozzle lower platform, serving as a rigid base, interacting with the ground when the support flap boot flanges on the nozzle body in sagrotan the m position of the Board, distributes voltage when the load of the vehicle body attachment and avoids deformation of the body, including to allow part of it;

- the device changes the thrust vector in the form of a transverse shaft associated with the housings of the hydraulic nasdaw with the possibility of rotation of the lever mechanism, equipped with a hydraulic cylinder changes thrust vector that is installed on the bracket of the support beams of the supporting frame, and a single cylinder synchronously to change the position of the thrust vector of both men movers;

- the provision of a transverse shaft device vector thrust compensating couplings, such as propeller type, allows to provide angular compensation along the length of the transverse shaft in the device to change the thrust vector in the presence of elastic deformations in the frame;

- execution of the hinged boot Board in the form of a frame, a tightly covered metal plates of the base, placed in the transport position in the continuation of the feed sheet housing, equipped with walls, fixed on both sides in the continuation of the hull sides and provided with entrance ramps, pivotally connected with the base and two shoulders lever driven by hydraulic cylinders mounted on the sides of the frame base with the possibility of resort is of the ramps from transport to working position, facilitates automation of the translation work floating vehicle from the loading position to transport position and Vice versa; this also contributes to the supply of the hinged boot side hydraulic lock in the transport position; this also contributes to the execution of the hydraulic mechanism of fixing the boot Board in the form of strips, mounted on the top wall hinged boot flanges overlapping the side wall of the vehicle body, provided with a hole in the protruding part thereof, for engagement with the rod latch, controlled by a hydraulic cylinder locking boot Board, placed on Board the vehicle body; this also contributes to the supply of vehicle sensors-position detectors stoppers mechanisms commit;

equipment enclosure and boot side sealing seal, located on the perimeter of the docking area, made in the form, for example, rubber stripe liner, placed in a docking beam of the vehicle body with the ability to interact with the sealing ledge connecting beams hinged boot Board, provides the density and tightness of the cargo compartment floating vehicle;

- installation of a hydraulic mechanism is as locking carrying frame on the hinged boot Board ensures the locking of the supporting frame on the hinged boot Board for movement of the vehicle on the land;

- execution of the side walls of the frame base in the form of channel beams and installation of hydraulic cylinders and two shoulders arms deployment ramp in the cavities between the shelves mentioned beams contributes to the protection of the two shoulders of the levers and cylinders from operational damage.

Analysis of the distinctive features of the hydraulic system of the vehicle showed that the introduction of hydraulic cylinders installation of ramps, modification of the thrust vector, fixing the boot sides and locking the supporting frame with the execution of the power of each of the cylinders in the form of parallel connected with the main hydraulic lines with electrical control each hydraulic line provides a vehicle, including floating, mutually independent automation installation of ramps, fixation and Rastafarian boot the Board with the Board body and the supporting frame with the boot Board, and changing the running trim;

- installation of hydraulic locks in the hydraulic line of the power cylinders control the position of nasdaw men of propulsion systems for floating vehicles (or engines using energy air jet, for the hovercraft), with the possibility of locking cavities of the cylinders, perceiving efforts posting aft Tran is tailor means on the main frame and the weight and inertial load of the loaded equipment, allows the stabilization of the vehicle body in the boot process, due to the almost complete locking cavities of the cylinders, perceiving effort of posting;

- set the throttle with check valve in the hydraulic supply line hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw provides the exception of the mode of self-oscillations in this hydraulic lines when opening the pilot-operated check valve;

- set the on-off valve in the hydraulic supply line hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw provides for the signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the cylinders, are necessary to protect the hydraulic nozzle, in particular when loading the vehicle;

- set the on-off valve in the hydraulic supply line hydraulic cylinders installed to change the thrust vector, provides the ability for the signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the cylinder changes the thrust vector, which allows hydraulic nozzle with overload in the process of loading and unloading automatically take on a ground position at which is provided a bearing housing cap on in the second area of the support platform;

- set the throttle with check valve in the hydraulic line installation of the ramp provides a smooth speed change, extension of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder when installing ramps, thereby providing a shock-free installation.

It should be noted that, along with the compliance of the proposed technical solutions to the requirement of "inventive step", confirmed by the analysis of the claimed inventions meet the patentability and on-demand unity inventive concept". Indeed, as will be shown in the example implementation and operation of the inventive device, to facilitate automated trouble-free operation of the proposed floating vehicles, including the characteristics of operation afloat, in terms of loading and unloading and driving conditions on dry land, can not be used, none of the known hydraulic systems, in addition to suggested.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where in the example of execution shown:

- figure 1 is a side view of the floating vehicle;

- figure 2 is the side view of the stern of the floating vehicle, which shows the following provisions-men movers: I-men position, II - transport position, III - boot situation;

- figure 3 is a top view on to the MoEHE part of the floating vehicle (type a in figure 2);

- figure 4 is a view of the men mover (section along b - B in figure 3);

- figure 5 is a view of an indoor boot aboard a floating vehicle, the dash-dotted line shows the position of the bead in the state of readiness for loading a floating vehicle;

- figure 6 is a view of the men mover (view In figure 4);

- figure 7 is a view of the drive device vector thrust (type G figure 3);

on Fig - side view of the actuator device vector thrust (type D 7);

- figure 9 is a section through the sealing gasket around the perimeter of the docking zone (section along E-E in figure 5);

- figure 10 is a hydraulic locking mechanism (section f-F in figure 2);

- figure 11 - schematic diagram of the hydraulic system.

Floating vehicle comprises a sealed housing 1 (see Fig.1-3) with deck 2, which is essentially a cargo platform, the power unit 3, a transmission 4, propulsion and steering complex 5, including caterpillar mover 6 - for movement on land and men thrusters 7 - for movement on the water.

Each men mover (see also figure 4) includes prop 8 that is installed in the hydraulic nozzle 9, consisting of thin-walled shell body 10 with a profiled inner surface "a"of the nozzle 11, a support 12 of the propeller 8 and the ribs 13. Peredchutya torque from the transmission 4 propellers 8 is the propeller shaft 14 through the shaft 15 supports 12. The composition of the propulsion and steering unit 5 includes a dual water rudders 16 pen type, located behind buildings nasdaw 9 regulating the direction of water discharge from nasdaw and thereby control the rotation of the vehicle.

Each men mover 7 is connected with the body 1 of the vehicle on the supporting frame 17, the elements of which are made with sleek surfaces "b" from the incident when the vehicle ahead of the water flow. The frame 17 is essentially rigid in the longitudinal direction and relatively pliable in the transverse direction of the element serving to fasten the device propulsion and steering unit. The frame 17 is installed in the aft part "b" of the housing 1 and is formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams 18, fixed by means of hinge units 19 their inner ends "g" to feed the sheet 20 of the housing 1 in the area located under the boot Board 21. The longitudinal beams 18 are connected to the elastic cross beams 22 in each pair and the reference beam 23 is between the pairs. On the outer ends of the "d" of each pair of longitudinal beams 18 pivotally mounted and secured mentioned housing 10 hydraulic nasdaw 9 with the possibility of angular spread in the hinge 24. Thus the outer ends of the "d" of each pair of longitudinal beams 18 are formed updat the additional cross-connection between the beams, give each pair of longitudinal beams 18 additional rigidity against twisting.

The supporting frame 17 is equipped with hydraulic power cylinders 25, fastened one end to feed the sheet 20 by means of hinges 26. The other end of each cylinder 25 is pivotally connected with the carrier frame 17 in the area where the joined pair of longitudinal beams 18 to the cross bar 22. Thus the rotation of the frame at the hinges of feed of the sheet with the help of hydraulic cylinders 25 is provided with a lifting or lowering men of the propellers 7 and install them in the transport position, when men thrusters biased to the boot Board 21 (position II in figure 2) in its transport position or at a desired operating position, providing the movement of the floating vehicle on the water (I in figure 2)or in the loading position (position III in figure 2), when the body-men movers are placed on the ground, as will be discussed below. It should be noted that the kinematic scheme of the hydraulic cylinder 25 is arranged such that during compression of the hydraulic cylinder 25 is provided lifting frame 17 by rotation and, on the contrary, when the "opening" of the hydraulic cylinder 25 is provided by lowering the supporting frame 17. Since the hydraulic cylinder 25, as will be shown in the description, has other functions, in order to maintain consistency of terminology, he bodø is hereinafter referred to as the hydraulic cylinder control the position of the nozzle (men) propulsion.

Folding boot Board 21 (see also figure 5) comprises a base 27 that is positioned in the transport position in the continued feeding of the sheet 20 of the housing 1. The base 27 consists of a frame 28, the sides of which are formed of channel beams 29 mounted shelves 30 channels out with education open on the outer side cavities "e".

The frame 28 of the base tightly covered metal plates, while the upper part of the casing g of the base (flat part "W") is made profile for better interaction with the tires or tracks loaded on the floating vehicle machines. With the base 27 is connected to the wall 31 of the hinged boot Board, tough, sealed on both sides in the continuation of the hull sides. The walls 31 are installed entrance ramps 32, pivotally connected with the base with the possibility of installation (by turning) from the transport position into the working position. Turn the ramp 32 in the above-mentioned cavities "e" frame mounted hydraulic cylinders 33, provided with two shoulders each lever 34 with the pusher 35. Installation and placement of the hinges "and", "K", "l", "m", and the nodes of the mechanism formed by the hydraulic cylinder 33, the lever 34 and the plunger 35 is selected so that when the extension rod of the hydraulic cylinder is achieved by the reversal of the ramp 32 on the corner α, the value of which the mouth is Olena not less than 230° .

To translate the hinged boot side in the transport or boot position, which is done by turning the hinged boot Board in the hinge 36, used the previously mentioned power cylinder 25 control the position of the nozzle of the thruster. During such transfer, the upper part of the housing 10 hydraulic nozzle 9 is in engagement with the lower side of "h" of the sheathing frame 28 of the base 27 of the boot side, sensing the weight of the Board.

Because of the layout of opportunities to place the hinge axis of hinge units 19 mounting beams 18 of the supporting frame and hinges 36 fastening the hinged boot flanges on one common axis is not possible, then the opening (closing) of the hinged boot Board is moving the enclosure hydraulic nozzle 9 on the bottom side of the "h" of the sheathing frame 28, accompanied by sliding friction. To eliminate vibrations and smoovah processes accompanying the sliding friction, the body 10 of the hydraulic nasdaw provided with an upper roller support 37 with the roller 38, serving as a support roller for folding the boot Board. Thus, the sliding friction is replaced by rolling friction, reducing the negative effects of relative displacement of the boot side and a hydraulic nozzle. In the lower part of the cor the USA 10 hydraulic nozzle made platform 39, see Fig.6, (referred to also as a reference platform), serving as a rigid base, interacting with the ground when the support flap boot flanges on the casing 10 hydraulic nozzle 9 in the loading position of the Board.

Floating vehicle provided with a device 40 (see Fig.7, 8) changes in thrust vector serving to change the running trim of the vehicle. The device 40 is made in the form of a transverse shaft 41 that is associated with the axes 42, mounted on the chassis 10 hydraulic nasdaw 9. Axis 42 is installed in the above-mentioned hinge 24 with the possibility of rotation in the vertical plane (and consequently, rotation of the hydraulic attachment 9) lever 43 mounted on the center of the cross shaft 41. The actuator arm 43 is made in the form of a hydraulic cylinder 44 mounted on the bracket 45 of the reference beam 23 of the supporting frame 17.

To compensate for the elastic performance of the deformations of the transverse shaft 41 provided with a compensating couplings 46, for example, cardan type.

Boot Board 21 is equipped with a hydraulic mechanism fixing 47 in the transport position, made in the form of straps 48, mounted on the top wall 31 of the hinged boot the Board with overlapping top wall 49 of the side of the vehicle body, serving (beyond the hinged boot side) part of the "p" cat is Roy made the hole "p" to interact with the stopper 50 of the latch, managed by a hydraulic cylinder 51 locking the boot Board, placed in the wall 49 of the side of the vehicle body. The perimeter of the housing 1, joined with the boot Board, installed sealing gasket 52 (see figure 5 and 9). The seal 52 is made in the form of a rubber stripe liner 53 placed in the beam 54 of the walls 49 of the vehicle body and in the beam 55 deck (loading platform) 2 interoperable with sealing ledge 56 connecting beams 57 hinged boot Board.

To eliminate the inertial loads on the frame 17 when the traffic floating facilities on the land, particularly in off-road conditions, the floating vehicle equipped with a hydraulic locking mechanism 58 (see figure 10) of the supporting frame 17 on the hinged boot the Board with the cylinder 59, the latch 60, and the sensor-detector 61 of the position of latch 60.

The hydraulic system of the vehicle, see also 11, consists of the aforementioned hydraulic cylinders 25 - position control nozzle thruster, 33 - installation of ramps, 44 - changes thrust vector (changes in running trim of the vehicle), 51 - locking the boot sides and 59 - locking carrying frame on the hinged boot Board, fed in parallel with sootvetstvuetopredelennyj lines 62-66, associated with main pipelines 67. The pressure in pipelines 67 is provided by a pumping station 68. Overload the hydraulic system is protected safety relief device 69

Connecting each of the hydraulic lines in the work from the cab driver mechanic floating vehicle electrical control using the three-position valves 70-74. In the hydraulic line 62 to control the position of the nozzle thruster (hydraulic line of the power cylinders 25) have a locking valve cut 75 with the possibility of locking cavities "with" cylinders 25, perceiving efforts posting aft of the vehicle on a frame and the weight and inertial load of the loaded equipment, throttle 76 with a check valve 77. The presence of the inductor 76 and a check valve 77 in this line eliminates the possibility of a mode of self-oscillations in the hydraulic line 62 with the opening of the pilot-operated check valve 75. In the hydraulic line 62 is also mounted two-position valve 78 with the ability to provide when applying the control signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavity "C" and "t" cylinders 25. In the hydraulic line 64 changes the thrust vector has two-position valve 79 with the possibility of providing with the th control signal from the mode of free-pass fluid between the cavities "y" and "f" cylinder 44 changes the thrust vector, and in the hydraulic line 63 installation of ramps installed chokes 80 with a check valve 81, which provides infinitely variable speed extension rod of the hydraulic cylinder 44 during installation of ramps 32.

Work floating vehicle.

When describing the operation of the floating vehicle modes of operation of the hydraulic system of the vehicle is considered as an example applies only to floating tool because not fundamentally differ, for example, for the hovercraft, which, as a distinctive feature, the working environment for propulsion propellers, instead of water is air. In the operation of the hydraulic system described only the basic elements necessary for the understanding of its work.

a) the Mode of movement on land and in preparation for it.

The movement of the floating vehicle (loaded or empty) on land is carried out using track Assembly 6, the power transmitted from the power unit 3 via the transmission 4.

For movement on land boot Board 21 pre-deployed up in the hinges 24 of the flow of the operating fluid in the cavity "C" of the power cylinders 25 control the position of the nozzle of the propulsion device and is drawn in through the carrier frame 17, the housing 10 nasdaw and the rollers 38 of the roller bearings 37 to build the su 1 the perimeter of a joint. When the valve 70 in the hydraulic line 62 provides the flow of operating fluid through pipelines 67 in the cavity and drain it from the cavity "t" cylinders 25. After that boot the Board 21 is now on the case 1 through the mechanism 47 fixing the boot side in the transport position. When locking is activated valve 74, powered pressure pipeline of hydroline 66, pushing the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder 51, which drives the stopper 50 of the retainer in the hole "R" strap 48, providing retention of the boot Board 21 in the closed position. After fixing the valve 74 is switched to the state of the lock cylinder 51.

After closing and install the stopper boot Board, in turn, is now carrying frame 17 on the boot Board hydraulic mechanism 58 locking. Through the valve 73 in the hydraulic line 65 is supplied working fluid, the hydraulic cylinders 59 are triggered, Stopera retainer 60 carrier frame on the boot Board. After performing the locking operation on the remote control sensor 61 signal on the fact of locking, which means readiness floating vehicle movement. Next, when the vehicle, for example, on uneven terrain inertial load acting on dokhodnye propulsion 7, locked boot Board, without causing a frame of considerable stress.

b) Preparation for loading.

Preparing to load the floating vehicle, for example, the transported equipment is in reverse order with the described mode of preparation for movement. First hydraulic mechanism 58 of the support frame 17 is output from the locked state, and the valves 74 are in the position of the drain, changing the direction of flow of the working fluid in the working cavity of the hydraulic cylinder 59, the latch 60 is detached from the boot Board 21 and the housing 10 hydraulic nasdaw 9 have the opportunity to move relative to the bottom side of the "h" of the sheathing frame 28 of the boot Board 21. Then the stopper 50 of the latch is withdrawn from the hole "p" bar 48 of the hydraulic cylinder 51 of the latch as you pull the boot Board 21 and the housing 1. At the same time, because through the carrier frame 17 of the housing 10 hydraulic nasdaw 9 remain tucked hydraulic power cylinder 25 to the boot Board 21, the Board has no movement. And only after the filing of the control signal to the valve 70 hydroline 62 ensuring the discharge of working fluid from the cavity C of the hydraulic cylinder 25 and discharge it into the cavity "t" is carried out according to a given law (preset speed) stroke "disclosure" cylinder), therefore the boot Board 21 will open, turning the hinge 36. So the bottom side of the "h" of the sheathing frame 28 of the boot Board 21 is rolled over the roller 38 roller bearing 37. Turn the boot Board 21 will continue to until the body 10 of the nozzle 9 and its supporting platform 39 will not rest on the ground. It should be noted that the hinges 24 in the construction of buildings 10 nasdaw allows in case of irregularities or foreign objects such as stones, under the support platform 39 governates the housing 10 about the axis of the hinge 24 to the sustainable interaction with the soil.

After bearing bearing platform 39 on the ground and disclosure boot Board 21 sets of ramps 32 including a valve 72 of the hydroline 63. When the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder 33 extends and acting via the hinge "l" on the two shoulders of the lever 34 causes it to rotate in the hinge and through the plunger 35, currently performing in relation to the ramp 32 role thrust, producing a reversal of the ramp into the hinge. The extension rod of the hydraulic cylinder will continue to until the ramp 32 is fully deployed in the hinge and the free end will rest on the ground, allowing entry on the boot Board 21 and forth on the deck 2 of the transported t is the transport. Ensuring smooth (preset speed) installation of ramps 32 facilitates installation in the hydroline 63 throttle 80 with a check valve 81.

After installation of ramps 32 when I need to load onto the deck of the transported heavy equipment, prevent "sagging" of the rear suspension loaded floating vehicle, the hydraulic cylinders 25 and the supporting frame 17 are transferred to the outrigger mode. With this purpose in work back on the hydraulic line 62, the working fluid as and when opening the boot Board is additionally injected in the cavity "t" cylinders 25, the stern of the floating vehicle out of the ground by hydraulic cylinders 25 through the support platform 39 of the nozzle body 10 men mover 7 and hung out on the frame 17. After this cavity "t" cylinders 25, perceiving the most significant pressure during loading, is locked at the locking valve cut 75, excluding the possibility of contamination and thereby providing a secure boot mode. To exclude linear (incomplete) contact support platform 39 is provided to rotate the nozzle body 10 in the hinges 24. For this cavity "f" and "y" cylinder 44 in the hydraulic line 64 is hydraulically connected with the use of a two-position valve 79. After loading a floating vehicle is its device are derived from the outrigger mode by unlocking the pilot-operated check valve and discharge of the working fluid in the cavity "C" of the cylinders 25, the presence of the inductor 76 with non-return valve 77 when removing high (locked) pressure lock 75 eliminates the possibility of a mode of self-oscillations in the hydraulic line 62.

C) Preparation of floating vehicle movement afloat is to be executed in the reverse order of the above operations, the elimination of the ramp, close the boot side and jammed. While carrying frame 17 on the boot Board hydraulic mechanism 58 is not now.

d) the movement of the floating vehicle on water.

After preparation of floating vehicle movement afloat and sign it using the track Assembly 6 into the water before reaching the floating state again turns on the hydraulic line 62, electrically operated two-position valve 78 is included in the free mode lowering the supporting frame. In this mode, the frame 17 is lowered under its own weight and the weight-men movers 7, occupying a floating position without force action of the cylinders 25. For this cavity "C" and "t" cylinders 25 are connected by a valve 78 between a and a drain line of the hydraulic line 62.

The movement of the floating vehicle (loaded or empty) afloat is carried out using men DIGITE is it 7, power propellers 8 which is transmitted from the power unit 3 via the transmission 4 and the drive shaft 14.

Smooth rotation of the floating of the vehicle is effected by reversal of the rudder 16 (reversal mechanism in Fig. not shown). To turn the floating vehicle in limited conditions is used to change the direction of rotation of one of the propellers men propulsion (thrust reverser).

For optimum trim at movement afloat, especially if the center of mass of the loaded vehicle has a significant offset from the calculation used to turn men thruster 7 in the hinges 24, providing the appearance of a vertical component of the thrust vector. This reversal is effected by rotation of the transverse shaft 41 through the lever 43 by a hydraulic cylinder 44, is placed in the hydraulic line 64. At the turn of the men thruster 7 nozzle 11 toward the bottom portion of the water obstacles pitch of the vehicle on the nose increases, and at the turn of the men thruster nozzle 11 toward the water surface of the trim on the nose decreases.

Thus, in accordance with the task proposed by the invention provided improved performance in floating vehicles and created hydrauli the mini-system, to implement the required modes of operation of the vehicle in relation to the conditions of its use.

1. Floating vehicle containing deck sealed enclosure with a hinged boot Board, power unit, transmission, propulsion and steering complex with men thrusters, including propellers, installed in the hydraulic nozzles, the device changes the men thrust vector of the propulsion and hydraulic system, characterized in that it is provided with a carrier frame streamlined shape for fastening devices propulsion and steering unit installed in the rear of the hull and formed two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams, hinged inner ends to the feed sheet housing in the area located under the boot Board associated elastic cross beams in each pair and the reference beam between the pairs, and hydraulic nozzles pivotally mounted on the outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams and fixed on them, forming additional cross-connection between the beams, while the main frame is equipped with hydraulic power cylinders associated with the hydraulic system, installed with the ability to control the position of the hydraulic nasdaw and boot the Board by turning the supporting frame at the hinges of feed of the sheet, and the body is of each hydraulic nozzle provided with an upper roller support, serving as a support roller for folding the boot Board at its opening, and the bottom platform, serving as a rigid base, interacting with the ground when the support flap boot flanges on the nozzle body in the loading position of the Board.

2. The vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the device vector thrust is made in the form of a transverse shaft associated with the housings of the hydraulic nasdaw with the possibility of rotation of the lever mechanism, equipped with a hydraulic cylinder changes the traction vector associated with the hydraulic system mounted on the bracket supporting timber frame.

3. The vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the transverse shaft of the device changes thrust vector provided with the compensating couplings, such as cardan type.

4. The vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the hinged boot Board is made in the form of a frame, tightly sheathed leaves the base, placed in the transport position in the continuation of the feed sheet housing, equipped with walls, fixed on both sides in the continuation of the hull sides and provided with entrance ramps, hinged connected to the base, and two shoulders lever driven by hydraulic cylinders associated with the hydraulic system, installed on the side surfaces to which rcasa base with the ability to deploy ramps from transport to working position, while folding the boot Board is equipped with hydraulic lock in the transport position, associated with the hydraulic system, and the sides and base are equipped with a sealing gasket located around the perimeter of the docking area of the hull and boot the Board.

5. The vehicle according to claim 4, characterized in that the sealing gasket is made in the form of a rubber stripe liner, placed in a docking beam of the vehicle body with the ability to interact with the sealing ledge connecting beams hinged boot Board.

6. The vehicle according to claim 4, characterized in that the hydraulic mechanism of fixing the boot Board is made in the form of strips, mounted on the top wall hinged boot flanges overlapping the side wall of the vehicle body, is made with a hole in the protruding part thereof, for engagement with the rod latch, controlled by a hydraulic cylinder, placed on Board the vehicle body.

7. The vehicle according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that it is equipped with a hydraulic mechanism for locking the supporting frame on the hinged boot Board for movement on land associated with the hydraulic system, and the sensor-detector of the position of the stopper of the locking mechanism.

8. Transport is the main means according to claim 4, characterized in that the side walls of the frame base formed of channel beams and cylinders and two shoulders levers deployment ramp installed in the cavities between the shelves mentioned channel beams.

9. The hydraulic system of a vehicle, containing a pumping station, safety relief device, mains power and hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw engines, mounted on the carrier frame of the vehicle, characterized in that it additionally equipped with hydraulic cylinders installation of ramps, modification of the thrust vector, fixing the boot sides and locking the supporting frame, and the power of each of the cylinders is made in the form of parallel connected with the main hydraulic lines with electrical control each of the hydraulic lines, the hydraulic supply line hydraulic cylinders control the position of nasdaw drivers installed locking valve cut with the possibility of locking cavities of the cylinders, perceiving efforts posting aft transport means on the support frame and the weight and inertial load of the loaded equipment, throttle return valve, with the possible exception of self-oscillation mode in this hydraulic lines when opening the pilot-operated check valve and duhozanye the first dispenser with the ability to provide when applying the control signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the cylinders, in the hydraulic line changes thrust vector also has a two-position distributor with the ability to provide when applying the control signal mode of a free-pass fluid between the cavities of the cylinder changes the thrust vector, and in the hydraulic line installation of ramps mounted throttle with check valve with smooth speed changes, extension of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder when setting up and folding ramp.



 

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FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.

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