Decomposition method

FIELD: processes for treating organic material before decomposition or sublimation drying procedures.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing organic material, preferably in cooled or frozen state, to splitting treatment, followed by sublimation drying process; placing organic material for decomposition. Apparatus for decomposition has closed reservoir equipped with equipment for connection with sources of vacuum, liquid nitrogen, high-pressure water jets or high-pressure steam, or laser with high radiation energy, or vegetable oil under high pressure. Apparatus is further provided with supersonic probe. Apparatus is tunnel-type reservoir equipped with vibration device.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in decomposing of organic material which may be assimilated by plants.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a method for processing organic material prior to its decomposition after freeze-drying.

The present invention is to create a method of pre-processing of organic material decomposition process.

Another object of the invention is to create a packaging of such pre-treated organic material so that the packaging can decompose.

Organic material can be processed in various ways to be able to use it as a source of nutrients. Usually, recyclable organic material such as yard waste or food waste placed in a container for compost, and in the presence of oxygen to various microorganisms, bugs, worms, and other small animals decompose this material to the nutrient-rich soil, so that plants can use the nutrients contained in this material.

As mentioned, the decomposition of organic material should occur at the access of oxygen, which means that no content of the compost should not be at a distance greater than 25 cm from the aerated surface. In the right compost is not putrefactive processes, and the escaping gas is a vapor and carbon dioxide is kind, and possibly gaseous nitrogen. Temperature "normal" compost is approximately 30-35°that provides an optimal decomposition. In winter, the temperature falls, causing the rate of the process decreases, but some decomposition still occurs.

The so-called "hot" compost means that the process of composting occurs at very high temperature, 60-70°and this suggests that this process is not a process of decomposition in pure form, worms, bugs and most microorganisms do not feel comfortable at these temperatures, and the decomposition is only using thermophilic microorganisms. In addition, decomposition is slow, and while it is rotting with the formation of gases, which has an unpleasant odor.

Composting of household waste can also create additional problems associated with the presence of rats and mice are attracted to the compost, if the decomposition is not happening fast enough. Of course, the biggest problem occurs when composting should be more complex patterns, such as abattoir waste and waste after hunting.

When land burial, the corpse is placed at a depth of approximately 180-200 cm, however, this depth there was no time is ogene, due to the lack of oxygen, and is rotting under the influence of microorganisms that produce sulfur. The decayed material will flow in the form of fluid from the cavity disposal. Soil, plants cannot absorb nutrients from such organic material.

The reason that the bodies of people buried at great depth, associated with traditions established several hundred years ago, and of course, served to ensure that animals were not able to dig up the body after burial.

When the cremation of the corpse is burned at high temperature, and the remains consist of the mineral rich ash that can be placed in the ballot box or, as often happens at present, dispersed in memorial Park. When the scatter ashes in memorial Park, the ash is dissolved in the rain or other precipitation, and the resulting solution of mineral salts leaked and penetrates into the deeper layers of the soil, while it cannot be absorbed by the surrounding terrestrial vegetation. From an environmental point of view cremation should not be recommended, since, on the one hand, from dental fillings comes gaseous mercury, and, on the other hand, incineration contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect due to release of large quantities of carbon dioxide.

Currently there is no efficient way of burying the corpse so the m way so the remains were decomposed, and nutrient content of organic matter could be absorbed by vegetation.

However, there is a belief that we must return to the land, which is reflected in the expression "earth to Earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust" at the funeral, which is the basis of our philosophy of life. However, the evidence suggests that we do not return to the ground, and arise in the liquid state.

This belief derived from our philosophy of life, can not become a reality when using a high degree of embalming dead people, particularly in big cities, where services responsible for the funeral arrangements are not working with a full load because of a preference to conduct the funeral only during certain days of the week. Embalming means that large quantities of preservative formaldehyde are injected into the body and expel the blood and other body fluids. Formaldehyde as such means that will not happen proper decomposition.

The body must be stored in a refrigerated or frozen state until the funeral.

In U.S. patent 4,067,091 revealed the freeze-drying method of a corpse to prepare it for burial in the ground, and the problem of this method is to ensure the availability of capable of decomposing remains. This method is carried out by freezers and refrigerators the Oia corpse at a low temperature, namely, at a temperature below -100°With, mechanically ground corpse by using, for example, hammer crusher, perform freeze-drying the obtained particles to remove 95% of the contained water and the disposal of residues from freeze-drying. However, grinding of the dead body of a man so before freeze-drying could not be supported from an ethical point of view.

In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 3 842 341 disclosed a method of dehydration of the carcasses (skeletons) of animals and/or eggs by freeze-drying at temperatures from -15 to -30°and a pressure of from 1×102up to 3×102PA, possibly after grinding at a temperature of 15-25°C. After this mass, subjected to freeze-drying, can be stored at room temperature, to burn or to use as fertilizer.

Thus, there is a need to ensure that the processing of organic matter, such, as substance of vegetable and animal origin, so that it can decompose naturally and ethically correct, if there is such a need.

Discovered that the solution to this problem is achieved by the present invention, which provides that an organic substance, preferably in a chilled condition, more preferably in the replacement is rozenom condition, subjected to cleavage and then subjected to freeze-drying before moving to its deposits with the purpose of decomposition.

Additional signs are evident from the accompanying claims.

The term "splitting" (or "loosening") means in this case that the corpse is subjected to the punching process in accordance with the following or subjected to such a strong and quick freezing, that the structure of the tissues no longer stick together and give breaks (cracks). Such freezing can be performed using liquid nitrogen having a boiling point of about -190°C. Thus, the splitting (or loosening) means not crushing on particles, but only that in the structure of the fabrics create channels or cracks through which can be sublimation of water.

By the present invention is achieved by the fact that the rapid freeze drying can occur with reasonable energy cost. Calculations show that combustion requires at least the same or more energy to get the ash.

Perforation of organic matter, primarily animal material may be accomplished by use of water jets of high pressure, preferably a vacuum, i.e. jets without any additions without the ha, or using high-pressure steam, or a laser with high energy radiation. In the above process vegetable oil under high pressure can also replace the water.

Perforation should be performed with the use of such density and with such directions that were preferably formed of cubic elements with a side length of which is 1 to 2 cm This means that the perforating jet to form one or more lateral edges of this cube before freeze-drying. In addition, this means that the perforation occurs, at least two sides, preferably located essentially perpendicular to each other. Perforation carried out along the body, mainly for the perforation of the large structures of the connective tissue of the corpse.

After freeze-drying the material dried in this way is exposed to a light shock top, so that it collapses, after which it may be assembled and placed in an appropriate container.

Suitable container for deposits to further decomposition may be able to decompose the carton or container made of peat, which is placed at a depth of approximately 25 cm below the surface of the earth, that decomposition occurred under aerobic conditions.

If is something to do with burial in the land of the dead, subjected to freeze-drying human body can be, for example, simultaneously to plant a memorial tree near the place of burial, and planted the plant will be able to assimilate the decaying remains.

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows a schematic side view of the device for freeze-drying the body, where the device contains a large tank containing space for the dead body 2 and having surrounding walls and a roof or cover 3, to allow complete immersion of the body 2 in liquid nitrogen. In this example, the walls contain 3 elements for receiving sublimated water that is cooled contact surface. Cover 3 of the device, which in this embodiment, additionally serves as a loading opening made by highway 4, which serves for connection with a source of vacuum (not shown)to provide the possibility of creating a vacuum around the device. In addition, the tank 1 is made with the input and output highways 5, 6 for liquid nitrogen. In option you can set in the tank of the ultrasonic probe 7 to be capable of delivering ultrasound contained in the reservoir of liquid nitrogen and organic matter, immersed in it, so as to speed up the sublimation of the odes. The reservoir device may also be a passing vessel with a device for the continuous movement of organic material into the tank and out from it, to enable continuous freeze-drying of organic matter.

In addition, the cover 3 is attached a number of highways 8 high pressure, having a nozzle 9 in order to ensure that the perforating body 2, is introduced into the tank, through the use of high-pressure steam.

The reservoir is located on the supports 10, which can result in oscillatory motion. Props are used to cause vibration shock effect on the treated material after freeze-drying, so that the material is flattened and can be assembled in a simple way for further packing (not shown) is able to decompose the container.

Pre-treatment of the material to be freeze-drying, which is or of a dead body, or waste from slaughterhouses or from ordinary kitchen waste, means that the substance is subjected to cooling/freezing to a temperature of -70°C, after which the substance is subjected to perforation with a predetermined density and pattern of perforation through the use of high-pressure steam. Then the substance is immersed in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -190° With, thereby providing a sublimation contained in the material of the water to the surface condensation, perhaps through a passage in the warmer stream of air having a greater ability to transfer moisture.

To facilitate sublimation, the material may be subjected to any influence of reduced pressure of 1×102- 1×103PA, and/or sonication.

After removing the estimated amount of water that is determined by controlling the amount of the condensed moisture, the substance is exposed to vibration shock load, resulting substance is flattened and can be collected.

TEST

Was done drying beef and pork, and pork fat and pork legs. Drying was performed in a normal laboratory setting for drying by sublimation at a temperature of -50°and by use of low pressure up to 1×102PA. Parallel to this, in the chemical laboratory determined the fat content and water content, and after drying, it was found that all of the water, certain laboratory analysis, was removed. The residual amount of water was less than 1% in most of the samples.

Processing using immersion in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of cracks and breaks in the bone and muscle tissue. In the samples, ohla is effected to a temperature of -80° Since that didn't happen the cracks and breaks. This indicates that the spontaneous splitting of meat promotes extremely rapid cooling, which provides treatment using liquid nitrogen. If you used the perforation to initiate this process [splitting] and, in a possible variant, was used sonication to accelerate this process, it further contributes to the subsequent splitting. From an ethical point of view this is extremely important, and this is the main difference of the method according to the invention from the method known from U.S. patent 4,067,091.

A total of 10 different tests, while here presents the results of four of these tests, which can be considered the most typical from the point of view of the obtained results (see table).

59,78
Table
Chemical laboratory analysisDrying results
Fat content (%)Water content (%)Initial weight (g)Weight after drying (g)Water removed during drying (%)
1. 22,9759,5861,19024,46260,02
2. to 22.35167,76768,48359,20
3. 33,9151,9738,64218,580better than anticipated at 51.90
4. 31,9552,72142,12567,97552,17

As is evident from the above table, there has been an almost complete dehydration of the substance. The substance was perforated to cubes of size 1-2×1-2×1-2 cm

The substance is subjected to such a freeze-drying process to ensure its decomposition, collected in able to decompose the container, such as container of compacted peat, paper, thin cardboard, paperboard or the like, and placed in the appropriate place in the soil to a depth of 25 cm Under the action of re-hydration and microorganisms, insects, worms and small animals matter odorless decomposes with the formation of compost soil that has high nutritional value, which can be assimilated to nearby vegetation.

Because subjected to freeze-drying the material has a low hygroscopicity, in a possible embodiment, the container can be rationally made with a waterproof layer such as a layer of easily degradable polymer of starch, the so-called "corn plastic"forming effective bar the EP for water, when the product is stored above ground.

Waste fish and shellfish (crustaceans) is an organic substance, which quickly decomposes with simultaneous separation of smell, and therefore the processing according to the invention is extremely suitable for such waste, the water content can be reduced to a few percent, and then the substance may be subjected to composting, possibly after pre-composting packaging is able to decompose the container.

1. The method of processing organic material on the influence of vibration shock, freeze drying, placed in the container and burial, wherein the pre-organic material is cooled, and preferably in a frozen state, is subjected to splitting, the splitting is carried out in the form of punching processing by means of water jets of high pressure, preferably vacuum or high-pressure steam, or a laser with high energy radiation, or vegetable oil under high pressure, and vibration drop test carried out after freeze-drying.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the perforation perform at least two of the parties in an appropriate manner perpendicular to each other.

3. The method according to P1, characterized in that the material is subjected to cleavage by freezing at low temperatures down to -190°in liquid nitrogen or other coolant.

4. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that freeze-drying is carried out by simultaneous exposure to ultrasound.

5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that freeze-drying is carried out by simultaneous exposure to the vacuum.

6. The method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the material is a waste slaughterhouse.

7. The method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the material is a waste/kitchen waste.

8. The method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the material is a fish waste and/or waste shellfish.

9. A device for processing organic material decomposition after freeze-drying according to any one of claims 1 to 8, containing a sealed tank with inlet for organic material, input and output channels for liquid nitrogen, the connection to the vacuum source and the device to perform the splitting of the material by means of water jets of high pressure, preferably vacuum or high-pressure steam, or a laser with high energy radiation, or vegetable oil under high pressure.

10. The device according to claim 9, from causesa fact, it further comprises an ultrasound probe.

11. Device according to one of PP and 10, characterized in that the tank is designed for continuous transport of organic material inside and out, is a tunnel.

12. Device according to one of PP-11, characterized in that it further comprises a device for providing vibration impact on organic material following completion of the freeze drying process.



 

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