Apparatus for automatic controlling of predetermined tillage depth

FIELD: measuring equipment for information controlling of predetermined tillage depth.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has primary information sensor with two sensitive members connected to different circuits of digital RC-generator of rectangular pulse connected in series with frequency divider and with frequency meter, control unit, reference signal generator, two differential amplifiers, demodulator, comparison circuits and two actuating mechanisms. Control unit is connected to RC-generator, frequency meter and reference signal generator. Actuating mechanism is connected through comparison circuit to demodulator whose inputs are connected through differential amplifier to frequency divider and reference signal generator. Output signal is determined from formula.

EFFECT: increased precision and wider operational capabilities of automatic controlling of predetermined tillage depth.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the agricultural industry, in particular to a device for automatic regulation of one of the parameters tillage such as plowing at a given depth or special surface treatment, which is necessary to maintain a predetermined depth of plowing within certain limits and conditions, compliance with technical operation of the MTA, working in real time.

Known control device of the transverse deviations of the General-purpose units containing the sensor parameter, display, convert chain, in which the sensor parameter is connected to the input of the indicator, thus transforming the chain is made in the form of three counters connected in series (see USSR author's certificate No. 1618303, class. And 01 In 69/04, 69/00 from 08.08.1988 year).

A disadvantage of the known device is the presence of the second and third generators, two decimal counters, four RS - triggers, two elements 2I, two trehshipovyh schema matching, which manage as odnogolosy and trehochkovym indicator for each input. The inclusion of the third or fourth counter in the counting mode signal element time measurement when the deviation from the setpoint direction in one direction or another is relatively for the data time (τ to change the current measurement time (τiwith the subsequent issuance of information about the current value of deviation. This deviation from the setpoint frequency, the magnitude of which is proportional to the time deviation in either direction from the setpoint, fixed by the appearance of signals "0", triggering the first two RS-triggers and indicator "installation" with the simultaneous inclusion of the counter signal of the time element from the output of the first generator at the current time, which may be less or more than a specified time. The signals "0" and "1" of the first two RS-trigger control enable or disable Tregubova indicator only, depending on the speed of the unit and depending on the weight of the traction means in combination with a trailer or mounted devices (equipment) in the production of heavy work. In the case of using the sensor parameter as a depth sensor located on a movable pivot connection system mounted traction device together with its signal processing unit, will not allow you to control the depth of tillage, because the device includes a frequency generator of the sensor is proportional to the depth of tillage.

The closest known devices the technical essence and the achieved re is the query result is the device sensor primary information from the two sensors, one of which is made variable capacitor, and the other variable resistor included in the various feedback circuit digital RC-generator of rectangular pulses, connected in series with a frequency divider and a frequency counter (patent RU No. 2101860, CL 6 H 03 M 1/60, 1/24 from 13.08.1990 year).

A disadvantage of the known device is received from an external signal source fixed measurement time (tISM), during which the filled n-bit binary decimal counter digital display. At the same time attainable accuracy ensure zero digital frequency meter, registering the change in the value of active and reactive resistance of the sensing element, is set by adjustment of the resistance of the sensing element, each of which, individually, is used to convert non-electrical quantities proportional to the frequency of the pulse detected frequency for a specific range of measurement of non-electrical values of one or other form determined by the sensitivity of the active or reactive resistance. In addition, the sensitivity of each of the R elements and depends on their magnitude and variation of angular, linear (±ΔR, ±Δ (C) from the effects of the measured parameter, which can the be expressed as a discrete value. Marked expansion of the range of a measured parameter within the sensitivity of each of the active or reactive resistance does not enhance resolution without introducing additional elements such as switching elements, which would switch when the transition is not only movable plates of the variable capacitor, but the engine variable resistance (resistor) when switching to the middle position, but in their extreme positions.

Objective of the claimed invention is to enhance the functionality of automatic control of a given depth of soil under different technological regimes machine-tractor units.

This object is achieved in that the automatic control of the depth of soil contains the primary sensor information from two sensors, one of which is made variable capacitor, and the other variable resistor included in the various feedback circuit digital RC-generator of rectangular pulses, connected in series with a frequency divider and a frequency counter. According to the invention it introduced the control unit, the driver reference signal, two differential amplifier, the demodulator, the comparison circuit and two use the enforcement mechanism. The control unit associated with the digital RC-generator of rectangular pulses with frequency, and with driver reference signal. Each actuator is connected to the comparison circuit with the demodulator, the input of which is connected through a differential amplifier with a frequency divider and driver reference signal. The output signal of the driver is determined by the expression:

ƒ=[0,55/RQc0i)]/K Hz, where

R is the resistance of the variable resistor. Ohm;

Qc- sensitivity AC capacitor, pF/deg;

ϕo- the installation angle of the plates of a variable capacitor, deg;

ϕi- specified (or measured current) angle sensor primary information, deg;

K - division ratio, O.E.;

ϕi=arctan(CxρV2hb/GPLg), deg,

where Cx- coefficient of resistance of the plough, O.E.;

ρ - density managed soils, kg/m3;

V - velocity, m/s;

h is a given depth of tillage, m;

b - width of the plough, m;

GPL- the weight of the plow, kg;

g - free fall acceleration, m/s2.

For the conformity of the object to the criterion of "significant differences" conducted a search on CL 6 MCI And 01 In 69/04; G 01 L 23/22; 60 To 31/00; H 03 M 1/60, 1/24.

As a result of search by the applicant is not detected technical is right, where there are signs similar to the features distinguishing the claimed solution to the prototype.

The essence of the invention illustrated by the drawing, which shows a block diagram of the automatic control of a given depth.

The automatic control of a given depth of soil contains sensor 1 primary information from the two sensors 2, 3, one of which is a variable capacitor 2, and the other variable resistor 3, included in different digital circuit RC square-wave generator 4 connected in series with the frequency divider 5 and the counter 6. The control unit 7, the former reference signal 8, two differential amplifier 9, 10, the demodulator 11, the comparison circuit 12 and two Executive mechanisms 13, 14. The control unit 7 is connected with the RC-generator of rectangular pulses 4 and with a frequency of 6, and with driver reference signal 8. Each actuator 13, 14 is connected to the comparison circuit 12 with the demodulator 11, the inputs of which are connected through the differential amplifiers 9, 10 and a frequency divider 5 and shaper reference signal 8. The first sensor element 2 is phramacology variable capacitor rotor plates which have an axis of rotation, equipped with a transfer mechanism. For example, nose there is rigidly attached a leash, movably connected with the thrust force of the hinged device, or other mechanism that provides the rotation of the rotary axis of the condenser when the angular movement of the thrust of the hinged device. To change the measuring range of the automatic control of a given depth in the feedback circuit digital RC square-wave generator 4 is connected to prematurity variable capacitor 2, connects a number of additional fixed capacitors. The second sensitive element 3 is a variable resistor, which is used as a variable resistance of various types, having the required value of resistance changes from minimum to maximum values. For additional changes to the measuring range of the device in the feedback circuit digital RC-generator 4 is connected to the variable resistor 3, provided for the connection of separately several other variable resistance. Digital RC-pulser 4 is a device consisting of three elements AND IS NOT connected in series. To the first and third input element is NOT connected variable capacitor 2, in parallel to which alternately connects a number of other permanent capacitor and to ground the input and output of the third element AND IS NOT connected separately and in turn the number of the variable resistance 3. The control unit 7 is a known switching elements, through which you are connecting respective capacitors in the same circuit feedback digital RC-generator of rectangular pulses 4 and the corresponding connection of the variable resistance in the other circuit this feedback RC oscillator 4. The control unit 7 is equipped with a generator element of time is made on the basis of digital RC square-wave generator 4 connected to the frequency divider 5 with the appropriate division factor, which provides at the output of the generator element time the appearance of the signal "0" with a duration of one second and the short signal "1", providing a "reset" after a specified period of time, which comes on the installation input of the frequency counter 6. Collaboration sensitive elements 2, 3 are included in the relevant feedback circuit digital RC-generator 4 is carried out by the controls located in the control unit 7. For example, the switch control unit 7 is installed in one of the modes of control of a given depth, which included one variable capacitor 2 with a capacity from 25 to 500 pF, established in the mid-position of its plates and the variable resistance is adjusted by the amount 11640 Ohms in the circuit of the reverse light and digital RC-pulser 4. It is known that the most important characteristic of the variable capacitor is the law changes in the capacitance depending on the rotation angle of the movable plates.

This position is characterized by the sensitivity of the variable capacitor:

Qc=/ϕiwhere

With the capacitance of the variable capacitor, F.,

ϕi- the angle of rotation of the rotor plates of the condenser.

For example, for a capacitor connected:

Qc=(25+500)·10-12/180=2,92·10-12(F/deg),

the position of the movable plates when the rotation angle of their ϕ=90°in which the capacitance of the variable capacitor is determined by the expression:

C=Qc·ϕ90,

i.e. C=2,92·10-12·90=262,5·10-12(F).

When these values of the parameters C and R, the frequency of RC oscillator rectangular pulses will be:

ƒ=0,55/RQcϕ=05511640·292·10-12·90=179797=180 kHz,

which after passing through the frequency divider 5 with ratios K=200 has a frequency ƒ=900 Hz, which can be made for the installation angle ϕ0=90° or ϕ0=0°. The frequency divider 5 is a digital counter, which output signal is produced only when the decimal count one predetermined code combination, for example, the counter functions as a divisor of the number of pulses of coefficients is antom division 10 -1. The output signal is repeated upon receipt of pulses for a certain period of time. The output of the decimal counter is connected to the input of the counter base two, in which, for example, uses a D-flip-flop equipped with a counter input with a division ratio of two. The pulses from the output of the counter on the basis of two follow with the same duration as positive (1), and a negative pulse (0). The duration of the signals (1) and (0) is proportional to the change of frequency of the digital RC-pulser 4, due to a change in one of the two resistances of the sensing elements 2 or 3. Differential amplifiers 9, 10 are devices, each of which contains an operational amplifier with appropriate correction for feedback, to obtain at the output of the differential amplifier sinusoidal oscillations with a frequency equal to the frequency of the pulses received at its input. Operational amplifier can be performed on the chip of the type UT-402 or other similar chip. The output signal of each differential amplifier 9, 10 arrives at the inputs of the demodulator 11. The demodulator 11 is a device ring modulator consisting of two input transformers, the primary winding of each transformer connected to the output of each the differential amplifier 9, 10, and the secondary winding having a secondary conclusions, connected to the comparison circuit 12. Thus far the findings of each winding transformer connected by four counter is enabled by the diodes. The output signal of the demodulator 11 taken from the middle of the findings of each of the transformer, is a signal of comparison used in the null method of measurement. The comparison circuit 12 is a device consisting of two operational amplifiers, each of which is on the installation inputs has a variable resistor to regulate the threshold comparison depending on the required sensitivity in relation to the signal produced by the secondary windings of the transformers in the circuit of the demodulator 11. This comparison circuit 12 allows to determine the polarity of the signal at the output of the demodulator 11. The comparison circuit 12 is equipped with known three-position indicator for information control, together with indicators of the frequency meter 6. Actuators 13 and 14 are equipped with electrical circuits that recognize signals of the demodulator 11 and generates control signals dosed or modulating control pressure of the slurry fed to the cylinders controlling the mounted device that is connected through coupling with the instrument tillage (plow) or with others who shM mounted equipment, used in agricultural work. A more detailed description of the operation principle of the actuator 13, 14 and description of their structural elements is beyond the scope of this application. Driver reference signal 8 is a device containing two adjustable element, one of which is a variable capacitor, and the other variable resistor included in the various feedback circuit digital RC square-wave generator 4 connected to the frequency divider, connected to the frequency counter 6 when setting the depth of tillage. It is known that digital RC-pulser generates a frequency signal defined by the expression:

ƒ=0,55/R·S, Hz,

in which the first sensing element is a variable capacitor and a second variable resistor are preinstalled on certain values, the capacitance value (C) and resistance (R). The frequency of the digital RC square-wave generator 4 generator reference signal 8 must be a multiple of the value of the assigned parameter. For example, the frequency of the RC oscillator must be a multiple of the value of the depth of tillage:

ƒ=K·h, where

K - division ratio, O.E.;

h - the depth of tillage, m

According to the previous expression:

given

Qc=2,92·10-12(F/deg);

ϕ0=90°;

ϕ1=14°;

ϕ2=13,8°,

the method of selection indicated in the counter 6, adjustment of work, determine the value of the variable resistance (installation resistance) Rifor each value of the desired depth set by the switch control unit 7. Thus the capacitance value of the first sensor element is a variable capacitor 2 retains the same value. For example, the size of the installation resistance R=22680 Ω and, consequently, the reading of the frequency meter 6

If another value is set resistance R=38160 Ohm readings of the counter 6 correspond to the rotation angle ϕimobile traction power device mounted system, and therefore the corner ϕithe deviation of the rotating plates of the variable capacitor 2 in which the frequency meter readings 6 correspond to the specified depth of soil treatment, ie,

Driver reference signal 8, which uses the first sensor element made in the form of pramatarova AC capacitor, is mounted on a swivel mounted device is, associated with the torsion shaft of the power mechanism used, for example, in a tractor type LTZ-155, allows you to monitor the current angle ϕithe torsion of the torsion shaft of the power device. It is known that the angle ϕican be determined from the expressions used, for example, in the algebraic notation of a complex number in the formin which the real part of Express in the form of power necessary to perform useful work while performing specific technical operations, and the imaginary part of the Express in the form of power necessary to perform useful work when executing a specific process operations, and the imaginary part will be the fact that as the power required to overcome the work associated with additional spending power when performing the same operations. The definition of total power consumed by the pulling tool is beyond the scope of this application. However, the use of the expressionallows you to specify the desired value (parameter) to perform specific works: - tillage plow to a predetermined depth when performing this process work as depending on the speed of movement of the plow, and other external factors. For example, utility power is ü, performed by the plow, can be defined by the expression:

Withx- coefficient of resistance of the plough, O.E.;

ρ - density managed soils, kg/m3.;

V - velocity, m/s;

h - the depth of tillage, m;

b - width of the plough, m

The power required for moving the plow, is determined by the expression:

(kW), where

GPL- the weight of the plow, kg;

g - free fall acceleration, m/s2;

V is speed in m/s

Thus, we have the algebraic expression in the form:

from which we define in:

where

(kW);

(kW).

Therefore:

substituting into this expression the value of the parameters, for example

GPL=1600 kg;

g=9,81 m/s2,

Withx=0,65 PU;

ρ=2100 kg/m3;

V=2.1 m/s=7,56 km/h;

h=0.4 m;

b=1.6 m, we obtain:

ϕi=arctan(0,65·2100·2,12·0,4·1,6/1600·9,81)=0,2454,

what is the maximum corner ϕi=18,8 of torsion of the torsion shaft thrust of the hinged device, for example, tractor LTZ-155. The expression for the frequency qi is the global RC oscillator 4 rectangular pulses in the form of ƒ =0,55/RQc0i) sensor primary information 1 and digital RC square-wave generator 4 generator reference signal 8 is determined by the same expression, in which ϕi- the angle of torsion of the torsion shaft of the power device, the traction device. This angle ϕiis set by the operator by means of a switch control unit 7, which is when setting the depth of tillage includes the counter 6, to control the desired depth of tillage. Setting the mode of operation of the entire device in the operating position counter 6 is disconnected from the circuit frequency measurement digital RC oscillator rectangular pulse shaper reference signal 8 and is connected to the output circuit of the frequency divider 5 primary sensor information 1. Thus the generator of the time element control unit 7 produces a continuous time signal, comprising a frequency counter 6, which is included in the measuring circuit at the output of the frequency divider 5. Thus, the reading of the frequency meter 6 depend on the angular displacement of the engine sensing element is a variable capacitor 2 and are defined by the expression:

(deg) for the specified depth of soil.

The device automatically to the control of a given depth is as follows.

After carrying out adjustment work on different technological modes MTA device is installed on the towing vehicle (tractor LTZ-155). When plowing, for example, to a depth of tillage, equal to 25 cm, the operator sets the body of the switch control unit 7 this type of operation. In the control unit 7 is connected to the variable capacitor and connecting the corresponding additional resistance in the feedback circuit digital RC oscillator 4 rectangular pulses as the primary sensor 1 and the imaging unit reference signal 8. The generator element time control unit 6 generates time signals "0" duration of one second with a short positive "1" pulse "reset", which comes on the installation input of the frequency counter 6. Simultaneously with the depth of the plow sensitive element is a variable capacitor 2 changes its capacitance in the feedback circuit digital RC-pulser 4 primary sensor 1, which produces a frequency signal proportional to the change in angular displacement of the movable plates of the variable capacitor 2. In this case the angle ϕirotation is determined according to the expression:

where,

for example, put:

GPL=1600 to the,

g=9,81 m/s2;

Withx=0,65 PU;

ρ=2100 kg/m3;

V=2.1 m/s=7,56 km/h;

h=0.25 m;

b=1.6 m,

get:

ϕi=arctan(0,65·2100·2,12·0,25·1,6/1600·9,81)=0,1534,

ie ϕ=8,72°.

Thus, rotation ϕirolling element (leash) sensitive element is a variable capacitor 2 sensor primary information 1 depends on the penetration of the plow, subject to the constancy of the other parameters included in this expression. However, in reality, the change of the rotation angle of the movable plates of the variable capacitor 2 should be considered when the frequency control digital RC-pulser 4 as the primary sensor 1, and digital RC square-wave generator 4 generator reference signal 8. Frequency signal produced by the two RC-oscillators rectangular pulses, each of which is supplied to the frequency divider 5 of its serial chain with constant division factor. Rectangular pulses of the same duration, low frequency that is a multiple of the depth of tillage, proceed to the corresponding differential amplifiers 9, 10, which carry out the conversion of rectangular pulses into a sinusoidal oscillations of the same frequency and duration as the Postup the matter of the pulses. Sinusoidal oscillations at the output of the differential amplifier 10 are oscillations with a frequency that is a multiple of the depth of tillage, and sinusoidal oscillations at the output of the differential amplifier 9 are oscillations whose frequency is a multiple of the value of the current value of the depth of tillage. Incoming sinusoidal oscillations with differential amplifiers 9 and 10 to the inputs of the demodulator 11 is detected and compared with a reference frequency of the differential amplifier 10. At the output of the demodulator 11 are formed differential signals proportional to the actual deviation from the target value, i.e. from a given depth. Educated signals of different character are transferred to the comparison circuit 12, which recognises and incorporates one or the other actuator 13 or 14, each of which individually controls the lift of the wives lowering of the hinged device of the traction means. While the three-position indicator device of the comparison circuit 12 informs the operator together with the frequency of 6 about the changes in the process of tillage. This information of the three-position indicator "up" or "down" occurs until the comparison circuit 12 detects the signal "norm", which results in the disabling of each of the additional fur the mechanism 13, 14, as happened to reach deep tillage in certain specified limits, which are sensitive (threshold) elements of the comparison circuit 12.

The proposed device for automatic control of a given depth of tillage improves the accuracy of maintaining the desired depth of tillage for performing various operations related to traction loads.

The automatic control of a given depth of soil that contains the primary sensor information from two sensors, one of which is a variable capacitor, the other variable resistor included in different circuits digital RC-generator of rectangular pulses, connected in series with a frequency divider and frequency, characterized in that it introduced the control unit, the driver reference signal, two differential amplifier, the demodulator, the comparison circuit and two actuator, and a control unit connected with the RC-generator of rectangular pulses with frequency and with driver reference signal, with each actuator connected to the comparison circuit with the demodulator, the input of which is connected through a differential amplifier with a frequency divider and driver reference signal, the output signal of which the CSO is defined by the expression

f=[0,55/RQc0i)]/K, kHz,

where R is a variable resistor, Ohm;

Qc- sensitivity AC capacitor, pF/deg.;

ϕ0- the installation angle of the variable capacitor, grad.;

ϕi- the angle of rotation of the plates of the variable capacitor from the action of external factors, grad.;

To - pressure ratio, O.E.



 

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