Method and component used with explosives

FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.

EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.

57 cl, 30 dwg

 

This invention relates to components and methods, intended for use with explosives, such as shaped charges and other types of explosives used in the development and operation of wells.

To finish creating the borehole, one or more zones of rock in contact with the wellbore, any punching to allow fluid from the zone data to pass into the well to retrieve the fluid to the surface or to allow pumping of fluid in the zone of rock. Perforating unit can be run in the hole, and one or more perforators can be used to create holes in the casing with the subsequent formation of perforations in the surrounding rock.

In a typical case, the perforator includes a supporting member that has multiple shaped charges. One type of shaped charges is encapsulated shaped charge, which is closed by a capsule to protect the material explosives from providing a corrosive fluid environments and elevated temperatures and pressures existing in the wellbore. Other types of shaped charges include Neopalimovsky charges, which are placed in closed containers or hollow holders.

If we turn to Figure 1, it is store in the General conical shape of the shaped charge 10 comprises an outer casing 12, that works as a protective cover designed to contain the force of the detonation of the ongoing explosion in an extended period of time, sufficient to create a perforating jet. The usual materials used for the outer shell 12 include steel or any other metal. In the case of encapsulated charge of the outer casing 12 may be a part of the body of the capsule, with the front side of the housing 12 is attached cover (not shown) to hold the explosives 16 and having a General conical shape of the liner 20 that is isolated from the internal environment of the wellbore. Neopalimovsky charge can be arranged in the same way as shown in figure 1, the liner 20 is not closed.

The main charge 16 explosives contained within the outer casing 12 and is placed in the gap between the inner surface of the outer casing 12 and the outer surface of the liner 20. The firing pin 14 is a sensitive area, which provides a detonation relationship between the detonating cord 15 (attached to the back side of the shaped charge and the main charge 16 explosives. The detonation wave, propagating along the detonating cord 15, initiates the firing pin 14, when passing by it, the firing pin 14, in turn, initiates the detonation of the main charge 16 is srivatava substances to create a detonation wave, which extends through the shaped charge 10. Under the force of detonation of the main charge 16 explosives liner 20 is destroyed. Material destroyed liner 20 forms a perforating jet which is emitted from the front of the shaped charge 10, as shown by the arrow 22.

The diameter and depth of the perforated tunnel created in the rock wells are determined by the speed and geometry of the perforating jet at the point of penetration into the rock. On symmetry and stability of the perforating jet, which are important factors for creating long-term direct proof of the tunnel, can have a negative impact shock waves generated by detonation of adjacent charges. When perforating jet enters into the fluid present in the wellbore, this jet creates within the fluid cavity. The shock wave from the charge, and from others of his other charges can destroy this cavity, resulting in a fluid can interfere with the stream.

In order to reduce the mutual influence of charges between the shaped charges in the punch requires a certain pre-defined interval. In commonly used systems performance punch decreases with increasing density distribution triggered Z. the rows (when exceeding a certain critical value, this density) and increasing gap between the hammer and the casing (volume of water or other liquid, through which the perforating jet must pass). The poor performance in the typical case more for perforation system with encapsulated charges due to direct contact of the casing of the explosive charge with the wellbore fluid medium. The reason for the performance degradation can be interaction during the formation of the jet between the shock effect, created an explosive substance present in the wellbore fluid, and either perforating jet, either by the punch.

Another problem associated with the system of perforation and other types of systems-based explosives is the possibility of damage to downhole equipment. For example, a shock impact, the resulting explosion can damage the drill, casing and other components.

Another type of interference is interference from the "pre-impact", in which the detonation wave, propagating along the detonating cord (e.g., detonating cord 15 in figure 1), affect the operation of the shaped charge. Branch of the detonating cord 15 may be attached to a variety of shaped charges that are installed on the host element of the punch. For directional drill, such as punch with the relative location is commuting charges at angle 0° , a branch of the detonating cord 15 is basically in a straight line. Shaped charges can also be installed with relative placement angle, for example in a spiral or other pattern with the change of the relative angle. In the case of placing shaped charges in a spiral detonating cord passes in a spiral path. Some other schemes with relative angular placement of, for example, when rotated ±45°, detonating cord 15 can be carried forward at a fairly winding road and across the rear surface charges. In all such placements detonating cord 15 crosses the considerable length of the sections of the rear surfaces of the outer casings 12 shaped charges 10.

As shown in figure 1, the detonating cord 15 is in contact with a large part of the rear surface of the shaped charge 10 or is it in the immediate vicinity. The detonation wave propagates along the detonating cord 15 at high speed, in a typical case, the component of approximately 6-8 km/s detonation Wave transfers energy to the firing pin 14 for the detonation of the shaped charge 10. However, the detonation wave transmits part of the outer casing 12, which contacts or is in close proximity to the detonating cord, characterizing the I high pressure shock, the pre-shock impact. The preliminary shock can also be transmitted from the detonating cord to the external casing 12 through a liquid (e.g., existing in the well bore water). Since the outer casing 12 is typically made of metal, for example steel, which is a material having a high capacity transmission of shocks, the shock transmitted into explosive 16, can be very significant.

Thus, shortly before the energy of the initiation of the detonating cord 15 reaches the firing rod 14 through the outer casing 12 at an explosive substance 16 may be provided prior to shock. Extending through the outer casing 12 and the explosive 16 wave preliminary impact may interfere with the front wave initiating explosives 16 coming from the firing rod 14. This may cause the asymmetry of the resulting destruction of the liner shaped charge 20. Possible negative effects of such interference with pre-shock effects can include one or more of the following: perforating jet may be curved (not straight) tip, and the cross-section of the jet can in General form to represent an ellipse, and neocrust. Such negative effects can reduce the depth of penetration of the perforating jet created by the shaped charge.

In some more serious cases, in particular when using inert explosives with relatively low velocity of detonation, you may mistakenly bombing, due to the fact that the wave of pre-impact reached explosives 16 through the outer casing 12 previously the main front of initiation, passing through the firing pin 14. In this case, the wave of pre-impact compacts explosive 16 before it reaches the main front of initiation, which may cause erroneous undermining.

Some commonly used methods of reducing unwanted pre-shock effects can include the following. Between the outer casing and a detonating cord may be provided with a separation gap. Another solution is the provision of a longer firing rod 14. To increase the path length, which is the wave of the preliminary impact must pass before it reaches explosive shaped charge 16 can, in addition, to increase the thickness of the outer casing 12. The next solution is to reduce the quantity of explosives in DeNiro the short cord to reduce pre-impact. Another way is the use of detonating cord with ordinary plastic shells standard thickness instead of metal shells. Although these solutions reduce to some extent the effects of impact, in some cases, they may be insufficient. For example, when the shaped charges are shot in the liquid, which is the usual case for wellbore, the effect of pre-impact increases as the degree of transmission of shocks between the detonating cord and shaped charge increases. The degree of transfer shock in the liquid is higher due to the inertia and mass of the liquid.

Another problem associated with the use of explosives in the downhole equipment, is the structural integrity of the perforator and a fixed portions explosives. For filing in the wellbore portion explosives, such as shaped charges are placed in the bearing elements perforator or attached to them. Bearing elements of the punch may include tape, holders, etc. designed for the holding encapsulated shaped charges. As encapsulated charges in the typical case are open, advancing the punch into the hole it can be corrupted, codecompletion charges are touching other downhole structures. The use of a hollow carrier can ensure the protection of shaped charges and a bearing element of the punch, but the hollow carrier increases the outer diameter of punch and can reduce the performance punch, which is measured by the depth of punching or the diameter of the punched holes.

Therefore, there still exists a need for improved methods and devices to overcome constraints for commonly used instruments that contain explosives.

General description of the invention

In General, in accordance with one variant of implementation of the present invention the explosive device designed for use in a wellbore, includes many portions explosives and one or more durogesic elements located in close proximity to many portions of the explosive to create obstacles to the spread in the internal environment of the wellbore, the shock wave caused by the detonation of portions of the explosive.

Other distinctive features and options for implementation of the present invention will become apparent from the following description, drawings and items attached claims.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows commonly used to multiply charge.

Figure 2 shows one of the options perforating section, located in the wellbore and including a perforating system that corresponds to one of several options for implementing the present invention.

On Figa-3B in accordance with one variant of implementation of the present invention depicts a perforating system comprising a capsule formed of a porous material and intended for placement inside the shaped charges attached to the bearing holder and installed on a flat belt.

On Figs in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention depicts a perforating system that is similar to the perforating system shown in Figa-3B, in which the flat strip is missing.

On Figa-4B depicts a perforating system with hollow carrier corresponding to the following alternative implementation of the present invention, which includes a downloadable pipe installed in it, shaped charges, with downloadable pipe filled with porous material.

Figure 5 shows a perforating system corresponding to one implementation variant of the present invention, which includes a carrier tube containing shaped charges, and a porous material.

Figure 6 shows the parts of the perforating system in which cumula the positive charge is wrapped or covered warehousemen layer.

7 depicts a perforating system, corresponding to the following alternative implementation of the present invention, which includes drogenase barriers located between the shaped charges.

On Figa depicts a perforating system corresponding to another implementation variant of the present invention, which includes a ribbon and shaped charges mounted on the ribbon, and placed in tubes attached to the ribbon.

On FIGU-8D depicts a rod made of drogenase material that can be used in conjunction with a perforating system, shown in Figa, the rod has a cavity and a groove for placing shaped charges and detonating cord.

On Five-8F depicts a spacer consisting at least partially of drogenase material.

On Figs-8I in accordance with one variant of implementation of the present invention shows a holder, coupled with the two closing lids charges.

On Figa-9B in accordance with a further variant of realization of the present invention depicts a perforating section, including construction bays pipeline designed to supply a porous fluid punched in the process of perforation interval.

On Figs shows a porous flow of fluid through the bays line the gadfly, shown in Figa-9B.

On Fig in accordance with the following variant of realization of the present invention is depicted filing porous fluid punched in the process of perforation interval as an integral part of the cementing operation.

Figure 10 in accordance with another alternative implementation of the present invention depicts a perforating section containing the hammer and the feeder bubbles.

On 11, 12 and 13A-13B depict variants of nodes shaped charges with shockproof barriers in accordance with the first design type.

On Figa and 14C depict options node of shaped charge with a shock-resistant barrier in accordance with the second design type.

On Fig depicts a variant of the node of shaped charge with a shock-resistant barrier in accordance with the third design type.

Detailed description of the invention

In the following description, in order to make clear the present invention provides numerous details. However, experts in this field will understand that the present invention can be implemented in practice without using these details, as well as the possible implementation of numerous variations or modifications of the described implementation options.

In fact, as they are used here, the words and phrases "up and down", "upper" and "lower", "upward" and "downward", "below" and "above" and other similar, indicating relative positions above or below a given point or element are used in this description to more clearly represent some of the options for implementing the present invention. However, when applied to equipment or processes intended for use in wells that are inclined or horizontal, or applied to equipment or methods, which are well used in terms of an inclined or horizontal orientation, such words and phrases can mean "left to right", "right to left" or other relationship, depending on what is meant.

In accordance with some of the options for implementing the present invention drogenase materials are used to reduce interference associated with the detonation of the portions of explosives, such as shaped charges, perforators. Interference reduction is achieved by creating obstacles to the propagation of a shock wave in the internal environment of the wellbore, which is caused by the detonation of portions of explosives. In other embodiments of the present invention drogenase materials can be used in other types of instruments containing explosives shall, such as cutters for pipe, casing, drill string, the weight of a drill or the like. Explosives can also be used in the working bodies regulating devices, and other downhole devices.

In a typical case, the punch is activated in the existing wellbore fluids (such as water), which reinforces the effects of interference and shock effects, which reduce the performance of shaped charges. The effects of shock and interference include interferencefree one perforating jet on the other perforating jet, impact shock from the explosion of the charge in the perforating jet, impact shock from the explosion of the charge on the formation of jets in another charge effect of shock from the initiation of the detonating cord to the formation of jets in charge and interferencefree impact from the initiation of the detonating cord with a perforating jet.

To reduce the effects of shock and interference, in some embodiments of the present invention can be used is placed in the vicinity of the portions of the explosive, such as shaped charges, darogaji material. In fact, as it is used here, the term "drogenase material" means l is the battle of the material (solid, gas, liquid), which absorbs, DAMPS, weakens, blocks, reduces, scatters, addresses, redirects, reflect, reject, delay, insulates, absorbs, or otherwise reduces the effects of the shock impact of one portion of explosives on any surrounding structures, including the other portion of explosives or any other component. In some embodiments of the present invention, the damping of the shock of the impact is carried out by converting the kinetic energy into heat or other energy (e.g. the energy of phase transformation).

Examples durogesic materials include porous materials such as porous solids or liquids. The porous material is any material that is partially filled with a compressible elements or compressible volume (e.g., vacuum, gas or other material). In fact, as the term is used here, "compressed volume" can be any volume filled with compressible material or vacuum. Udalagama characterization of porous material is related to its strength, density and porosity. To achieve the desired characteristics of resistance to impact, the material should have a high density and a significant volumetric content (for example the EP, approximately 2%-90%) strongly compressible material (gas, vacuum, solid, liquid), distributed in warehousemen material. One of the options compressible material can be distributed on warehousemen material evenly.

Porous aerated fluids include fluids that are liquids in which simultaneously with the liquid phase there is a gas phase. Porous fluid can be a liquid-based Aronov or liquid containing hollow spheres or other shell, which is filled with gas or vacuum. Otherwise, the porous material may be a solid substance, such as cement, mixed with hollow microspheres (for example, LITECRETE™offered by Schlumberger Technology Corporation), or other hollow spheres or shells; epoxy resin mixed with hollow spheres or shells, cellular material and any other solid substance, a certain percentage of which is compressible volume. As for porous materials, satisfactory drogenase characteristics can be demonstrated by materials having a porosity of about 2%or more. Other exemplary ranges of porosity include porosities are approximate more 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, up to approximately 90%. In other embodiments, instead of the compressible volume, apolaustic pores of porous solids, can be used a material characterized by a phase change (called "material with variable phase"). Examples of materials with variable phase include bismuth and graphite.

The porous material acts as drogenase element having a lower velocity of propagation of sound compared to a typical existing wellbore fluids. Drogenase element protects other portions of explosives from shock waves arising from the detonation of any portion of explosives. Thus, with reduced interference effects and impact performance of portions of the explosive can be improved even at high densities distribution triggered charges and large gaps drill - casing. Another advantage of using drogenase item is something that can be reduced the degree of damage to downhole equipment. For example, warehousemen element can be absorbed sufficient energy impact, resulting in a shock wave can be attenuated and delayed, resulting in less damage to the perforations, casing and other equipment. In the case of decreasing amplitude shock waves can be reduced the probability of formation of a ring microsensor is in (ring microsensor casing / cement ring microsensor cement / rock).

In accordance with the other options in the implementation of the present invention to reduce the level of impact (called "pre-shock effect")transmitted from the detonating cord explosive substance, for example, explosive substance in cumulative charge (which can be either encapsulated or Neopalimovsky charge), is shock-proof barrier. This shockproof barrier can be created from any material having a lower transmission ability of the shock wave, to provide insulation, absorption, attenuation, damping, blocking, damping, reduction, dispersion, Troubleshooting, redirect, reject, a reflection of the impact and/or to provide a sufficient time delay for educational opportunities symmetric jet. Such materials may include plastic, rubber, ceramics, turned into a powder of metal or other material, bismuth, porous material (such as one described above), lead, wood, porous metal, contactby foam, Salobrena substance or other material having low capability of the transmission of shocks (i.e. materials that provide insulation, absorption, attenuation, damping, blocking, Gachet is s, reduction, dispersion, Troubleshooting, redirect, reject, a reflection of the impact and/or delay its transmission).

If we turn to Figure 2, the punching section 50 is placed in the wellbore. Punching section 50 is designed in such a way as to pass through the pipe 52, which is placed in the barrel 54 wells, installed casing 55. Punching section 50 includes perforating system 56, which may correspond to various implementations of the present invention. Perforating system 56 can be attached to the adapter 58, which, in turn, is attached to the supporting line 60, designed to hold the punching section 50 in the bore 54 of the well. Support line 60 as examples may be a wire, tape, or bays the pipeline. Here are a few options perforating system 56. Each of the drills protected warehousemen material. Even if depicted punchers include shaped charges, set at an angle to each other, this relative angular location is not a necessary condition for efficiency drogenase material. Actually drogenase material is effective in any type of accommodation shaped charges.

If we turn to Figa-3V, perforate the bedroom system 56A, corresponding one of the options for implementing the present invention includes a flat ribbon 502, to which are attached numerous encapsulated shaped charges 506. Detonating cord 503 is connected with each of the shaped charges 506. Shaped charges 506 mounted in the respective support rings 504 reference holder 505. The bearing holder 505 can be rotated to provide accommodation under the required angle (for example, in a spiral with a relative angle of 45°on spiral with a relative angle of 60°, placement under three relative angles etc). Otherwise, the reference holder 505 may be adapted for rectilinear layout (for example, the relative angle is 0°). In another embodiment, the design of a flat strip 502 may be absent, while supporting the holder 505 is to provide basic support for encapsulated charges 506).

In one embodiment, the carrier tape 502, the reference holder 505, a base ring 504, detonating cord 503 and encapsulated charges 506 placed in drogenase material 510. One example drogenase material includes a porous solid material, for example porous cement. An example of porous cement includes LITECRETE™. Porous cement is made by mixing cement with hollow structures, such as gas-filled (EmOC is emer, air) microspheres or other types of gas-filled or vacuum spheres or shells. Microspheres are generally a thin glass membrane with a relatively large volume of air inside.

To provide structural support for the capsule 510, it is placed in the sleeve 512. Sleeve 512 is made of any type of material capable of providing structural support, such as plastic, metal, elastomer, etc. Sleeve 512, in addition, are designed to protect the capsule 510 as perforating system 56A is moving in the wellbore and touches other downhole structures. Otherwise, instead of a separate sleeve on the outer surface of the capsule 510 can be applied to the floor. As its application, the coating adheres to the capsule. The coating can be made of a material selected to reduce the penetration of the fluid. The material may also have a low coefficient of friction.

In other embodiments, to provide a higher nominal pressure capsule 510 can be made using a different type of material. For example, can be used designed for higher pressure ratings cement with microspheres S60 manufactured by 3M Corporation. Alternatively, the capsule 510 may be an epoxy is strong resin (for example, polyurethane)mixed with microspheres or other types of gas-filled or vacuum spheres or shells. In yet another embodiment, the capsule 510 can have multiple layers. For example, one layer may be formed of a porous cement, while another layer may be formed of a porous epoxy resin or other porous solids. Otherwise capsule 510 may be a material based on liquid or gel, with the sleeve 512 is for her an airtight container.

In some embodiments drogenase the material is a composite comprising a hollow filler (for porosity), heavy powder (for density) and the bundle/matrix. Bundle/matrix may be a liquid, solid or gel. Examples of solid materials for ligament/matrix includes a polymer (e.g., cast thermoreactive, such as epoxy resin, rubber and the like, or thermoplastic manufactured by injection molding), ceramics with the chemical type of the connection (for example, a composition based on cement), metal or elastomer with a high degree of compressibility. Materials bundles/matrix non-solid substances include gel (which has a higher compression ratio at the shock impact than solid or liquid. The hollow filler for drogenase what about the material can be a fine powder, each particle of which has an outer sheath surrounding a certain amount of gas or vacuum. In one exemplary variant, the hollow filler may take approximately 60% of the total composition, with each particle of the hollow filler is 70%-80% of the volume is air. The shell of the hollow particles of the filler is impermeable and has a high strength to prevent breakage under conditions typical of wellbore pressures (in one of the examples is approximately of the order of 10,000 lbs per square inch (psi pound-force per square inch). Alternative to the use of hollow fillers is creating and maintaining a stable air bubbles directly into the matrix by mixing, use of surfactants, etc.

In one exemplary embodiment, the heavy powder filler can take up to 50% of the total composition, and the powder is composed of metal, such as copper, iron, tungsten or any other material with high density. Otherwise heavy filler may be the sand. In other embodiments, the heavy powder may take up to about 10%, 25% or 40% of the total composition. The form of particles having a high density of the powder is selected in such a way as to create the proper rheology of the mixture to obtain a homogenous (free from laminations) OK Natalenko composition.

The use of sand as a heavy filler instead of metal provides one or more advantages. For example, the sand is well-known operations, and therefore it is easier to work with. In addition, by increasing the amount of sand decreases the amount of ligament/matrix that reduces after the detonation of the amount of waste that consists of a bundle/matrix.

In some examples, the bulk density of the absorbing shock impact material varies in the range from about 0.5 g/cm3to about 10 g/cm3while the porosity of the composition varies in the range from about 2% to 90%.

Can be the effective use of porous material with lower density (approximately less than 1 g/cm3if there is a significant amount of this material (for example, if the casing is completely filled with this material). Porous material with a higher density (approximately more than 1.2 g/cm3) applies when the volume drogenase material is limited (for example, when it is used only in the vicinity of the charge/punch). The desired outcomes are observed in the case of using the composition on the basis of either cement or epoxy resin, in which the volume drogenase material is limited to the area of the charge/punch (as is provided on Figa-3V) and density drogenase material is about 1.3 g/cm 3and its porosity is about 30%-33%.

Other exemplary porous solids include a material with a density of 10 g/cm3and a porosity of 40%, such as tungsten powder, mixed with hollow microspheres in a volume ratio of 50/50. Another exemplary composition comprises by volume 53% of epoxy resin with low viscosity, 42% hollow glass spheres and 5% of copper powder. The density of the composition is equal to about 1.3 g/cm3and porosity of approximately 33%. Another composition comprises by volume about 39% water, 21% of cement Lehigh class H, 40% glass spheres and microadditives to optimize the rheology and rate of curing. The density of this composition is equal to about 1.3 g/cm3and a porosity of approximately 30%.

To create a capsule 510, a porous material (in the form of a liquid or suspension) can be poured around the carrier tape 502 inside the sleeve 512. The porous material is then allowed to harden. In the case of porous cement cement in powder form can be mixed with water and other additives to create cement. During mixing of the cement to the mixture is added to the microspheres. The mixture, still in the form of suspension, then pour into the sleeve 512 and allow it to harden. Equipment used to create the desired mixture may be any commonly used on the equipment for mixing cement. To increase the strength of the capsules may also be added fiber (e.g., fiberglass, carbon fiber and so on).

In addition, the capsule 510 can be made by pre-forming. For example, the capsule can be divided into two sections forming respective reliefs on the inner surfaces of the two sections to accommodate punch or one or more charges. Then between the two sections can be mounted on the punch with subsequent bond the two sections together to form capsules 510, shown in Figv.

Another distinctive feature of the capsule 510, independent of the characteristics of energy absorption, is its ability to provide structural support for encapsulated charges 506. In accordance with another distinctive feature of the perforating system 56 may also be a molded hammer, in which the capsule 510 provides sufficient structural support, resulting in a traditional metal supports can be eliminated or component can be reduced. For example, one of the functions of a flat belt 502 in many perforating systems is providing the basic support for encapsulated charges. Flat tape 502 is hard metallic element. To install on a PLoS is th tape 502 encapsulated charges, for example, the charges 506, shown in Figa-3B, according to a predetermined scheme with a relative angular position, can be used in a variety of mounting mechanisms, such as mounting bolts or clamps elongated holder, such as holder 505, shown in Figa-3V. In some cases, the mounting mechanisms may not provide sufficient rigidity in the mounting of capsule charges to the tape 502. Capsule 510 increases the structural integrity of the perforating system 56A due to more rigid fixation of capsule charges 506 relative to the tape 502.

An additional problem associated with downhole operations of punching, is the amount of waste present in the wellbore after performing punching. To reduce such waste, often used retrievable perforating system. Many such systems use a flat belt-like tape 502, which is designed to remain intact even after activation of the shaped charges 506. However, flat ribbon 502 increases the total weight of the perforating system 56A and after activation it can deform, acquiring the form, which complicates the retrieval from the wellbore. In order to solve these problems in a different version of perforating system 56A, shown in Figs, PLoS is the second tape 502 is missing, and as the main support mechanism supporting the holder 505 and capsule 510.

In embodiments of the present invention, shown in Figa-3C, capsule 510 completely surrounds the parts of the punch. In other variants capsule 510 may partially, but not completely surround the charges 506, holder 505 and the tape 502 (if used).

If we turn to Figa-4B, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention instead of the carrier tape 502, shown in Figure 3, a similar concept can be applied to the punch W with hollow carrier. Hole punch W with hollow carrier inside the hollow carrier 522 is loaded pipe 520. Download tube 520 has openings 524, which can open the shaped charges 526. Shaped charges 526 can be Neopalimovsky charges, because they are protected from the environment by a hollow carrier 522, which in a typical case is sealed. After installation during Assembly of shaped charges 526 loaded inside the pipe 520 through the top hole or bottom hole 530 loaded pipe can be poured porous material (for example, porous cement), which is initially in the form of a liquid or suspension. The material is allowed to harden to create inside the loaded pipe 520 filler 525 of the porous material. Filler 525 is C porous material is a substance, absorbing energy, which reduces the mutual influence charges. On FIGU shows a cross section of the punch W.

The filler of the porous material may also fill the inner space of the hollow carrier 522 to create a larger volume drogenase material. Another advantage drogenase material is that it can create structural support for a hollow carrier, resulting in possible to apply the hollow carrier with thinner walls. Drogenase materials provide support within the hollow of the media, opposing forces resulting from the pressure inside the well. In the case of thinner hollow media is more easy punch that makes the maintenance and operation more convenient.

If we turn to Figure 5, in accordance with another alternative implementation of the present invention perforating system S includes a tubular carrier 602, which can be used as a support for encapsulated charges 604 installed in the immediate vicinity of the holes 606, available in tubular carrier 602. The tubular carrier 602 may be arranged like a loaded pipe 520 punch W with hollow carrier, except that a tubular carrier 602 is not placed inside the hollow carrier. As a result, instead decapsulating sarado is 526, shown in Figa, are encapsulated charges 604. In one design detonating cord 608 may pass from the outer side of the tubular carrier 602 and connect with encapsulated charges 604. In another design detonating cord 608 can be carried inside the tubular carrier 602. As in the case of the loaded pipe 520, shown in Figa, through the top hole or bottom hole 610 tubular carrier 602 may be poured porous material (for example, porous cement), which is initially in the form of a liquid or suspension. Porous material hardens inside the tubular carrier 602 with the formation of a porous material serving to reduce the impact and interference. The advantage of using a tubular carrier 602 is that the damage to the porous material becomes less likely, because it is protected by a tubular carrier 602, which in a typical case is solid and rigid construction.

If you refer to Fig.6, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention perforating system 56D includes a shaped charge 130, the outer casing 132 which is enclosed in the outer shell, coating or other layer 134, which is formed from drogenase material to reduce the mutual influence charges. Udalagama outer shell 134 which may be created from material, having low capacity transmission impact, for example, any of the materials mentioned above. In the outer sleeve 134 has a hole 136, which allows the transfer of energy from the detonating cord 135 in the firing pin 137, which transfers the energy of detonation from the detonating cord 135 in explosive 139 inside the shaped charge 130. The explosive may be closed by the liner 120.

The outer shell, coating or layer 134 creates an obstacle for shock waves coming from the adjacent shaped charges. One of the options to create coverage for shaped charges shaped charge 130 may be immersed in a liquid material having a low ability to transfer impact. This material may initially be in liquid form (for example, in a hot state). Alternatively the outer shell, coating or layer 134 can be applied to the shaped charge 130. Otherwise, the shaped charge 130 may be a layer 134.

Another advantage of the layer 134 is that it decreases the level of the transmitted cumulative charge 130 preliminary impact caused by the propagation of the detonation wave in the detonating cord 135. Layer 134 serves to isolate the rear surface of the external casing 132 from the detonating cord 135. VL is of the preliminary impact is discussed further below.

If you refer to Fig.7, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention perforating system E includes drogenase barriers 410, placed between the shaped charges 412. Barriers 410 can be made from any type of material that can be used to prevent the transfer or distribution of shock waves. For example, barriers 410 may be a hollow metal pipe, for example, steel pipes. Otherwise, the barriers 410 can be made of other durogesic materials, for example materials described above.

If we turn to Figa, in accordance with another alternative implementation of the present invention the tape perforator 56F includes multiple shaped charges placed at an angle to each other (for example, placed in a spiral under the three relative angles etc.) flat ribbon 702. Otherwise, it can be applied straightforward accommodation charges. Placed in a straight line shaped charges (indicated by the number 704) can be installed directly on the tape 702. Other charges (not shown) are installed inside the pipe 706 attached to the tape 702. For the corresponding shaped charges in each pipe 706 holes 708. To reduce the mutual influence of charges in each pipe 706 has drogeriemarkt, which may constitute one of the above porous materials.

If we turn to Five-8F, in accordance with one variant of implementation of the present invention between adjacent charges inside the tube 706 is a spacer 720, manufactured at least partially from drogenase material. The spacer 720 has a curved side surface 722 and 724 for joining the corresponding cumulative charges. The middle part 726 between the two curved side surfaces 722 and 724 are made of material of material for reducing the mutual influence of neighboring charges.

The receiver 706 may be made of metal or other suitable stiffening material. Otherwise, the receiver 706 may also be made of drogenase solids, such as a porous solid material (e.g., porous concrete, porous epoxy resin and so on).

As shown in FIGU-8D, another option instead of a hollow tube 706 uses a solid rod A with cavities A for shaped charges. On FIGU-8D depict three types for three different sections of the rod A without installed inside charges. Rod A can be made of drogenase material. As shown in Figv and 8D, to host located relative to each other at an angle of 0° Kum is rativnyh charges 704 on the ends of the rod A formed by the first and second grooves 710 and 712. On the outer surface of the rod A between the holes A also formed slots 714 to accommodate the detonating cord, which taking into account the ballistics connected with each of the shaped charges located in terminal A.

If we turn to Fig.8G-8I, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention for fixation of two adjacent encapsulated charges 742 created the bracket 740. The bracket 740 has a General tubular shape and is designed to attach to the cumulative charges 742. One of the options bracket 740 is designed to capture a couple of capsule charges 742 scheme with relative rotation by some angle. Inside the bracket 740 encapsulated between charges 702 can be mounted spacer 720 (File-8F). Once encapsulated charges 742 attached to the bracket 740, bracket 740 is attached to the carrier tape (not shown). To create a punch on the carrier tape can be installed many sets of bracket 740, encapsulated charges 742 and spacers 720. The effects of shock and interference are reduced by the use of together with brackets spacers 740 720.

If we turn to Figa, in accordance with the following variant of realization of the present invention to reduce the interference using the : porous liquid (instead of porous solids). Perforating section 800 is supported by the design of the bays of the pipeline, which also includes bays pipeline 802, packer 804 and forcing the adapter 810. To reduce the effects of shock and interference in the area around 816 punch 814 through the inner channel bays pipeline 802 exhaust and intake adapter 810 may be pumped porous liquid.

Porous fluid may include a liquid filled bubbles, liquid-based Aronov, liquid filled hollow shells containing gas or vacuum, or other porous fluid. Otherwise porous fluid may also be a foamed material.

Afron represents the core of the internal phase, usually a liquid or a gas enclosed in a thin water shell. The shell contains molecules of surface-active substances located in such a way that they create an effective barrier against coalescence with adjacent aranami. Shell with surface-active agent tends to focus on the phase boundary of gas - liquid thus to form a charged surface of the bubble, which repels other bubbles and as a result creates resistance to coalescence.

Porous fluid are liquid, which has latest, close to the density of the liquid, but the speed of propagation of sound in it is close to the velocity of propagation of sound in a gas. By reducing the velocity of propagation of sound in fluids that are in the field 816, amplitude and speed of shock waves created by detonation of the shaped charges in the punch 816 decreases. An additional benefit of using porous liquids is that they mostly provide a greater volume drogenase material in comparison with the above porous solids. This increases the damping of the shock of impact to protect downhole structure, such as casing.

If we turn to Figv, it depicts a part of the construction bays tubing and perforating section 800. Forcing the adapter 810 has a housing 822, which defines an internal longitudinal channel 824 which is connected with the internal channel bays pipe 802. To provide communication between the inner longitudinal channel 824 and external relative to the perforating section 800 space in the housing 822 intake adapter 810 is formed of one or more delivery channels 820. The location and size of the pumping channels 820 determine the required level of discharge of the fluid injected through bays pipeline 802, for example, a porous liquid. And obnazhennom variant of the pumping channels 820 in General inclined downwards to create a jet of fluid, which is directed downward. In other embodiments, the inlet channels 820 can be directed sideways or go at an angle up or provided with other means, such as nozzles or diffusers.

In the process, the design of the bays of the pipeline, including perforating section 800, moves in the wellbore. One of the options perforating section 800 moves to the position below the interval punching, generally indicated by the number 816 (Figa). As further shown in Figs, post porous fluid 832 served down under the action of the cover 830, which, for example, consists of a gel. The gel may be a polymer gel or other gel type. Cover 830 may also consist of another type of material, such as a solid substance (e.g., metal, polymer and so on). Cover 830 separates the post porous fluid 832 below this cover, from the fluid injected into the area above the cover 830 to push porous fluid 832 through the inlet channels 820 intake adapter 810. Porous liquid 832 easier in the wellbore fluids, so it tends to rise up. By placing the perforated section and the inlet adapter 810 below the interval 816 punching porous fluid give up the possibility to fill this gap. After the article is all well pumped enough porous fluid, construction bays pipe may be raised to such a level that the perforating section 800 will be located in the interval 816 punching, where it is surrounded by a porous liquid. Punch 814 is then activated to drill holes through the surrounding casing in rock.

In another design, which is shown in Figv, with bays piping may be connected to the pipeline 830 smaller diameter passing through the punch 814. Along this pipeline of smaller diameter has been done numerous outlet 832. Such outlet openings 832 along the pipeline, are used instead of the intake channels 820 intake adapter 810, or in addition to them. Porous fluid through numerous outlet is below bays pipe 802 and then in the interval punching.

If we turn to Fig.9D, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention the porous liquid instead of filing through the design of the bays of the pipeline, as shown in Figs, may be submitted during cementing operations. After the wellbore is installed casing (or cladding), casing or lining is attached by cement to the inner surface of the wellbore. This is done by Zack is zivania cement (in the form of a solution in the casing. When the cement reaches the lower end of the casing, it begins to fill the annular space between the casing and the inner surface of the wellbore. After some time, after the annular space between the casing or casing and the inner surface of the borehole is filled with cement mortar, cement mortar hardens and seals the casing or lining with the wellbore.

As shown in Fig.9D, cement (848) in the wellbore falls scraper tube 846 for supplying cement to the bottom of the casing or cladding 840. In accordance with one variant of implementation of the present invention the post porous fluid 844 may be fed into the casing or lining on the scraper tube 846 for cement. Then on the post porous fluid 844 can be installed cover 842. Cover 842, porous liquid 844, tube 846 and cement 848 then served inside of the casing or lining. After completion of the cementing operation cover 842 and post porous fluid 844 remain in the lower part of the casing or cladding 840. Post porous fluid 844 is sufficient, with the result that he also fills and the desired spacing of the perforation.

When it is necessary to carry out the punching operation, the cased or lined with a wellbore moving hammer drill 850. Hammer drill 850 goes through gel cover 842 to the level of the desired interval, punching, which is filled with a porous liquid 844. Then hammer drill 850 may be involved in the porous fluid 844.

If we refer to Figure 10, it shows another device for filling a porous fluid space around the drill 851. This device includes a cylinder 852 compressed gas containing compressed gas (e.g. nitrogen). To maintain the pressure in the cylinder 852 compressed gas to its upper end attached adapter 854. Adapter 854 further connected to the driven electricity supply system 858, which may include driven by electricity punching device for punching holes in the adapter 854, which leads to the release of gas from a cylinder 852 through the outlet opening 856 adapter 854. Driven by the electricity supply system are connected with wires 860. The site, including gas cylinder 852 adapter 854 filing system 858, is located inside the outer housing 862. In the upper part of the body 862 has one or more apertures 864 placed around the circumference relative to the cylinder 852 to make possible the message of the internal space of the housing 862 space, which in relation to the body 862 is external.

One of Provo is s 860 is connected to the diode switch 866, which is hermetically installed inside the channel adapter 870 connected to the perforator 851. In response to a signal received from the cable 872, diode switch 868 sends an electrical signal to activate the feed system 858.

In the process section, including the site of the perforator 851 and the gas cylinder is lowered into the wellbore. When the section reaches the desired depth, the cable 872 receives an electrical signal, which causes activation of the feeding system 858 for release of compressed gas from the gas cylinder 852 through one or more exhaust holes 856 adapter 854. The compressed gas flows into the internal chamber of the outer housing 862. The gas exits through the holes 864 in the 876 area around the punch 851. Bubbles formed in the fluid around the drill 851, reduce interference, and damage to downhole components (e.g., casing).

One of the options the cylinder 852 contains gas, which at release AERONET fluid surrounding the punch 851. Alternatively, the balloon 852 contains under the pressure of the fluid on the basis of Aronov. Liquid-based Aronov is discharged from the cylinder 852 and external enclosure 862 in the same way.

Other technologies and devices for supplying the porous liquids include technologies and devices commonly used to feed those whom whcih environments inside the well, for example, used to feed the solution with gravel, fluids for hydraulic fracturing, fluids for well treatment, etc.

In alternative embodiments may use other methods of creating bubbles. For example, instead of containing the gas cylinder to create a gas can be used rocket propellant or explosive. Otherwise, can also be used refrigerant, for example, methyl chloride, carbon dioxide or ammonia. Such refrigerants are liquid when the pressure rises above certain critical values, but remain in gaseous form when the pressure is below the critical values. The refrigerant can be introduced into the wellbore under pressure in liquid form, for example, inside the cylinder 852. When the cylinder 852 is opened, the refrigerant is subjected to the pressure existing in the well bore, which may be less critical. Then, the refrigerant passes into the gaseous state with the formation of the desired bubbles. As an example, the critical pressure for methyl chloride, carbon dioxide and ammonia are respectively approximately 950, 1050 and 1600 lbs per square inch.

In accordance with further variants of implementation of the present invention to reduce the effects of pre-impact caused by the initiation of deton the dominant cord, can be used shockproof barrier made of drogenase material. When the first design shock barrier can be placed between the detonating cord and the outer surface of casing shaped charge. In another design shock barrier isolates the casing shaped charge from the explosives. In the third design can be applied to multilayer barrier (or layered barrier), which includes multiple layers of alternating materials of high and low resistance in order to take advantage of the reflections of the impact on the boundary surfaces between the layers with low resistance and layers with high resistance and Vice versa. Resistance shock is the product of its density and transfer speed impact. Low density and speed of transmission of shocks give a low resistance to shock impact. Material with low resistance shock has a low ability to transfer impact, while a material with high resistance shock has a high ability to transfer impact. Furthermore, increasing the time period of the transmission of shocks reduces the transmission of impact.

what if you go to 11, 12 and 13A-13B, they depict exemplary shockproof barriers corresponding to the first design. Each of the charges on 11 and 13A-13B may be encapsulated or Neopalimovsky charge. On Fig shows the parts of the tape perforator with encapsulated charges. Encapsulated charge comprises an outer housing, which may include the outer casing 12 and a cover (not shown)attached to the front of the outer casing 12. In addition, when placing elements of explosives inside the capsule of the firing pin 14 on the rear side may be closed part of the outer casing 12 with a smaller thickness (not shown). Neopalimovsky charge can be arranged, as shown at 11, and 13A-13B.

In version 11, shockproof barrier may include a General tubular shape adapter or covers 100 that surround the detonating cord 15 to isolate the detonating cord 15 from the rear surface of the outer casing 12. The shock resistant material of the adapter 100 may include any material having a low ability to transfer impact, which provides the best isolation, absorption, attenuation and damping impact than the outer casing shaped charge.

The adapter 100 can be a separate part that is mounted on deanery the second cord 15 with the creation of dense contact. Otherwise, shock resistant, the adapter 100 may be manufactured as a single unit with the outer shell 101 of the detonating cord 15. In the latter case shock resistant adapter 100 is a continuation of the outer shell 101 to create a thicker shock resistant layer.

The space behind the firing rod 14 is not closed shock resistant adapter, resulting to begin initiation, the energy of the detonation wave from the detonating cord 15 can be transmitted to the firing pin 14 without interference. Thus, as the detonation wave propagates in the direction up or down the detonating cord 15 (depending on the placement of the shaped charge 10 relative to other shaped charges), one shock resistant adapters 100 substantially reduces or completely eliminates the preliminary shock, which is transmitted to the outer casing 12. In the case of substantially reduced or eliminated prior impact the front of the trigger extending from the firing rod 14 in the explosive 16, may provide a more effective destruction of the liner 20 with the aim of creating a perforating jet, having a greater penetration depth.

If we turn to Fig, shock resistant adapter 100 shown in 11, according to the ne of the options for implementing the present invention can be used in the punch 50 flat ribbon. The punch 50 flat ribbon includes a supporting member 114 of the flat belt, on which many of capsule charges 110 is fixed under certain relative angles (for example, by placing two relative angles, three relative angles, placement with a twist, spiral, placing one relative angle etc). Encapsulated charges may be held in position at an angle relative to each other by means of the holder 112. Each encapsulated charge 110 includes a latch 116 of the detonating cord through which this detonating cord passes. Shock resistant adapter 100 is surrounded by the areas of the detonating cord, which otherwise contacted or were in the immediate vicinity of the rear surfaces of capsule charges 110. In this embodiment, the detonating cord passes through quite a curved path due to the placement of capsule charges 110 to rotate relative to each other on ±45°. Adapter 100 isolate detonating cord 15 from the rear surface of each encapsulated charge 110 to provide protection against impact-induced detonation wave propagating in the detonating cord 15.

Experiments have shown that shock resistant adapter 100 are an effective means of increasing deposition is italinate encapsulated charges 110 by increasing the depth of penetration of the perforating jet, created by these charges. Some of the results of the experiments showed that the penetration depth increased with an average depth of about 19 inches for some of the drills, which were not used protective adapter 100 to the average penetration depth of approximately 28 inches for other perforators, which are applied in a shock resistant adapter 100. Performance may vary depending on the types used shaped charges, as well as the materials and thicknesses of the adapter 100. In addition, performance may vary in different accommodation options shaped charges at an angle relative to each other. In addition, the depth of penetration also depends on the materials used for the manufacture of liners for shaped charges and the type of explosives. And the liners with non-conical shape, can give a smaller penetration depth, but shockproof barriers created in accordance with some of the options for implementing the present invention will still provide benefits when used with such shaped charges (such as charges of large diameter). According to other variants shock resistant adapter can be used in the punch that sod is RIT Neopalimovsky charges, installed inside the pipeline, which separates these charges from the internal environment of the well.

In addition, in accordance with another variant of realization of the present invention instead of using the adapter for increased udarozaschischennaya can be increased compared with the normal thickness of the whole of the outer shell 101 of the detonating cord 15. The usual thickness of the shell 101 of the detonating cord varies depending on the type of material. In accordance with some of the options for the implementation of the present invention to provide udarozaschischennaya this thickness increases.

If we turn to Figa and 13B, in accordance with the following variant of realization of the present invention to isolate the detonating cord 15 from the outer casing 122 shaped charge 120 is used, the layer 124 of material having low capability of the transmission of shocks attached to the rear surface of the external casing 122. As shown in Figv, layer 124 may be in the form of a disc (mostly circular, rectangular, square or have another shape) with a hole or a more sensitive area 125 (formed, for example, from a material with a high capacity transmission impacts), located in the center to create a path of energy transfer from detenir the irradiation of the cord into the firing pin 14. Layer 124 may be applied to the rear surface of the outer casing 122, which is adapted for placement of this layer. Alternatively, the layer 124 may be affixed to the rear surface of the external casing 122, for example, by means of glue or any other fastening mechanism. Shock resistant layer 124 reduces the level of pre-impact that is transmitted from the detonating cord 15 into explosive 16 through the outer casing 122.

If we turn to Figa, in accordance with the second type of construction of the inner shock resistant layer 144A, made of a material having a low ability to transfer impact, is placed between the inner surface of the outer casing 142 and a part of the explosive 16, which is located in the rear part of the outer casing 142. In this embodiment, although preliminary shock and passed into the outer casing 142, a layer 144A is used for attenuation and damping of waves pre-impact, resulting in explosive 16 is transmitted shock lower level.

If we turn to Figv, the cumulative charge 140V includes internal shock resistant layer 144B, which is a modification layer 144A shown in Figa. Shock resistant layer 144B provides additional protection of explosives is 16, going further forward. When additional continuing protection against impact, which takes place in the case of layer 144B may also be reduced by the mutual influence of the charges, as it provides additional insulation explosives.

In accordance with a third type of design shock barrier includes a multilayer barrier, such as a layered barrier. For example, if you refer to Fig, the cumulative charge 200 includes layered shock-proof barrier 202, which contains three layers 204, 206 and 208. Layers 204 and 208 can represent layers with low resistance to impact, and the layer 206 is a layer with high resistance to shock impact. When the shock wave, such as wave pre-shock passes through the barrier 202, some of the shock wave is reflected at the boundary surfaces between every two layers (the transition from a layer with low resistance to a layer with high resistance and Vice versa). In addition to the boundary surfaces between the layers 204, 206 and 208 another boundary surface reflection can provide a transition from layer 208 with low resistance shock to the housing 210 with high resistance to shock impact.

In modifications of the variant shown in Fig, between the inner surface of the casing 210 and the explosive 16 can the t to be posted by the inner layer, low capacity transmission impact, very similar to layer 144 depicted in FIGU or 14C. In addition, plots of the detonating cord 15, located in the immediate vicinity of the shaped charge 200, can also be enclosed in the adapter.

In other embodiments, shock resistant adapter, the surrounding areas of the detonating cord may be multilayered, as well as the inner layer with low resistance placed between the inner surface of the casing 12 and the explosive 16. In yet another variant may be a multilayer sheath or covering of the detonating cord.

Multi-layer shock-proof barrier may also contain the following layers: shell detonating cord (material with low resistance); water; an external disk (material with low resistance), attached to the shaped charge casing; the outer casing (the material with high resistance); and the inner barrier layer (material with low resistance). In General, multi-layer shock-proof barrier may include any combination of multiple layers with low and high resistance, such as those listed above in addition to layered barriers.

With detonating cords of various types can be used with its variant resistant barrier. T is for protecting against impact, shockproof barriers allow the use of shaped charges in conjunction with detonating cords with thick fibers. In addition, some of the detonating cords may have lead or aluminium sheath instead of plastic to increase the energy extracted from the detonating cord in the firing pin. When using shockproof barriers corresponding to some variants of implementation of the present invention, the energy intake of the firing rod can be increased while ensuring protection from impact for the rest of shaped charges.

Some of the embodiments of the present invention can provide one or more of the following advantages. The degree of transmission of shocks between the detonating cord and the explosive shaped charge is reduced to improve the performance of the shaped charge. For all types of charges the reliability and performance of the shaped charge substantially increased by reducing the interference with the front of the trigger extending from the firing rod-explosive substance shaped charge. In addition to deeply laid charges can be greatly increased depth of penetration.

Although this invention OPI is ANO applied to a limited number of implementation options, for specialists in this area numerous obvious modifications and variations based on them. Assume that the points are applied claims cover all such modifications and variations that fall within the real limits of the nature and scope of this invention.

1. Explosive device designed for use in the internal environment of the wellbore that contains the hammer, many portions of the explosive containing perforating shaped charges, and the fuse is already at least one drogenase element placed in close proximity to many servings of explosives, each of the one or more durogesic element contains a porous material, wherein the material has a porosity of from 2 to 9%.

2. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements contain a material having a porosity of approximately more than 2%.

3. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements contain a material having a porosity of approximately more than 5%.

4. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous material is a porous liquid.

5. The explosive device according to claim 4, characterized in that the porous liquid contains aerated liquid

6. The explosive device according to claim 4, characterized in that the porous fluid contains liquid-based Aronov.

7. The explosive device according to claim 4, characterized in that the porous liquid includes a liquid containing shell, filled with a compressible element selected from the group consisting of gas and vacuum.

8. The explosive device according to claim 1, wherein the porous material includes a foam material.

9. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous material is a porous solid.

10. The explosive device according to claim 9, characterized in that the porous solid material contains cement, mixed with shells, each of which contains a compressible element.

11. The explosive device of claim 10, wherein the compressible element contains one of the following - gas or vacuum.

12. The explosive device of claim 10, wherein the shell contains microspheres.

13. The explosive device according to claim 9, characterized in that the porous solid material contains a material with variable phase.

14. The explosive device according to claim 9, characterized in that the porous solid material contains a material selected from the group consisting of porous material and porous metal.

15. The explosive device according to claim 9, characterized in that the porous solid material contains an epoxy resin, smeshno is with shells, each of which contains a compressible element.

16. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements contain composite, comprising the material of the hollow filler, heavy powder and binding.

17. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the bundle is chosen from the group consisting of a polymer composition based on cement, metal and elastomer.

18. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the bundle is chosen from the group consisting of solids - ligaments, fluids ligaments and gel - link.

19. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the material of the hollow filler contains shell filled with a volume of compressible element selected from the group consisting of gas and vacuum.

20. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the heavy powder has a bulk density of approximately more than 0.5 g/cm3.

21. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the heavy powder has a bulk density of approximately 1.0 g/cm3.

22. The explosive device according to item 16, characterized in that the heavy powder has a bulk density in the range of about from 0.5 to 10 g/cm3.

23. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that portion of explosives contain perforating shaped charges.

24. The explosive device according to claim 1 characterized in, that the explosive device comprises a perforator, which includes the ribbon, and where portions of explosives contain encapsulated charges attached to the ribbon, and one or more durogesic elements contain porous material, in which a total of at least part of the said tape and encapsulated charges.

25. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a perforator comprising a hollow carrier and loaded the pipe, and where portions of explosives containing shaped charges attached to the loaded pipe, and one or more durogesic elements contain porous material placed inside the loading tube.

26. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a perforator comprising a carrier tube, and where portions of explosives containing shaped charges mounted inside the carrier pipe, and one or more durogesic elements contain porous material placed inside the carrier pipe.

27. Explosive device on p, characterized in that it contains a tape, on which the carrier pipe.

28. Explosive device on p, characterized in that it comprises a spacer comprising one or more durogesic elements placed between adjacent shaped charges.

29. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that it provides the holder, made with the possibility of fixing the many portions of the explosive, and at least one spacer containing one or more durogesic elements placed between portions of the explosive.

30. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that portion of explosives containing shaped charges, and an explosive device includes a support mechanism, to which is attached the shaped charges, in which one or more durogesic elements contain a capsule made of drogenase material.

31. The explosive device according to item 30, wherein the support mechanism includes a supporting member on the tape.

32. The explosive device according to item 30, wherein the support mechanism includes a coiled holder having a support ring for placing shaped charges.

33. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that portion of explosives containing shaped charges, and where one or more durogesic elements contain barriers located between adjacent shaped charges.

34. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements include coverage around parts of the respective portions of the explosive.

35. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements content the t layer, formed from a porous material around at least part of each portion of the explosives.

36. Explosive device on p, characterized in that the said layer has low friction characteristics.

37. Explosive device on p, characterized in that the said layer includes many pre-molded sections, and each section has an internal profile adapted to accommodate the relevant parts of each portion of the explosives.

38. The explosive device according to claim 1, characterized in that one or more durogesic elements contain numerous layers formed from different types of porous materials, around at least part of each portion of the explosives.

39. Explosive device designed for use in the internal environment of the wellbore containing an explosive substance and a porous material placed in close proximity to explosives to absorb impact caused by the detonation of explosives and at least one explosive, the porous material is placed to reduce the mutual influence of explosives, characterized in that the porous material has a porosity of from 2 to 9%.

40. The device according to 39, characterized in that the explosive contains cumulatively charge.

41. The device according to 39, wherein the porous material comprises at least one of the following - porous solid and a pore fluid.

42. The device according to 39, characterized in that the porous material has a porosity of approximately more than 2%.

43. The device according to 39, characterized in that the porous material has a porosity of approximately more than 5%.

44. The device according to 39, characterized in that the porous material contains the material of the hollow filler to obtain a pre-defined porosity.

45. The device according to item 44, wherein the porous material contains a heavy powder to obtain a predetermined density.

46. The device according to item 45, wherein the porous material contains a bundle.

47. The device according to item 45, wherein the material of the hollow filler contains a certain volume of gas.

48. The device according to p, characterized in that the material of the hollow filler contains a certain amount of vacuum.

49. The device according to 39, characterized in that the porous material contains highly compressible material.

50. The device according to 39, characterized in that the porous material is in contact with the explosive.

51. The device according to item 50, wherein the explosive is the case, and where the porous material is in contact is in this case.

52. A device for use in a wellbore containing a detonating cord, the explosive is placed in the immediate vicinity of the detonating cord, shock-proof barrier placed between the detonating cord and the explosive is to prevent due to pre-impact impact of interference between the detonating cord and the explosive, wherein the shockproof barrier contains multilayer barrier, the multi-layer barrier contains layered barrier having multiple layers, of which at least. one contains a material with a lower resistance shock compared with at least one other layer.

53. The device according to paragraph 52, wherein the areas of the detonating cord, located in the immediate vicinity of the shaped charge, enclosed in the adapter.

54. The way to protect the shaped charge perforator, intended for use in a wellbore, comprising stages, which provide accommodation resistant barrier between the detonating cord and the explosive shaped charge, wherein when the above-mentioned placement implement the installation of multilayer barrier between the detonating cord and the explosive is cumulative is on charge.

55. The method according to item 54, wherein when the above-mentioned placement exercise conclusion in the adapter sections of the detonating cord, located in the immediate vicinity of the shaped charge.

56. The drill is designed for use in a well bore containing a variety of shaped charges, each of which contains a portion of explosives, shock-proof barriers, isolating portions of the explosive adjacent shaped charges to reduce the mutual influence charges, detonating cord, characterized in that the inside of the housing are shaped charges formed shockproof barriers to isolate the explosive from detonating cord.

57. Explosive device designed for use in the internal environment of the wellbore that contains many servings of explosives and at least one drogenase element placed in close proximity to explosives to absorb impact caused by the detonation of explosives, characterized in that it comprises a punch having a hollow carrier, and loaded the pipe, and the portion of the explosive containing shaped charges attached to the loaded pipe and at least one drogenase element containing porous material, R is smeshannyi loaded inside the tube.



 

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes detonation of first perforation cannon plant, positioned outside from casing pipe in well, as a result casing pipe and first underground formation are perforated. One or more stimulating and/or effecting substances is injected through casing pipe into first underground formation. Second perforation cannon plant is detonated, positioned outside casing pipe in well. As a result said casing string and second underground formation are perforated. One or more stimulating and/or effecting substances is injected through casing pipe into second underground formation. First underground formation is isolated from injection of flowing substances prior to injection of one or more stimulating and/or effecting substances into second underground formation. First and second perforation cannon plants are cemented in underground well prior to detonation. First underground formation is isolated from injection of flowing substances after injection of one or mote stimulating and/or effecting substances through casing pipe into second underground formation. Explosive substance is set on fire by detonation of at least one explosive charge by control line, placed in underground well outside of said casing pipe and connected to at least one explosive charge. Completion system has casing pipe, at least two perforation cannons, connected to outside of casing pipe. Each perforation cannon has at least one explosive charge, targeted in direction of casing pipe. Also provided is device for isolating a zone, positioned between at least two perforation cannons for selective overlapping of flow through casing pipe. Outside the casing pipe a plant for sending signals to perforation cannons is positioned.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 40 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to accelerated variant, perforation of well-adjacent bed zone is performed by cased cumulative perforator. Adjustable pulse gas-dynamic bed fracturing is performed through apertures of perforator. It is provided with subsequent operation in given time of delay of main and additional gunpowder chambers. Thermal gas-chemical effect on well-adjacent zone of bed is provided for in given delay time of thermal gas-chemical chamber with charges. Implosion treatment is performed in given delay time of implosion chamber. Treatment is set by volume of implosion chamber and size of pass cross-section of flow aperture and/or group of apertures, connecting inner volumes of chambers.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

12 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to the oil industry and can be used to increase the efficiency of the secondary opening seams

The invention relates to techniques for perforating operations in the well and can be used for secondary opening of the near-well zone of the reservoir

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, and in particular to a technique for dissection of productive intervals in the oil and gas wells

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to accelerated variant, perforation of well-adjacent bed zone is performed by cased cumulative perforator. Adjustable pulse gas-dynamic bed fracturing is performed through apertures of perforator. It is provided with subsequent operation in given time of delay of main and additional gunpowder chambers. Thermal gas-chemical effect on well-adjacent zone of bed is provided for in given delay time of thermal gas-chemical chamber with charges. Implosion treatment is performed in given delay time of implosion chamber. Treatment is set by volume of implosion chamber and size of pass cross-section of flow aperture and/or group of apertures, connecting inner volumes of chambers.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

12 cl, 3 dwg

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