Open-cut mineral deposit mining method

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cut steeply dipping or inclined deposit development.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating pit up to design depth reaching by sliced benches; moving the benches as ore deposit is developed; cutting ore and debris; loading thereof on conveyance means to move ore to ground surface, wherein as pit is deepened conveyer systems are used; on reaching the design pit depth deposit is divided into slices and the slices are developed with minimal ore losses in triangular zones with negligible interaction in peripheral face by developed slot raise technology usage; reinforcing slopes with anchors and metal mesh at deep horizons where berm cleaning is difficult; performing slice cutting though the full ore body thickness at design pit bottom and conveying the cut ore to surface by steeply inclined conveyers and combined transportation means. In the case of ore development in slices having lesser thickness below pit bottom steeply dipping and vertical side part are built, concrete wall and metal mesh adapted to hold wedge-like lumps in the presence of potential caving, wherein in this case mining equipment is used and ore cut from underground layer is crushed in crushing mills located on main loading and transportation horizons and delivered to ground surface by conveyer or skip shaft. Mined-out space is filled with rock refuse at terminal stage.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral extraction, reduced cost of deposit development.

8 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry to open development developed open space and development of ore bodies layers with slopes fixed benches. Method of surface mining steeply dipping deposits includes quarry development to the design depth with the use of layers of ledges and podvigina ledges as ore reserves horizon crushing ore and overburden and loading onto the means of transport ore to the surface, and with the deepening of the quarry and the use of conveyor complexes, when performing career to the design depth is exercised by the division of minerals strata in layers and work with minimum loss of ore in triangles and minor violation of selection of array of bead application of the developed technologies of cutting slits, deep levels, where hampered cleanup berms, slopes strengthen anchors and metal grid, at the level of the bottom of the quarry project, the refinement layers perform at full capacity of the ore body, and the extracted ore crushing transported to the surface is steeply inclined conveyors and combined transport, when mining ore layers smaller thickness below the bottom of the quarry with offset steeply inclined and vertical sections of the side in the conditions of decreasing fracture of rocks, with a concrete wall and metal is achieved net designed to hold the wedge-shaped outsized potential wood thrown, move on to the application gornodobyche machinery and workings shipping ore underground storey with its crushing in a crusher on concentration levels and delivery to the surface of the conveyor or skipanim trunk, and the last step is filling out space as well as cross-breeds.

The method allows to increase the efficiency of extraction of minerals by reducing losses and dilution of ore during the mining of layers in the circuit and below the bottom of the quarry. The use of cutting slits along the contour with the ore body and selective excavation of blocks of waste rock compared to the sublevel floor collapse with a simultaneous decrease in fracture the surrounding rock mass. Resulting in the reduction of the collapse and the wood thrown rocks and manifestation of anthropogenic impacts, and reducing the amount of development workings improves the performance of the work, which generally contributes to the expansion of the scope of technology of the open way in the development of mineral deposits.

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development steeply dipping deposits.

There is a method of developing a sloping field, in which the ore bodies is on the upper layers layers-ledges achieve wastage rates and quality of ore, respectively, 3-4% and 5-7%, and when using sublevel floor collapses, these figures increased to 10-15% and 15-20% and more [Adagamov AM, ovodenko B.K. foundations of economic evaluation of ore losses in open cut development. L.: Ed. Science, 1971, s-136.] [Development of Apatite deposits of the Khibiny mountains. M.: Nedra, - 232 C.].

The disadvantage of this method is that during the transition to the ore body ore from blown up larger sized blocks in triangles as lying, and hanging sides forming large deposits of ore loss and mixes with large volumes of waste rock in excess of the ore body horizontal layers (ledges) 3-5 times. In addition, there is an increase in the volume of rifles and mines, and the use of large quantities of explosives (EXPLOSIVES) in the block (up to 100-150 t) causes the breakdown of the overlying array of overlapping species and their gradual convergence in dynamic pressure (induced impacts).

There is a method of testing a steeply ore body combined method, in which the upper part of it is mined in an open way, and the lower underground [Geological-industrial evaluation of Apatite deposits. M.: Nedra, - 1985. - 196 S., S-147].

The disadvantage of this method is that during the transition to underground way with the use of pot is laciny increase loss and ore ore not only in the sides, but in the final blocks under the corner of the quarry, and when it is difficult to maintain a constant quantity of ore fed into the mill in comparison with working with layers-ledges. The application of systems collapse will cause deformation of priportovogo rock and possibly capital and development workings.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved results is a method of mining mineral resources, including the use of complex schemes inclined ore body in the form of intermediate blocks, providing a relative reduction of losses and dilution of ore compared to conventional technologies [Coro V.A. Kudryavtsev M.I. Combined mining of iron ores Krivbass with the minimum quantitative and qualitative losses. M: Horninger. - analyte. - 2003. No. 12. P.60-63].

The disadvantage of this method is that despite some reduction of losses and dilution of ore their size is quite high-higher than in the fixed-bed method of mining ore bodies several times. In addition, Pets violation of lateral and in particular the array of overlapping species, resulting in subsidence of the surface above the mined-out space, which affects the maintenance of excavations at steady state.

The purpose of izobreteny which is increasing the efficiency of extraction of minerals in the open way loss and dilution of ore, with the exception of the collapse of the sides and roof of the developed space, as well as reducing the cost of development of deposits of minerals.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of opencast mining of steeply dipping deposits, including quarry development to the design depth with the use of layers of ledges and podvigina ledges as ore reserves horizon crushing ore and overburden and loading onto the means of transport ore to the surface, and with the deepening of the quarry and the use of conveyor complexes, when performing career to the design depth is exercised by the division of minerals strata in layers and work with minimum loss of ore in triangles and minor violation of selection of array of bead application of the developed technologies of cutting slits, deep levels, where hampered cleanup berms, slopes strengthen anchors and metal grid, at the level of the bottom of the quarry, mining layers operate at full capacity, and mined ore crushing transported steeply inclined conveyors and combined transport, when mining ore layers smaller thickness below the bottom of the quarry with offset steeply inclined and vertical sections of the side in the conditions of decreasing fracturing of rocks with a concrete wall and a metal grid, calculated the and hold the V outsized potential wood thrown, pass to use gornodobyche machinery and workings shipping ore underground storey with its crushing in a crusher on concentration levels and delivery to the surface of the conveyor or skipanim trunk, and the last step is filling out space as well as cross-breeds.

Increase efficiency by reducing losses and dilution of ore when the ore contacts from both the supine and hanging Boca reservoir and within the ore body occurring blocks of waste rock is achieved by ore body layers, the required power performance career with the use of cutting slits, held close to the contact of the ore body, and the areas of triangles ore when mining layers 3-5 times or more, less than the formation of units of production under storey and sublevel caving.

High rates of ore losses during application development systems failures indicate that, for example, in underground mines JSC "Apatit" for 65-70-year period of their operation total loss of the ore was about 1000 million tons of These figures are typical in the development of bedded deposits of minerals, and the development of complex-structured deposits with an uneven distribution of components and the inclusion of rock blocks indicators sweat the and ore even more increased by 2-3 times, that showed the development Masvingo and Narkoznogo deposits of Apatite ores by JSC "Apatite".

When using the development system with collapse and blocks the height of 60-80 m weight of the explosive charge may be hundreds of tons. And with the explosion of the number of CENTURIES is the destruction of the selection of the rock and the dismemberment of overlapping rock on "chips"-blocks, shifting and collapsing one by one, and causing a pulsed load, close to the anthropogenic impacts violate the stability of the rocks.

Increase of efficiency of development of ore bodies is achieved when the ore body layers less even than in an open way that does not cause destruction Protassova array, and the strengthening of slopes of the ledges and the Board eliminates the falling rocks in the mined-out area and increases the safety of operations. The decline rifles and development workings in the application blocks increases economic efficiency.

When determining the parameters of the method of development of mineral deposits layers at deeper horizons must consider the reduction of fracture of rocks with depth of field. According to the exploration for deposits of Kovdor Deposit of integrated iron ore, Apatite deposits in the Khibiny tresino the lead at deeper horizons is reduced to 1-2 cracks on 1 m of core, that demonstrates their practical solidity and cohesion of rocks may reach 8-10 MPa, which provides stability and inclined surfaces in the rocks.

The drawings show a section of the field to pit with grate seizure of stocks, and developed open space with slopes fixed ledges and roof, and the final step is filling out space as well as cross-breeds (figure 1, figure 2, figure 3), figure 4, figure 5 - Effects of traditional method (technology) with the collapse of overlapping strata.

Figure 1 - the ore body in the quarry and the transition to mining stocks below the bottom of the quarry: 1 ore body; 2 - layers (ledges); 3 - Board career; 4 - berm cleaning; 5 - fixing the slope; 6 - delivery of ore and overburden to the surface; 7 - inclined shaft; 8 - blade.

Figure 2 - Element ore body below the bottom of the quarry mount slopes and roof openings: 1 - working layer; 2 - mount in the supine side; 3 - mount hanging side; 4 - crusher; 5, 6 - Assembly (ore passes) and transport development; 7 - wydany the trunk.

3 - Filling out space in the finalization of the field: 1 - the slope of the breed.

Figure 4 - the Collapse of the hillside above the goaf when systems collapse (Kirov mine JSC "Apatit").

5 is a diagram of the collapse of "chips"-blocks n the d goaf on Expercom mine JSC "Apatit" when the system collapse: and, b, C, d - cuts.

An example of specific performance

For deposits of Apatite ores "Koashva", "Niorkpahsky", "deer Creek", represented by sloped and flat bodies on the basis of techno-economic analysis established that in the area of underground work instead of systems collapse, it is advisable to apply the layer of the extraction layer thickness of t=5-10 m This will enable 2-3 times to reduce the loss of ore in triangles and 3-5 times dilution. Note that these fields are of type compound structure with a change in the distribution of P2About6not only horizontally, but vertically, with the inclusion of blocks of waste rock and ore bodies systems with collapse or cameras with a bookmark will lead to a significant dilution of ore that will drastically reduce the yield of the concentrate and increase the cost of getting concentrate a specified number. The application of the layer thickness of 5-10 m will also help to improve the completeness of the ore bodies, as, for example, on Niorkpahsky field capacity of the ore bodies decreases with depth up to 5-10 m and less.

On gornodobytchik works can be used mining equipment as part of the open work (loaders with bucket capacity of 3-4 m3machine-diameter wells 110-120 m)and underground works (excavation underground workings). For crushing ore is suitable in order to apply the crusher type SCD. The slopes fixed ledges in a deep portion of the pit should be implemented by the use of nets, anchors and shotcrete, and in the hanging side to create a concrete pad with a thickness of 30-50 mm, a metal grid with thick wires 10-15 mm and anchor lining that will ensure the safety of work in the area of the roof of the array.

Calculations show that when applying the method of loss and dilution may be lower than in an open way, where the height of the scarps up to 12-15 m in This way can be produced more ore with higher quality.

The economic effect of the application of the method is 5-10 million rubles.

Sources of information

1. Adagamov AM, ovodenko B.K. foundations of economic evaluation of ore losses in open cut development. L.: Ed. Science, 1971, s-136.

2. Development of Apatite deposits of the Khibiny mountains. M.: Nedra, - 232 C.

3. Geological-industrial evaluation of Apatite deposits. M.: Nedra, - 1985. - 196 S., S-147.

4. Coreg V.A. Kudryavtsev M.I. Combined mining of iron ores Krivbass with the minimum quantitative and qualitative losses. M: Horninger. - analyte. - 2003. No. 12. P.60-63.

Method of surface mining steeply dipping deposits includes quarry development to the design depth with the use of layers of ledges and podvigina ledges as ore, zapasa the horizon, ore crushing and Stripping and loading onto the means of transport ore to the surface, and with the deepening of the quarry and the use of conveyor complexes, when performing career to the design depth is exercised by the division of minerals strata in layers and work with minimum loss of ore in triangles and minor violation of selection of array of bead application of the developed technologies of cutting slits, deep levels, where hampered cleanup berms, slopes strengthen anchors and metal grid, at the level of the bottom of the quarry project refinement layers perform at full capacity of the ore body, and the extracted ore crushing transported to the surface is steeply inclined conveyors and combined transport, the mining of the ore layers smaller thickness below the bottom of the quarry with offset steeply inclined and vertical sections of the side in the conditions of decreasing fracture of rocks, with a concrete wall and a metal net, designed to hold the wedge-shaped outsized potential wood thrown, move on to the application gornodobyche machinery and workings shipping ore underground storey with its crushing in a crusher on concentration levels and delivery to the surface of the conveyor or skipanim trunk, and the last step is filling out space final paragraph is childbirth.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.

EFFECT: higher productiveness.

3 dwg

The invention relates to a device for transporting bulk and bulk cargoes have been presented, namely to cable scrapers, and can be used for the development of fluvial gravel deposits of diamonds, for example, in Angola

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of ore, gravel, coal, oil-shale deposits of construction rocks, construction materials and some other solid minerals

The invention relates to a device for transporting bulk and bulk cargoes have been presented, namely to cable scrapers, and can be used for the development of fluvial gravel deposits of diamonds, for example, in Angola
The invention relates to methods for development of mineral deposits and can be used to create the mining and tunneling machines for surface and underground development

The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to the development of irrigated alluvial deposits of minerals and man-made accumulations of mineral raw materials under conditions of continuous negative air temperatures

The invention relates to a device for transporting bulk and bulk cargoes have been presented, namely to cable scrapers, and can be used for the development of fluvial gravel deposits of diamonds, for example, in Angola

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of resources placers worked previously dredging method

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of permafrost alluvial deposits with internal dumping
The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, in particular to the enrichment of diamond ores, and can be used in the processing of other types of metallic and non-metallic materials

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.

EFFECT: higher productiveness.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cut steeply dipping or inclined deposit development.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating pit up to design depth reaching by sliced benches; moving the benches as ore deposit is developed; cutting ore and debris; loading thereof on conveyance means to move ore to ground surface, wherein as pit is deepened conveyer systems are used; on reaching the design pit depth deposit is divided into slices and the slices are developed with minimal ore losses in triangular zones with negligible interaction in peripheral face by developed slot raise technology usage; reinforcing slopes with anchors and metal mesh at deep horizons where berm cleaning is difficult; performing slice cutting though the full ore body thickness at design pit bottom and conveying the cut ore to surface by steeply inclined conveyers and combined transportation means. In the case of ore development in slices having lesser thickness below pit bottom steeply dipping and vertical side part are built, concrete wall and metal mesh adapted to hold wedge-like lumps in the presence of potential caving, wherein in this case mining equipment is used and ore cut from underground layer is crushed in crushing mills located on main loading and transportation horizons and delivered to ground surface by conveyer or skip shaft. Mined-out space is filled with rock refuse at terminal stage.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral extraction, reduced cost of deposit development.

8 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry, as well as hydraulic, road, agriculture and other building, particularly to perform open cast mining and other woks by rock loosening.

SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining information concerning main and structural-and-strength rock properties on the base of estimation of data of primary and post-authorization prospecting, as well as production prospecting; detailed rock zoning to separate production blocks and unit blocks characterized by uniform rock at borders thereof; writing computer program; automatically loosing rock of each unit block by most effective method, namely by mechanical, pneumatic, blast drilling or physical one performed with the use of all-purpose mobile rig tools. Above rig includes computer system, device provided with one, two or three replaceable teeth, with plate-like metal pins and with hydraulic cylinders. The rig also has device adapted to create holes in unit block and wedge out thereof, drilling device and charging device, laser charge initiation system, local shelter with damping means, device for rock cutting by applying pressurized air and impacts to rock and auxiliary excavation device.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock preparation for further cutting and loading and for solid mineral field development as a whole.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop watered placer deposits and technological mineral deposits under permanent negative temperatures of ambient air.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing preparation and production works, mineral processing and refuse stacking operations. To implement above method dam is built around mining equipment and deposit to be developed prior to air temperature reduction to negative value; installing sled-mounted hangar having transparent heat insulated roof over the dam and performing all above mentioned works and operations inside the hangar.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of production and processing equipment.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for co-developing salt and platinum deposits.

SUBSTANCE: method involves detecting presence of platinum in non-soluble salt residue salt during salt deposit development; performing geological mapping of salt-bearing cavity and determining sand distribution in stratum above salt layer; drilling wells and bore pits and taking samples to determine platinum content; contouring sand deposits bearing platinum with concentration suitable for industrial development; cleaning surface; blocking out and excavating platinum-bearing sand; directing above sand to gravity separation plant; tying thereof with water in gravity separation plant to separate platinum therefrom.

EFFECT: increased complexity of deposit development.

FIELD: methods of surface mining, particularly for following natural stone treatment by covering or impregnating thereof with liquid or other flowable substances on surface.

SUBSTANCE: method involves gunning salt pit surface with waterproofing agent; covering salt pile surface with clay-and-salt mud layer in dry and hot season after salt pile hardening in at least 1.0-1.5 months after pile filling with salt. The clay-and-salt mud is sylvinite ore-dressing waste obtained from chemical factory. The clay-and-salt mud layer has 10-20 mm thickness and is formed by gunning salt pile surface with above mud material. The clay-and-salt mud is supplied into pneumatic pump receiver, wherein solid/liquid phase ratio is 1:2 - 1:3.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of salt pile waterproofing.

FIELD: agricultural; devices for treatment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of clarification of water at the industrial development of the placer deposits with utilization of the wastes of the timber loggings and extraction of the finely dispersed gold from the water runoffs of the gold mining. In the bed of the diversion channel they form the firebreak out of the filtering material containing the wood sawdust mass subjected to the preliminary sorting at the vibration installation and having the ratio of the fractions from 1 to 5 mm up to the fraction from 5 up to 15 mm as 1:3 and packaged in the netted forms made out of the wire skeleton. After the water clarification the wood sawdust mass is subjected to dehydration by pressing and to drying and incineration for extraction of the fine fractions of gold. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits of both mineral resources of high density (gold, platinum, etc), and valued minerals of low density.

SUBSTANCE: method for softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits includes driving a water-feeding trench, driving a water-collecting trench in 80-100 meters along direction of fall of deposit bed in parallel to water-feeding trench, depth of water-collecting trench providing for difference of bottom levels in trenches 1,5-3 meters, filling water-feeding trench with water and recharging it to maintain constant water level by means of gate and spillway with raised spillway gate, building walling dam 1-1,5 meters high, limiting the part of deposit being processed in plan, with spillway, after that outputs of filtration flow into water-collecting trench are constructed which are fixed by wetting of upper slope for height of 1-2 meters, then spillway gate is lowered onto spillway spine, and that part of deposit is flooded with water for depth of 0,8-1,3 meters and this level is maintained for initial softening of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits, after that dredger plant is assembled, consisting of suck-in line with suction device, dredger itself and force sludge duct. At the end of force sludge duct, vortex generator is mounted together with hydrodynamic cavitator, due to which during launch of operation of dredger plant argillaceous sands of gravel deposits along the way from face and suction device of dredger to hydrodynamic cavitator are subjected to second stage of softening and disintegration, and in hydrodynamic cavitator - to third-stage final disintegration, and then are dispatched to dressing plant.

EFFECT: increased productiveness and extraction efficiency during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits due to efficient softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits and release of valued components during hydro-transportation of sands to dressing equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex incorporates a trestle with a tumbling bucket, a tumbling module with a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow. The tumbling bucket installation provides for possibility of linear and angular displacement in the vertical plane; the bucket has slots and L-shaped rippers.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said complex is provided with a supported trestle and an ultrasonic and mechanical tumbling module. Rotatable ultrasonic radiation module is connected to movable carriage rim by means of a hub and sliding supports. The movable carriage is provided with a drive for moving it along the trestle cross beam and a drive for turning the ultrasonic radiation module around the movable carriage yoke axis. The rotatable ultrasonic radiation module has drives for moving the ultrasonic sources in the vertical plane, a dual drive for moving the ultrasonic sources in horizontal plane, sensors to determine the rock physical and mechanical state, and communication links with functional module of disintegration process automatic control system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

2 dwg

Up!