Method for kimberlite pipe development under difficult hydrogeological conditions

FIELD: mining industry, particularly crystal-saving diamond mining when developing permafrost kimberlites under difficult hydrogeological conditions of permafrost zones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening rock, converting rock into pulp and conveying pulp through pulp line by dredger. Before subpermafrost zone opening hole having large diameter is driven from pit bottom for the full depth of field to be developed and inclined borehole is built. The borehole is connected to the hole in point located at said depth and then high-pressure subpermafrost brine is pumped into the pit. Airlift dredger is arranged on water body surface, ripper-dozer provided with all-purpose boring bit is lowered on pit bottom. Loosening of kimberlites weakened by brine is performed by ripper-dozer along helical cuts. Fine ore cuttings are conveyed by means of airlift through pulp line to ore mill. Coarse ore cuttings are moved to ground surface to ore storage through hole, caisson drift and inclined borehole provided with skip hoist. Kimberlite pipe development below pit bottom is performed at right angles of faces depreciation without performing overburden operations.

EFFECT: increased gem diamond yield and resource saving due to deep horizons with opened worked-out space development without overburden operations and improved ecological safety.

4 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to the mining industry and created in relation to the development of deep kimberlite pipes in permafrost with complex hydrogeology. The invention is intended for development of unique deposits of diamonds in extreme climatic conditions of the North.

The level of technology

There is a method of mining in complex hydrogeological conditions, including insulation coming into the quarry water from aquifers by the construction of hydraulic barriers around the career space and subsequent testing of the dried blocks of technique and technology of surface mining [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the significant cost of the drainage field and on the disposal of part of the groundwater (brine) into the underground reservoir or special locations on the surface that adversely affect the environment.

There is also known a method of mining the deep horizons of the fields with the use of waterproofing, including the construction of the backfill around the veil career by injection into wells under high pressure special cement slurries, which, filling the cracks in the rock mass and hardening, creating a protective shield against receipt PL is stoway water in the career space, and mining are using the technology of public works. The cement slurries used visco-plastic and quick setting of the mixture [2].

The disadvantage of this method is a great complexity, significant costs and low reliability of this design. The latter leads to a partial "slippage" of formation waters in the goaf quarries and complicate the mining operations affect the hygienic conditions of the workplace and, ultimately, allow the environmental pollution.

There is also known a method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including loosening and loading of the rock mass in the mobile hopper feeder, transportation by belt conveyor to the sump-mixer, the transformation of the rock mass in the slurry, pumping the slurry mobile suction installation and its further transportation of the slurry line to the concentrator and hydraulic mine dump [3].

However, this method is characterized by limited scope for deposits of loose sediments, allows for significant environmental destruction, pollution of water basins. In addition, the use of such a method depends on the climatic conditions of the region and the availability of nearby deposits of water sources.

p> Closest to the invention to the technical essence is the way open underwater mining of mineral deposits, including loosening of the rock mass in the aquatic environment, the rise of the pulp using airlift and further haulage on the slurry line to the beneficiation plant [4].

The main disadvantage of this method is limited scope for loose rock, the rock kimberlite method may not be acceptable, as rocky kimberlites require explosive destruction, which significantly reduces the yield of high-quality cristalleria at the stage of production.

The invention

The invention consists in that in the method of mining of kimberlite pipes in difficult hydrogeological conditions, including the loosening of the rock, turning it into pulp and transportation of the slurry line dredge, before opening hydrate accumulations aquifers from the bottom of the pit are a well of large diameter to a final depth of mining, constructing inclined shaft, which connects to a given depth with the hole, after which, in the career space allowed hydrate accumulations of the high pressure brine to the surface of the pond place airlifting the dredge on the bottom of the reservoir is lowered bulldozer-loosening from shock Executive body is m, loosening pre razuprochneniya brine kimberlites produce a bulldozer spiral benches, destroyed small fraction of ore by airlift for the slurry line is transported to the beneficiation plant, a large fraction through the hole and inclined shaft, equipped skipanim lift, serves on the surface to the warehouse ore, and mining of kimberlite pipes below the bottom of the quarry are under the vertical corners of the maturity of the boards without the production Stripping activity.

In the proposed method, the new features in comparison with the prototype are:

- development of a new principle of open underwater mining of deep horizons of kimberlite pipes by flooding career space hydrate accumulations brines, softening rock kimberlite brine and then zaratracheny underwater mechanical loosening, lifting the rock mass airlifting dredge;

- applying a new principle of forming the sides of the deep horizons of the quarries at vertical angles without retaining walls and special protective structures;

- a new scheme for distribution of cargo ore fine and coarse fractions, and a fine fraction from the bottom of the quarry is transported to the surface by the slurry line by airlift, and larger through bore large diameter caisson drift and nuklon the second barrel to the stock of ore;

- the use of decompression drift, which are brine pressed by the compressed air in the chamber pressed brine.

These new signs eliminate the drawbacks of the existing methods of mining and provide the following enhanced positive properties:

- applying a new principle of mine the deposits of kimberlite pipes under water will reduce the cost of mining by eliminating the system of dewatering, blasting in mining ore from hydrate accumulations horizons, and also will minimise harmful emissions from quarries in the environment;

- the introduction of a new principle of formation of the pit hydrate accumulations in the area under the vertical angles will allow mining in the quarry area without production Stripping operations;

- loss of strength of the kimberlites in the environment of brine by a non-explosive way, the separation of the rock mass on small and large faction in the process of production, transportation for various technological schemes will provide a substantial increase in the yield of large-class diamond jewelry.

The method is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 is a transverse section of the quarry depicted technological scheme open underwater mining of kimberlite pipes; figure 2 - is a plan of the underwater portion of the pit along the line A-A; figure 3 - transport and ventilation sloping trunks; figure 4 - diagram of the determination of the average length of haul.

The method is as follows

Pit kimberlite pipe 1 is fulfilled to the roof of the aquifer 2. After reaching the mining roof of the aquifer are well large diameter 3 to the final depth testing 4, sloping trunks 5 to connect with the bore 3. Let career in the space produced water prior to the formation of the reservoir 6, the depth of which is determined by the magnitude of the pressure of the reservoir water. On the surface of a pond set dredger 7 with the air pump 8 and the suction tip 9, and at the bottom of the reservoir is placed bulldozer-Ripper 10. Inclined shaft 5 place the skip hoist 11. The development of hydrate accumulations part of the kimberlite pipe 1 is as follows. Bulldozer-the Ripper 10 produces loosening partially razuprochneniya brine rock kimberlite spiral benches 12, starting from the mouth of the well of large diameter 3 to the end edges of the horizon. And for the best of the destruction of kimberlites spiral moves bulldozer oriented in two opposing directions. Then, using airlift 8 produce the extraction and transportation of the formed fine fraction in the slurry line to the concentrator 13. Larger fraction of the ore, which has not gone through the airlift, bulldozer is served to the wellhead 3, where carriages under its own weight initially lands on the valve 14 wells, and then it is loaded into skips 15 that deliver ore to the ore stockpile at 16. If necessary, repair of the skip hoist brine from the lock passage 17 with the use of the sluice valve 18 is extruded in the decompression chamber 19. In stock are zaratrusta ore using the effect of phase fluctuations in temperature of the environment the harsh continental climate of the North, and then fined ore is fed to the concentrator 13. To ensure ventilation is provided by two barrel 5, which are interconnected Bonami 20. One of the shafts is mounting and serves to move the working, auxiliary equipment, and ventilation. For normal operation miners and economical operation of the skip hoist angle both barrels adopted on 30°.

A specific example of the method

For the technical disclosure of the nature and advantages of the proposed method shows an example where the source data is taken from the following: Hto- the final depth of the pit, Nto=530 m; Hpintermediate depth career (up to the roof of the aquifer), Np=330 m; γp- the angle of slope of the pit in permafrost γp=49°; Dpthe diameter of the ore is eaten, Dp=300 m; Kto- fortress of kimberlite on a scale professional Protodiakonov, Kto=5; qtovolumetric weight of kimberlites, qto=2.5 t/m3;

1. Calculation of reduction of volumes of Stripping activity in the pit

The reduction in Stripping ΔVtodue to the mining of ore reserves within the depths 330-530 m for vertical angles will be:

ΔV=Vto-Vp-QK

where Vto- volume career at maturity of its sides under the traditional angles to the design depth, m3;

Vp- volume intermediate career, m3;

Qto- the volume of mined ore reserves, m3.

Using the truncated cone formula we find:

where Dto, Dp- the diameter of the pit at the surface, respectively, at depths of Htoand Hpm

Dp=Dp+2Hp*ctgγp=300+2*330*0,87=874 m

Dto=Dp+2Hp(ctgγp=300+2*530*0,87=1222 m

ΔVto=160,9 million3

That is, when implementing the proposed method for mining quarry to a depth of 530 m would be required using traditional technology to remove 160,9 million3Skrylnikov.

2. The rationale for the withdrawal of a large class diamond jewelry with the proposed method

As an example, the content of diamond jewelry at 1 m3mined kimberlite conditionally accepted equal to 0.23 ct for one cubic meter of rock.

The output of gem diamonds is estimated by the following formula:

P=100-(K1+C2+C3+C4+C5), %,

where K1- the share of destructible diamond during drilling, %;

To2the same explosion, %;

To3the same during loading and transportation, %;

To4same with enrichment, %;

K5the same with jewelry production, %.

According to the experimental data according to the values set in the following:

K1- 4%

To2- 12%

To3- 3% (2% loading and 1% during transportation)

To4- 18%

To5- 5%, then:

P=100-(4+12+3+18+5)=58%

In our case, without the use of blasting the output of gem diamonds is determined by the formula:

P=100-(A1+A2+A3+A4), %,

where A1- the share of destructible diamonds when ripping with a bulldozer;

And2- during transport;

And3- in enrichment;

And4- in jewelry production.

A1take 2%, then:

P=100-(2+3+18+5)=72%

Comparing the results obtained for the destructible diamonds in the notch kimberlite drilling and blasting those what alogia and dredge, have that the share of output of large class diamond jewelry, the proposed method will increase to 14%.

3. The calculation of the performance of airlift

Initial data for calculating the performance of airlift are: geometric height H and the slurry flow rate Q. thus determine the pipe diameters, the depth of the immersion nozzle, air flow, pressure and compressor power.

The diameters are chosen depending on a preset flow rate of the pulp. In this case, when Q=75 to 120 l/s accept pulp-raising pipe D=250 mm, vozduhoprovodyaschih pipe d=88 mm, the casing Dh=450 mm.

To characterize the depth of immersion nozzles introduce the so-called coefficient of the immersion pipe To equal

K=N/Nto-H+h/Hg=1+h/Hg

The value of K is chosen depending on the given geometric height Hg. In turn, the value of the coefficient K determines the efficiency of the airlift ηe:

When Hg=30-60 m, K=2,0-2,2

ηe=0,5-0,54

Then define:

N=Ng=2,0*50=100 m

The depth of the immersion nozzle h (dynamic level)

h=H-Hg=(K-1)Hg=50 m

The specific air flow rate q0(1 m3pulp) are calculated according to the formula obtained for isometric compression of air,

The total air flow Wto(m3rpm) of the compressor is equal to

Wk=a1a2q0Q,

where Q is a given slurry flow rate, m3/min,

a1and a2- factors, respectively, the temperature t and the height above sea level ▿

when t°C=0°

a1=1,06 a2=0,92 ▿=600 m

Wto=1,06*0,92*5,58*120=653 m3/min

Starting pressure Pp(MPa) compressor static pulp level in the sump is

Pp=0,01(h+HGST+hTrI)=0,01(100+30+5)=1,35 MPa,

where NGSTa geometric distance from ground level to the static level of the pulp, m;

hTrI- hydraulic pressure loss in the air tube, 2-5 MPa.

Operating pressure Pto(MPa) compressor is

Pto=0,0098(h+hTrI)=0,098(100-50+5)=0,54 MPa

By the values of the operating pressure Ptoand the total air flow Wkselect the directory compressor and recommended to him the engine.

When designing a mixer airlift hole diameters are equal 3-6 mm, and the number of them is assigned such that the total area of the holes was 1.5-2 times the cross-sectional area of air pipes.

The air receiver Vp(m3) when the air flow Wk<30 m3rpm count is up by the formula

Take the compressor brand B300-2K power 224 kW and a flow rate of cooling water 13,0 m3/hour.

4. The calculation of the skip hoist

a) input data for calculation

N=330 m average depth of the pit.

β=30° - angle shallow sloping trunks.

γ=2.5 t/m3- bulk weight of the rocks.

fto=5 - factor fortress by Prof. Dev.

andmax=100 cm - maximum piece received in the hole (adopted by the technical capabilities of the bulldozer-Ripper).

Qcm=200 t/cm - shift performance underwater bulldozer-Ripper on the supply of large pieces in the hole.

andcf=40 cm - medium size pieces coming into the well.

ω=0,008 - specific resistance movement.

b) Technical calculation

1. Defined hourly capacity of the skip hoist

,

where Knthe irregularity factor revenue cargo (Kn=1,1);

tP.Z.- preparation of bulldozer-Ripper ready 1 hour.

2. According to the scheme proposed average length of haul (figure 4).

a) the size of skip:

The width of the skip In the maximum piece andmax=100 cm

In=2.5 amax=2.5 m

For easy loading take a skip in the form of a square box, then its length In=its width. The height of the skip is on the back wall of h C=1.6 m, in the front wall hp=1.0 m, adopted by the angle of laying the barrel 30°.

b) determine the volume skip Vc

C) determine the carrying capacity of skip

σwith=Vc*γ=8,125*2,5=20,3 t≈20 t=20000 kg

g) determine the weight of the skip

As rock weak, f=5, and the ratio of red Top=1,6 high due to the presence of lumpy rock mass, the density in the loosened condition γtimes,

,

then accept the welded construction of the skip in the form of a box on the chassis of the truck. Then the reduced mass qcone centimeter skip:

Hence a lot of skip M=qc*=9,0*250=2250 kg

With regard to the undercarriage weight skip adopted in the calculation of Mwith=4500 kg

4. Determination of time of flight (s)

,

where V1-2- average speed skip on a slope 1-2, taken on the characteristic of the winch 3 m/S.

V0-1and V2-3- speed skip the points of loading and unloading. Adopted 1 m/S.

tPZ=150 s - retooling operations.

5. Determine the number of skips in the work

,

where à with- 20000 kg carrying capacity of the skip.

6. Determining the required strength of the coupling of skip SSP

SSP=n(σc+Mc)(ω*cosβ+sonβ)=1,0(200000+45000)(0,008*0,866+0,5)=1,0*24,1 KN=24100 N

7. The choice of the parameters of the rope.

Linear weight of the rope (N/m) was found by most statistical effort when lifting the skip.

σ - breaking strength of wires 1400 MPa.

ρ0- the specific weight of the rope.

f1- 0.15 coefficient of friction of the rope on the ground.

Select the rope type (TC) with the following parameters:

dto=35,5 mm; dCR=1.4mm; ρ=58,8 N/m according to GOST 3085-80.

8. The choice of engine

Determined traction force when lifting the loaded skip

Fg=(G+Mwith)(ωcosβ+sinβ)+ρhcp(f1cosβ+sinβ);

Fg=(200000+45000)(0,008*0,866+0,5)+57,0*650(0,15*0,866+0,5)-147437 N.

The designated engine

Ng=KC*Fg*V/1000η=147437*3,0/1000*0,85=500 kW.

Accept asynchronous motor type AK12-52-4 capacity of 630 kW and n=1000 min-1.

9. The choice of winch.

The diameter of the drum Db=60 dto=60*35,5=2130 mm

The estimated parameters N, Sh, V, and Dbmeets winch 2 LGL Sakhalin.

5. The expected improvement of technical-the conomic indicators

Comparative evaluation of the results of calculation of technical and economic indicators in the development of kimberlite pipes in difficult hydrogeological conditions shown in the table. As a basic (traditional) option adopted by drilling and blasting method of conducting mining operations.

Table

The EXPECTED TECHNICAL and ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE
NN p/pIndicesTraditional technologyFeatured technology
1Method of softening kimberlite careerexplosivethe nonexplosive
2Loading of kimberlite in the pitexcavatorloosening
3Crushing kimberlite careerDrilling and blastingloosening
4Method of transportation kimberlites to PFthe dump truckskip-airlift
5The degree of destruction jewelry
diamonds %4228
including:
- drilling4-
- loosening the bulldozer-2
- blasting12-
- loading and transportation33
- enrichment1818
jewelry production55
6The output of gem diamonds, %5872
7The increase in the output of a large class of diamonds %-14

The recommended option as estimated for the increasing of large class diamond jewelry by 14% compared with conventional technology.

Sources of information

1. Androsov ROAD development Technology deep pits of Yakutia. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1996 - s-201.

2. Mountain encyclopedia. - M.: "Soviet encyclopedia", 1991 - V.5. - pp.118.

3. Nurok GA Process and technology dredging of surface mining. - M.: Nedra, 1995 - s-248.

4. Nurok GA Technology of extraction of minerals from the bottom of lakes, seas and oceans. - M. Nedra, 1979. - s-154.

5. Passionete A.V. Calculation of underground installations. - M.: Nedra, 1992

6. Tikhonov NV Transport machinery mining enterprises. - M.: Nedra, 1985

--- The kimberlite pipes in difficult hydrogeological conditions, including the loosening of the rock, turning it into pulp and transportation of the slurry line dredge, characterized in that for resource-saving and increase of output of large class diamond jewelry before opening hydrate accumulations aquifers from the bottom of the pit are a well of large diameter to a final depth of mining, constructing inclined shaft, which connects to a given depth with the hole, after which, in the career space allowed hydrate accumulations of the high pressure brine on the surface of a pond place airlifting the dredge on the bottom of the reservoir is lowered bulldozer-loosening universal crown, loosening pre razuprochneniya brine kimberlites produce a bulldozer spiral benches, destroyed small fraction of ore the airlift on the slurry line is transported to the beneficiation plant, a large fraction through a hole, coffered vault and inclined shaft, equipped skipanim lift, serves on the surface to the warehouse ore, and mining of kimberlite pipes below the bottom of the quarry are under the vertical corners of the maturity of the boards without the production Stripping activity.



 

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10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60 and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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