Low-sodium-content silicate solution prepared by magnetization technology to function as electrolyte for lead-acid storage batteries and use of such electrolyte

FIELD: electrical engineering; liquid silicate electrolyte and its use for storage batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrolyte preparation process includes addition of silicic acid sol in the amount of 5 - 15 parts by weight containing silicon dioxide (SiO2) in the amount of 40 - 60 mass percent to water taken in the amount of 15 - 20 parts by weigh while stirring mixture until its concentration, as measured by Baume hydrometer, ranges between 0.65 and 0.85 Baume degrees; addition of inorganic acid to mixture obtained in the process until its pH ranges between 1 and 4; placement of mixture obtained into magnetic field whose flux density ranges between 0.1 and 0.6 T (between 1000 and 6000 G) for 5 to 10 minutes; and stirring of magnetized mixture upon its withdrawal from magnetic field until its dynamic viscosity becomes lower than 0.02 mP-s to obtain low-sodium-content liquid electrolyte. Storage battery using proposed electrolyte is characterized in specific power capacity of 53 W and higher, its service life is increased from 350 to 400 or more charge-discharge cycles; such battery will operate normally at low and high temperatures, its operating temperature range being between -50 and +60 °C.

EFFECT: enhanced capacity and service life, enlarged operating temperature range of battery using proposed electrolyte.

7 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

 

The technical field to which the present invention

The present invention relates in General to the silica electrolyte for lead acid storage batteries, and in particular to the silicate solution with low sodium as electrolyte for lead acid storage batteries, for cooking which uses the technology of magnetization, and the applications of this electrolyte.

The background to the present invention

Usually in lead acid batteries, the electrolyte is sulfuric acid, dissolved in distilled water. In the manufacture of lead acid storage batteries, in connection with the difficulties that arise when handling the acid electrolyte in the Assembly and use of these lead acid batteries, and their seizure of the application inevitably arises environmental pollution. In addition, when using lead acid batteries General purpose, the cavity of which is connected with the atmosphere, the evaporation of the acid electrolyte, which causes corrosion of parts of the battery and represents a danger during operation and transportation.

To overcome these disadvantages some time what the hell was invented gel electrolyte, such a gel electrolyte having a high capacity, described in particular in patent ZL90102355. This gel electrolyte contains silica gel (silica gel) and sulfuric acid, the main component of silica is a compound SiO2·HN2O, in which the mass ratio of sulfuric acid and silicon dioxide (SiO2) is 4.5 to 10.5. Although rechargeable batteries with this gel-like electrolyte have a high capacity and have other advantages compared to the batteries using the electrolyte based on sulfuric acid in the gel electrolyte of this type uses a large amount of sulfuric acid, and rechargeable batteries with this electrolyte is also inherent disadvantages associated with environmental pollution, safety, transportation and operation. In addition, the capacity of a battery with a gel electrolyte is only 70% or less of the capacity of rechargeable battery in which the electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Therefore, the energy density of these batteries is relatively low, their internal resistance is large, they are easier to lose water, resulting gel is becoming harder and harder, which leads to deterioration of performance characteristics to reduce the lifespan of this battery.

Before the creation of the present invention, the author has proposed a comprehensive silicate electrolyte that does not contain sodium (PCT/CN99/00116). The electrolyte consists of organic crimeprevention and sulfuric acid, taken in a mass ratio. Using this electrolyte can overcome the main disadvantages of electrolytes, prepared on the basis of sulfuric acid. However, as a result of long practice, the author of the present invention have found that due to the fact that sodium silicate is used as a gel, difficulties arise when filling batteries gel. In some cases you cannot carry out the filling of the battery at one time. This complicates the process of filling the battery with electrolyte. The presence of sodium in that the electrolyte cannot be avoided, and as soon as the concentration of sodium silicate electrolyte exceeds 0.1%, the viscosity of the electrolyte increases significantly, and it becomes pasty. In the process, the electrolyte loses water, which leads to its hardening and cracking. The performance of the battery significantly deteriorate, it becomes prone to accelerated self-discharge, its internal resistance increases, and the lifetime is reduced.

Brief description of the invention

The purpose of pre the proposed invention is to overcome these disadvantages of the known lead acid batteries, using the electrolyte prepared on the basis of sulfuric acid as environmental pollution and danger to human health, and in the solution of such problems associated with the use of gel electrolyte, previously proposed by the author of the present invention, as the difficulty of filling the battery with electrolyte, the complexity of technology and, especially, hardening and cracking of the electrolyte; in addition, when using the electrolyte according to the invention is provided to overcome such drawbacks of gel electrolyte as low fluidity and high internal resistance of the battery. The present invention offers a silicate electrolyte with low sodium made by the technology of the magnetization, while the battery using such electrolyte, have an energy density comparable to the specific energy of lead-acid batteries General purpose; power density of the battery, which uses an electrolyte according to the invention, is 53 W/kg, this battery has a long service life, and wide operating temperature range.

The present invention can be implemented as follows: silicate electrolyte with low containing the receiving sodium is made by means of a technique of magnetization, the process of making such a silicate electrolyte with low sodium includes the following operations.

1. Take the gel of silicic acid (silica gel)containing from 40% to 60% by weight of silicon dioxide (SiO2), this Sol is taken in an amount of 5 to 15 mass units.

2. Add in the silica gel with water while stirring the mixture, the water is taken in an amount of from 15 to 25 mass units. For measuring the concentration should be used hydrometer Baume (Byte), water is added until the concentration of the mixture by hydrometer Baume reaches values in the range from 0.65 degrees Baume to 0.85 degrees Baume; used for this purpose, the water must be distilled or deionized.

3. To the mixture is added an inorganic acid until the pH reaches a value in the range 1-4. Used for this purpose, inorganic acid is selected from the following list: hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid, sulphuric acid.

4. Put the mixture obtained in stage 3, in a magnetic field with magnetic flux density in the range from 0.1 T (1000 Gauss) to 0.6 T (6000 Gauss) for a period of time from 5 minutes to 10 minutes for magnetization; however, the applied magnetic field is created in the pipe of circular cross section made of magnetic material, or is that a magnetic field generated by the variable Il is a constant electric current.

5. Mix magnetized mixture obtained in stage 4, to mix manually or by use of mechanical means. The rotation speed of the mixing tools (mixer) is from 700 rpm to 1400 rpm. The duration of mixing is from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, until the dynamic viscosity stir the mixture has dropped to values of 0.002 PA·with (0.02 poise).

In the result of the above operations provides the silicate electrolyte with low sodium for lead acid batteries.

The purity of the reagents used in the above operations, must meet at least the requirements for chemical purity, typically the degree of purity required for chemical reagents. As the magnetic material used for the manufacture of pipes of circular cross section, in which is provided a magnetic field in the range of 0.1 Tesla (1000 Gauss) to 0.6 T (6000 Gauss), can be used alloy, NdFeB, ferrite or other magnetic materials.

The electrolyte according to the invention can be used in lead acid batteries General purpose and lead acid batteries for special purposes, for example, used in underwater apt Rath.

The present invention has the following advantages.

1. Besides the fact that changing the composition of the electrolyte, especially due to processing by means of magnetization, the dynamic viscosity of the electrolyte is less than 0,002 PA· (0.002 poises). The electrolyte is liquid and has good fluidity. It is devoid of such drawbacks of the existing silicate gel electrolyte, such as high viscosity and difficulty of the process of filling the battery with electrolyte, and especially the hardening and cracking of the electrolyte during operation of the battery.

2. The power density of the battery using a liquid silicate electrolyte with low sodium, increased from 30-40 watts/kg to 53 W/kg

3. The internal resistance of the rechargeable batteries that use a liquid silicate electrolyte with low sodium, very low, and the service life of the batteries is increased from the usual 350 cycles of charge and discharge up to 400-1000 cycles and even more.

4. Rechargeable batteries that use a liquid silicate electrolyte with low sodium, can be operated in a wide temperature range - from -50°to +60°C.

5. Speed characteristic of such a liquid silicate electrolyte low in the atrium was significantly increased and reached values in the range from 25° With up to 30°With (compared to conventional 3-7°).

6. Thanks to the use of the electrolyte liquid silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention during preparation and application of the electrolyte does not occur evaporation of the acid is completely eliminated pollution sulfuric acid does not create harm to human health and resolving the problems of corrosion of the components arising from the evaporation of the acid from cans rechargeable battery having a message with atmospheric air, and leak acid. All this is positive for society and provides economic benefits.

7. Lead acid batteries that use a liquid silicate electrolyte with low sodium, are negligibly small self-discharge, they are well able to withstand long-term storage, the storage period increases with the usual 8 months to 18 months.

8. Standard rechargeable battery 100.

9. Silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention can be used as an electrolyte or an activation solution for lead acid batteries General purpose, or as an electrolyte or an activation solution for lead acid batteries special is the purpose, for example, lead acid batteries, used in underwater vehicles.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows the voltage discharge of the lead acid storage battery in which the electrolyte used silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention.

Figure 2 shows the curve of the discharge current of the lead acid storage battery in which the electrolyte used silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention.

Description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention

Example 1

The process of cooking liquid silicate solution with low sodium for use as an electrolyte for lead acid batteries voltage 12 V, capacity of 100 Ampere-hours, [speed characteristic] 3°C (300 A), includes the following operations:

(1) Take 1.5 kg of silica gel (commercial product # S-40, purity reagent), the content of silicon dioxide (SiO2) which is in the range from 40% to 60% by weight; this corresponds to 5 mass units.

(2) On the silica gel is infused distilled or deionized water and simultaneously mix the resulting mixture, this process is carried out until dormancy is the hydrometer Baume will not show a value of 0.65 degrees Baume; just for this, you will need water to approximately 4 liters

(3) obtained in the previous phase of the solution add 98,3%sulfuric acid, the density of which is 1,834 g/cm3this operation is carried out until until the pH value reaches 1,32; all it will take approximately 2 l of sulphuric acid.

(4) Silicate mixture resulting from the implementation of previous operations, is subjected to magnetization, which placed her in the Central region of the magnetic field with magnetic flux density in the range from 0.3 T (3000 Gauss) to 0.4 T (4000 Gauss) for a period of time 8 minutes to receive the magnetized mixture, the magnetic field is generated in a pipe of circular cross section with a diameter of 800 mm and a height of 600 mm, made of NdFeB alloy.

(5) Obtained in the previous phase magnetized silicate mixture is subjected to mechanical stirring with the mixer rotation speed of 700 rpm to 1400 rpm for about 10 minutes before until the dynamic viscosity of the mixture becomes less than 0,002 PA·with (0.02 poise).

As a result of performing the above operations is obtained liquid silicate solution with a low sodium content, which can be used as electrolyte for lead acid batteries voltage of 1 V, with a capacity of 100 ampere-hours.

When using an electrolyte obtained as described above, a lead-acid battery showed standard estimated value of 100, its specific capacity increased to 53 W/kg, the life of lead acid batteries has increased to more than 400 cycles of charge-discharge, this battery can normally be operated in the temperature range from -50°to +60°With its high-speed characteristics increased significantly from conventional 3-7°With 30°C. the self-Discharge of these batteries is negligible, and they can work even after storage for 18 months. The curve of the voltage discharge of the lead acid storage battery in which the electrolyte used silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention shown in figure 1, and the curve of the discharge current of the lead acid storage battery in which the electrolyte used silicate solution with low sodium according to the invention shown in figure 2.

Example 2

The process of cooking liquid silicate solution with low sodium for use as an electrolyte for lead acid batteries voltage 12 V, capacity 12 ampere-hours, includes with ewusie operations:

(1) Take 1.5 kg of silica gel (commercial product # S-40, purity reagent), the content of silicon dioxide (SiO2) which is 60% by weight; this corresponds to 5 mass units.

(2) On the silica gel is infused distilled or deionized water and simultaneously mix the resulting mixture, this process is carried out up until the hydrometer Baume will not show a value of 0.65 degrees Baume; all this will require water for approximately 15 liters

(3) obtained in the previous phase of the solution add 98,3%sulfuric acid, the density of which is 1,834 g/cm3this operation is carried out until until the pH value reaches 1,31; all it will take approximately 2 l of sulphuric acid.

(4) Silicate mixture resulting from the implementation of previous operations, is subjected to magnetization, which placed her in the Central region of the magnetic field with magnetic flux density in the range from 0.4 T (4000 Gauss) 0.5 T (5000 Gauss) for a period of time of 6 minutes for the magnetized mixture, the magnetic field is generated in a pipe of circular cross section with a diameter of 800 mm and a height of 800 mm, made of NdFeB alloy.

(5) Obtained in the previous phase magnetized silicate mixture is subjected to mechanical stirring speed of 700 rpm is inutu up to 1400 rpm for 6 minutes until while the dynamic viscosity of the mixture becomes less than 0,002 PA·with (0.02 poise).

As a result of performing the above operations is obtained liquid silicate solution with a low sodium content, which can be used as electrolyte for lead acid batteries voltage 12 V, capacity 12 ampere-hours.

When using an electrolyte obtained as described above, a lead-acid battery showed standard estimated value of 100, its specific capacity increased to 53 W/kg, the life of lead acid batteries has increased to more than 1000 cycles of charge-discharge, this battery can normally be operated in the temperature range from -50°to +60°With its high-speed characteristics increased significantly from conventional 3-7°s to more than 30°C. the self-Discharge of these batteries is negligible and they can work even after storage for 18 months.

1. Liquid silicate solution with low sodium for use as an electrolyte for lead acid batteries made using the technology of the magnetization, and the process of its preparation involves the following steps:

(1) providing a silica content is silicon dioxide (SiO 2) which is in the range from 40 to 60% by weight, which corresponds to the number of mass units of such a gel from 5 to 15,

(2) adding to the silica gel, taken at the stage (1), water with simultaneous stirring the resulting mixture, the number of mass units of water is from 15 to 25, and the duration of the process water added is such that upon its completion the mixture density by hydrometer Baume is from 0.65 to 0.85 degrees Baume,

(3) adding to the solution obtained in stage (2), an inorganic acid to obtain a silica mixture, the duration of the process of adding an inorganic acid such that at the end the value of the pH is in the range from 1 to 4

(4) the magnetization silicate mixture obtained in stage (3), by placing it in a magnetic field with magnetic flux density in the range from 0.1 to 0.6 T (6000 Gauss) for a period of time from 5 to 10 min to obtain the magnetized mixture,

(5) magnetized stirring the mixture obtained in stage (4), to achieve the dynamic viscosity is less than 0,002 PA·with (0.02 poise).

2. Liquid silicate solution according to claim 1, in which at the stage of adding water used deionized water or distilled water.

3. Liquid silicate solution according to claim 1, in which on the adiya's adding inorganic acid as the inorganic acid used in the acid, selected from the following list: hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid, sulphuric acid.

4. Liquid silicate solution according to claim 1, in which at the stage of mixing the magnetized mixture applied mechanical stirring speeds ranging from 700 to 1400 rpm over a period of time from 5 to 10 minutes

5. Liquid silicate solution according to claim 1, in which at the stage of magnetization silicate mixtures of magnetic field is provided by using a pipe of circular cross section, made of alloy, NdFeB, ferrite, or other magnetic material.

6. The use of liquid silicate solution with low sodium for use as an electrolyte for lead acid batteries made using the technology of the magnetization according to claim 1 as an electrolyte or an activation solution for lead acid batteries General purpose or for lead acid storage batteries for special purposes.

7. The use of liquid silicate solution according to claim 6, in which as lead acid batteries special purpose use lead acid batteries for underwater vehicles.



 

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