Greenhouse

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.

5 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, namely the means of growing plants indoors.

Known greenhouses for personal plots of various designs, consisting of a framework or arc frames with door openings, closed various translucent materials. Side or top of the frame in some types of greenhouses are made movable for ventilation. Separate greenhouses are supplied with semi-automatic devices, ventilation, watering and heating. In these greenhouses can be grown only undemanding crops and flowers of this climatic zone (for example, Central Russia), it is impossible to constantly maintain the necessary climatic conditions (different temperatures during day and night time, the necessary humidity and soil, changing irrigation in the process of growing plants from seed to harvest, and so on) without the presence of man, and man is often on your plot only on weekends.

(Greenhouses, greenhouses, sheds for garden plots. Untawale. Rostov-on-don: publishing house "Phoenix", 1997)

The main disadvantage of greenhouses is the need for constant human presence for its operation.

Closest to the claimed invention is an automated greenhouse, the content is Asa, at least one greenhouse unit, a tank for sludge water pipe connection to the water supply through the main pump communicated with the supply line of the water that is associated with the fuel system, the control unit, the first, second and third outputs of which are connected with the first and second controllable valves installed respectively on a socket connect to a water supply pipeline water supply and the control input of the main pump. Automated greenhouse equipped with hydroponic stacked module including a pump nutrient solution, communicated with the reservoir with nutrient solution and through a corresponding pipeline, at least one rastila and third controllable valve and a controlled hydropericardium that are installed on the first and second branches of the main pipeline, located, respectively, after the main pump and before the second controllable valve, while the first is in communication with the reservoir with nutrient solution, and the second one of the outputs of hydrophilicities, the other end of which is communicated with the pipe germinators, and the output - the output of the pump feed solution, and the fourth and fifth outputs of the control unit are connected to the corresponding inputs of the managed hydrophilicities and pump pittel the aqueous solution, and the reservoir with nutrient solution is equipped with a level sensor connected to the corresponding inputs of the third controlled valve.

(EN, 2122315 AND 01 G 9/24, 1998)

The greenhouse allows you to automatically carry out only watering plants, and only certain types of plants.

The technical result of the claimed invention is the creation of greenhouses for cultivation of a wide range of cultivated plants in any climate zone with automatic watering control, ventilation of the greenhouse and heating.

To achieve the technical result in the greenhouse, containing at least one greenhouse unit, equipped with an automatic watering device according to the invention in the greenhouse unit installed automatic ventilation device greenhouses and automatic heating device of the soil, as well as automatic management of these automatic devices, including at least one temperature sensor and humidity, the outputs of which are connected through amplifiers converters with a part of the inputs of the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU), performed with the function of receiving signals from the sensors, comparing the received data with the control and issuing control signals to activate the specified devices, etc the guy part of the ALU inputs connected to the outputs of the removable persistent storage device, on which the recorded program is selected climate zones and program for cultivation of selected plants in this climate zone, and a third input connected to the outputs of the position sensors of the elements of the specified devices, the inputs of which are connected through the control unit and amplifier-inverters with outputs of the ALU and the inputs of the indication unit and the control to which power is supplied to the low voltage from the voltage regulator, the input of which is connected to the battery and a battery charger, the input of which receives a high voltage power supply.

In addition, greenhouse unit contains metal building arch type semicircular shape with door openings, closed by a solid piece of translucent material with adjustable transparency, with a through longitudinal channel in which is placed an automatic device ventilate the greenhouse.

In addition, automatic ventilation of the greenhouse consists of a rigid metal frame and installed on two transparent plates with ball lift between them and regular rows of shared round holes in both plates, through which warm air rises into the atmosphere, and atmospheric air enters through open synchronously outlet when moving the top plate on the step of the connecti on or the lift, greater than the diameter of the circular holes using two electromagnets placed on the stationary plate through the longitudinal channel of the greenhouse.

In addition, automatic watering device made in the form of the storage tank and dispenser of the same capacity with automatic adjustable drain water in irrigation pipes located on the ridge of the greenhouse.

In addition, automatic heating device made in the form of conductive heating element in a protective sheath, is placed in the Foundation under the soil of the greenhouse.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a block diagram of automatic control system for a greenhouse;

figure 2 - design of the greenhouse unit;

figure 3 - ventilation device from the incision;

figure 4 - device irrigation;

figure 5 is a heating device.

The greenhouse (figure 1) contains greenhouse unit 1, is equipped with an automatic watering device 2, the automatic device 3 ventilate the greenhouse and automatic heating device 4 and the automatic control system specified automatic devices. The automatic control system includes a sensor 5 temperature and humidity sensor 6, the outputs of which are connected through amplifiers converters 7 with a part of the inputs of the ALU 8, made with fu is the Ktsia receiving signals from the sensors, comparison of data obtained with the control and issuing control signals to activate these devices. Another part of the inputs of the ALU 8 is connected to the outputs of the removable persistent storage device 9, on which a recorded program is selected climate zones and program for cultivation of selected plants in this climate zone. Automatic control system with sensors 10 of the regulations of elements of the specified devices. The outputs of the sensors 10 of the regulations connected with a part of the inputs of the ALU 8, the outputs of which are connected with the amplifier-Converter 11, a part of the input of which is connected to the block 12 of the display, and the other part - unit 13 controls. All automatic control system has a low power voltage. The power supply system consists of the charger 14, the input of which receives power from a conventional electrical outlet voltage 220 C. the Output of the charger 14 is connected to the input of the stabilizer 15 voltage, output power is fed into the automatic control system. For the smooth operation of the system the second input of the stabilizer 15 voltage is connected to the battery 16.

The design of the greenhouse unit 1 (figure 2) is a metal body 17 arch type semicircular shape with door openings, closed by a continuous piece 18 svetoprozrachnie the first material with adjustable transparency. The housing 17 has a through longitudinal channel 19, in which is placed an automatic device 3 ventilate the greenhouse.

The present invention uses an arched design with projection strict semicircle. In this form of the greenhouse unit 1 sun rays will always be perpendicular to its surface in any climatic zone. As the translucent material used corrugated sheets of Lexan Thermoclear (polycarbonate) with a thickness of 6 mm with a minimum radius of curvature 1050 mm Frame greenhouse unit 1 is assembled from four vertical and six arc-shaped side racks 20, connected at upper ends with rigid longitudinal upper frame 21 and the lower fixed in the base 22. The frame 17 is served in one piece 18 of polycarbonate, which itself is an element of the supporting structure, and secured in the arcuate rack 20 by means of screws-self-tapping screws. The door and end openings (figure not shown) also closes polycarbonate. This design of the greenhouse 1 practically does not prevent the passage of sunlight and provides accommodation for all necessary actuators of the control system.

In the summer in hot weather to prevent overheating and destruction of plants will apply the shading and ventilation of the greenhouse.

In this invention svetoprozrachnie the th floor of the greenhouse, with its inner side is covered with a film material, which changes its transparency depending on the activity of solar radiation (adjustable transparency). In cloudy weather the film is completely transparent. As you increase the brightness of the solar radiation, the film darkens. In very bright sun film can hold 15-20% of solar radiation. This is sufficient to prevent overheating of plants.

Further work on the cooling air in the greenhouse performs the ventilation device 3 is shown in figure 3.

Automatic device 3 ventilation of the greenhouse unit 1 consists of a rigid metal frame 23 and installed on two transparent plates 24 and 25 with ball lifter 26 between them and regular rows of shared round holes 27 in both plates, through which warm air rises into the atmosphere, and atmospheric air enters through open simultaneously the outlet 28 (figure 2). Moving the top plate 24 at step ball lift 26 greater than the diameter of the circular hole 27, is carried out by means of two electromagnets 29, is placed on the lower fixed plate 25.

Automatic watering device 2 (figure 1 and figure 4) made in the form of the storage tank 30 and valve 31, which have the same volume. Automatically adjustable watering plants through watering pipe 32, the location is right on the ridge 33 of the greenhouse unit 1. Tank 30 has a nozzle 34 for supplying water to the inlet valve, which is closed by means of the float arm 35. Accumulating tank 30 also has a device 36 controls the overflow of water and an outlet opening 37, which has an output valve 38, is rigidly connected with the electromagnet 39. The distributor 31 is made in the form of a horizontal tube with ventilation holes 40. The electromagnet 39 is located in the housing block 13 management with the storage tank 30 is a single structure.

To maintain the required temperature in the greenhouse unit 1 is used, the heating device 4 located beneath the soil layer (figure 2), because such heating is the most optimal for energy.

As the heating element used heating cable 41 with ftoroplastovaja insulation (figure 5)placed evenly on the area of the greenhouse unit 1 in the base 22 (2) under the layer 33 of the soil. Control of the heating of the soil performs ALU 8 through the block 13 controls (figure 1).

The following describes the operation of individual devices and greenhouses in General.

Automatic control system (ACS) works as follows.

In the initial state, the power supply is turned off, and at this time in the greenhouse are necessary agricultural practices (soil preparation, planting, harvesting and p, preventive and routine maintenance management system). Before turning the power on in the arithmetical and logic unit 8 is installed removable persistent storage device 9, on which a recorded program is selected climate zones and program for cultivation of selected plants in this climate zone. When switched on the display unit 12 of the display reflects the settings for the selected climatic zone (temperature and humidity), date, time, status, power and all devices that support the selected mode, as well as other useful information. Information from the sensors 5 and 6 is supplied through the amplifiers converters 7 ALU 8, which compares the received data with the control obtained from the ROM 9, when they do not match ALU 8 includes needed at this time of the device. For example, at high temperature and high humidity ALU 8 sends a signal to the electromagnets 29, which move the upper plate 24 of the device 3 airing in a position where the orifice plate 24 and plate 25 will coincide. At the same time in the greenhouse unit 1, the signal from the ALU 8 opens the outlet 28. Air circulation will gradually lower the temperature and humidity. Once the parameters of humidity and temperature reached the set value, the ALU 8 receives a signal in the ventilation device 3 and an outlet 28, to close the third.

At low humidity ALU 8 will include short-term irrigation and simultaneously heating the soil to obtain the desired humidity. When dry soil ALU 8 will include in the scheduled program time, the watering device 2 with the required water flow rate per 1 square meter for this plant, etc.

Of particular importance in the work of the entire greenhouse for garden plots is the power supply, since many owners come only on weekends. On weekdays, the total power 220V usually off. Therefore, the power supply circuit of the greenhouse is constructed in such a way that on weekdays it runs from the battery 16, and on weekends, when the main power supply 220 V, battery charger 14, and is conducted and charging the battery 16.

Hereinafter described in more detail the operation of each of the automatic device.

The ventilation device 3 operates as follows. In the initial state, the rows of holes 27 of movable and fixed plates 24 and 25 combined, plates 24, 25 are flush with each other and air out of the greenhouse unit 1 through the longitudinal channel of the greenhouse enters the atmosphere. When the temperature drops to the desired level, which is controlled by the temperature sensor 5 automatic control system, the control signal from the ALU 8 POS who shall serve on the electromagnets 29, working in the opposite (right - pulls, left - pushes). The movable plate 24 begins to move (figure 3), the balls lift 26 roll along the surface of the first conical recesses and cause the movable top plate 24 to rise. Then, the plate 24 moves without any contact with the lower fixed plate 25. Thus ruling out the possibility engages the edges of the holes 27 of the upper and lower plates 24 and 25. Upon completion of the step of moving the rows of holes 27 of the upper plate 24 are positioned between rows of the bottom of the holes 27, the balls fall into the second tapered recess of the upper plate 24 and top plate 24 under its own weight falls, tightly clinging to the bottom plate 25. The warm air out of the greenhouse unit 1 to the atmosphere is blocked. To return the device 3 airing in its original condition by the team ALU 8 magnets 29 are included in a different order (right - pushes, left - pulls).

Holes 27 in the plates 24 and 25 selected round to reduce the area of possible contact between the edges of the holes of the movable and stationary plates at the heart of any deformation of the plane of the plates.

For the flow of atmospheric air in the greenhouse unit 1 (create draught) on the end wall of the greenhouse unit 1 in the process of the passage of the installed outlet 28 (2), open the " command ALU 8 synchronously with the device 3 ventilation.

Consider the operation of the device 2 irrigation in more detail (figure 4).

The storage tank 30 and the valve 31, is made in the form of a horizontal tube with ventilation holes 40 and fittings to attach the watering pipes 32, are of equal size, equal to the maximum consumption of water per irrigation.

The device operates as follows. In the initial state of a metal storage tank 30 is filled with tap water. Inlet valve 34 is closed by the float and lever 35, the outlet valve 38 is closed, the valve 31 and watering pipe 32 is empty. At the signal, the ALU 8 electromagnet 39 opens the outlet valve 38, and the water from the storage tank 30 is supplied to the valve 31 and then to the watering pipe 32 from which the through holes of small diameter open onto the garden. The valve 31 is filled with water much faster than watering pipe 32, as has apertures 40 large diameter. This ensures uniform filling of watering pipes 32 water and thereby uniform watering. Adjusting irrigation is provided by the turn-on time of the solenoid 39. When the volume of 180 l tank 30 and the diameter of the outlet 37, equal to 60 mm, for 30 seconds in the valve 31 will be 60 liters of water for 60 seconds to 120 liters, in 90 seconds - 180 liters. Empty tank 30 through pipe 34 m is Glenna filled with water, which is heated by the warm air of the greenhouse unit 1. The device 2 watering again ready for operation.

The proposed greenhouse has a low cost, and complexity of manufacturing and Assembly of the frame of this greenhouse is much less known.

1. Greenhouse, containing at least one greenhouse unit, equipped with a watering device, characterized in that greenhouse unit installed device ventilate the greenhouse and heating device of the soil, as well as automatic management of these devices, including at least one temperature sensor and humidity, the outputs of which are connected through amplifiers converters with a part of the inputs of the arithmetic-logical unit, performed with the function of receiving signals from the sensors to compare the obtained data with the control and issuing control signals to enable said devices, a second set of inputs of the arithmetic-logical unit connected to the outputs removable persistent storage device on which is recorded program selected climate zones and program for cultivation of selected plants in this climate zone, and a third input connected to the outputs of the position sensors of the elements of the specified devices, the inputs of which are connected through the control unit and amplifiers into ately to the outputs of the arithmetic-logical unit and the inputs of the indication unit.

2. The greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the greenhouse unit made in the form of the metal housing of the arch type semicircular shape with door openings, closed by a solid piece of translucent material with adjustable transparency, with a through longitudinal channel that hosts the device ventilate the greenhouse.

3. The greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the ventilation device consists of a rigid metal frame and installed on two transparent plates with ball lift between them and regular rows of shared round holes in both plates, it is equipped with electromagnets for longitudinal movement of one plate relative to another.

4. The greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the automatic watering device made in the form of the storage tank and dispenser of the same capacity with automatically adjustable discharge water in irrigation pipes located on beds in the greenhouse unit.

5. The greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating device is made in the form of a conductive heating element in a protective sheath, is placed in the Foundation of the greenhouse unit under a layer of soil seedbeds.



 

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