Absorption-diffusion refrigerator

FIELD: refrigerating and cryogenic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorption-diffusion household and industrial refrigerators. Proposed refrigerator contains evaporator, condenser, fractional column, absorber, receiver, liquid heat exchanger, gas heat exchanger, generator with electric heater on weak solution tube with its vapor space connected through fractional column with condenser. Strong solution tube is installed in vapor space with its own sealed vapor space and with hydraulic back-pressure valve in lower part into which lower end of thermal siphon is dipped. Middle part of thermal siphon passes in strong solution tube, and its upper end gets from said tube into vapor space of weak solution tube. Capillary porous insert is made in middle part of weak solution tube vapor space over its passage section.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of refrigerator.

4 cl 2 dwg

 

The alleged invention relates to refrigeration, and in particular to refrigeration units of absorption and diffusion steps used in domestic and industrial refrigerators.

Known absorption-diffusion refrigeration units (see the book Besbogin, Vasyotin. Domestic refrigerators and freezers. Handbook, Moscow, Kolos 1998, s-414, 425-428) refrigerators "Morozko-3M", "Crystal-4.

The downside is that they are not provided by devipriya weak solution, which enters the absorber is not enough purified water. This reduces the efficiency of the absorption process (absorption) of ammonia from the ammonia-hydrogen parogazovoi mixture, thereby reducing the efficiency of operation of the refrigeration units. In addition, after the regenerator rich modemity steam enters the reflux condenser in which the cooling steam ambient air, the formation of phlegmy (concentrated ammonia solution)flowing in the boiling solution for re useless turning it on par with re-entering it again in the reflux condenser, separation from him phlegmy flowing back into the boiling solution. When this happens multiple times a useless expenditure of energy, which further reduces the efficiency of these units.

As a prototype of the selected absorption-diffusion aggregate household refrigerator "Crystal-9" (see the book Besbogin, Vasyotin. Household refrigerators and freezers, Handbook, Moscow, Kolos 1998, s-432), comprising: a condenser, a trap hydrogen, an evaporator, a gas heat exchanger, absorber, air cooler, liquid heat exchanger, receiver, generator with electric heater on the tube a weak solution with its steam cavity, which is connected via a reflux condenser with a condenser and in which the tube strong solution with its pressurized steam cavity and hydraulic bolt the bottom, in which is immersed the lower end of thermosyphon, the middle part of which is held in the tube of strong solution, and its upper end extends from it in the steam cavity tube weak solution.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that it is not implemented regeneration steam in the steam cavity of the tube a weak solution, which, on the one hand, leads to increased water content within the condenser and then to the evaporator, and on the other hand, phlegm from a dephlegmator and a weak solution from the output of thermosyphon is constantly flowing into the tube a weak solution, re-evaporate it, then re-condensed in the reflux condenser and again flowing into the tube a weak solution. Thus it is useless for razivaetsya energy, that reduces the efficiency of the refrigeration unit.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the refrigeration unit.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that in the middle part of the steam cavity of the tube a weak solution around the pipe section is made of a capillary-porous insert, which is made in the form of flat, stacked one on top of another ring mesh from steel wire, the capillary-porous structure made of steel space formed wire, the bottom immersed in the solution part of thermosyphon executed diameter less than the diameter of its other part.

Absorption and diffusion cooling unit shown in figure 1 - schematic diagram of absorption and diffusion refrigeration unit, figure 2 - capillary-porous structure, in the form of flat stacked one on another ring mesh from steel wire. Absorption and diffusion of the refrigeration unit includes an evaporator 1, a condenser 2, a column 3, the absorber 4, a receiver 5, a liquid heat exchanger 6, the gas exchanger 7, the generator 8 and a heater 9 of the tube 10 weak solution with its steam cavity 11, which is connected via the reflux condenser 3 to the condenser 2 and which includes a tube 12 of a strong solution sealed paravastu 13 and the hydraulic gate 14 in its lower part, in which is immersed the lower end 15 of thermosyphon 16, the middle part of which is held in the tube 12 strong solution, and its upper end opens into a steam chamber 11 of the tube 10 of the weak solution, the capillary-porous insert 17, made in the middle part of the steam cavity 11 of the tube 10 weak solution throughout its passage bore, the tube 18 is a weak solution of liquid-gas heat exchanger 6, within which is the tube 19 strong solution, air cooler 20, the trap hydrogen 21, stacked one on top of another flat circular grid 22 of the steel wire forming capillary-porous insert 17 with high advanced surface interaction of steam rising from the tube 10 weak solution weak solution, blending with the output of thermosyphon 16.

Absorption and diffusion of the refrigeration unit operates on the principle of communicating vessels. Strong water-ammonia solution from the receiver 5 through the tube 18 enters the hydraulic stopper 14, which is supported by the same level of solution, and what in the receiver 5. When in operation the heater 9 in the tube 10 weak solution boils emitting water-ammonia vapor in a steam chamber 11. At the same time humming a strong solution in the hydraulic shutter 14 with the release of water-ammonia vapor in a pressurized steam chamber 13 and with increasing pressure the top is Loy strong solution is extruded into the inlet 15 of thermosyphon 16 and together with a portion broken in him a pair of vapor-liquid mixture to rise thermosyphon 16 to its output under the action of the lifting force, arising due to the lower specific gravity of the mixture and push up steam bubbles in the liquid portions of the solution in the narrow channel of thermosyphon with an inner diameter of 3.6 mm When this happens regeneration pair of hydraulic bolt 14 as a result of its cooling a concentrated solution and thereby is achieved by increasing the concentration of steam without loss of heat (see the book Besbogin, Vasyotin. Household refrigerators and freezers, Handbook, Moscow, Kolos 1998, s). Since the electric heater 9 is directly connected in thermal relation with the tube 10, which boils weak solution, while the average boiling point of the solution, and the temperature of the steam in the steam tank 11 above the temperature of the weak solution flowing through the capillary-porous insert 17. Given that the surface of the capillary-porous insert 17 is highly developed, it is, accordingly, provides a large surface interaction pair with a weak solution. When the weak solution flows on the developed surface of the capillary-porous insert 17, then rises to meet him in more hot water-ammonia vapor, resulting in between them there is an intensive heat exchange and exchange of ammonia vapor and condensed water, namely, passing the vapor through the capillary-porous box 17 comes with rolepalying concentration, and the weak solution flowing through the capillary-porous insert 17 is depleted by exposure to steam at a higher temperature. Resulting in increased efficiency of operation of the unit, as in the evaporator 1 is more purified water from the liquefied ammonia in the absorber is more weak ammonia solution with an improved property of absorption (absorption) of ammonia from steam-ammonia-hydrogen mixture.

From the output of thermosyphon 16 and the surface of the capillary-porous insert 17 vapor rises through the reflux condenser 3 to the condenser 2 where it liquefies and then flows to the evaporator 1. Additional cooling steam ambient air in the reflux condenser 3, the formation and separation from him phlegmy provides increased ammonia concentrations in the pair coming into the condenser 2. Formed phlegm flows in capillary-porous insert 17 which is depleted interacting with it over the hot steam coming out of the tube a weak solution of 10, after which it merges into the tube 10 weak solution.

Describes the physical processes taking place due to the fact that water vapor has a higher condensation temperature than ammonia, so in case of contact with water-ammonia pair in conditions of low temperature or cooling effect in the first place con who insatia water vapor and drain it to the bottom.

Weak solution from the tube 10 through the pipe 19 liquid heat exchanger 6 flows into the upper part of the absorber 4. Thus a weak solution in the liquid heat exchanger 6 and the receiver 5 transmits its heat to the solid solution and then enters the upper part of the absorber 4.

The weak solution flowing downward in the absorber 4, absorb (absorbs) the ammonia from the rich ammonia-hydrogen mixture, rising up to meet him from the receiver 5, turns into a rich ammonia solution in the lower part of the absorber 4, and then flows into the receiver 5. Depleted gas-vapor mixture (almost pure hydrogen) of the absorber 4 is supplied to the air cooler 20 and passing through the gas exchanger 7 is cooled and then enters the evaporator.

1. Gas mixture are driven by the difference in their density.

In the evaporator 1 of the ammonia vapor diffuses into the hydrogen, forming a rich ammonia-hydrogen mixture with the absorption of heat by the evaporator 1 from the surrounding air and heat-conducting elements associated with the evaporator 1 in the heat. Rich ammonia-hydrogen mixture, moving from the evaporator 1, the cooling under hydrogen in the gas exchanger 7, and comes into the receiver 5 and then again in the lower part of the absorber 4 flowing moves towards a weak solution. To prevent hydrogen from the evaporator 1 in which kondensator 2, arranged the trap 21 hydrogen discharge its excess in the receiver 5.

The reduction of the internal diameter of the lower end 15 of thermosyphon 16 improved initial captures portions of liquid pouring into thermosyphon steam bubbles, reduce the discharge of liquid solution in the course of his ascent on thermosyphon and thereby to maintain during operation of the refrigeration unit concentration of strong solution in the hydraulic shutter 14 is practically that which is provided in the receiver 5 (with a mass fraction of ammonia 34-36%). This in turn helped to reduce the operating temperature of the boiling solution in the hydraulic shutter 14 and thereby reduce the power consumption of the refrigeration unit (to increase efficiency).

Physically, this is explained as follows. The smaller the diameter of thermosyphon, especially in its lower end, the harder it is to escape steam bubble from under the portion of liquid, which he raises to the output of thermosyphon. For example, if the inner diameter of thermosyphon be increased to a size close to the size of the depth of its flooding, the sizes of the bubbles of steam will be less than the flow area of thermosyphon and they will go to the output of thermosyphon, not pushing a portion of the liquid solution (as in the pan when boiling water, steam comes out of it, and the water remains in the pan). Soon this leads to is paribanou ammonia from the solution in hydraulic gate 14 with increasing energy costs to ensure boil weak solution. Moreover, without lifting a weak solution to the output of thermosyphon operation becomes impossible.

The choice of capillary-porous insert 17 in the form of a flat stacked one on another ring grids 22 of the steel wire or steel space formed wire is determined by the specifics of the technology manufacturer of refrigeration units.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is that it increases the concentration of steam coming out of the tube 10 weak solution before entering it into the dephlegmator 2 on the developed surface of the capillary-porous insert 17 with a weak solution, merging it and thus reduce the amount of ammonia in a weak solution flowing in the pipe 10 weak solution, and thereby improve the efficiency of operation of the refrigeration unit. In addition, reduce energy costs for the evaporation of strong solution in the hydraulic shutter 14 by reducing reducing the concentration of ammonia by improving the operation of thermosyphon (lifting a weak solution to the output of thermosyphon). This is achieved due to the fact that the bottom is immersed in the solution part of thermosyphon is made with a diameter less than the diameter of the remaining part. Tested the current sample of this refrigeration unit showed that the ratios are the HT efficiency it increased from (20-25)% to 30%.

Among the known information materials for refrigeration issues, as well as among the known absorption-diffusion refrigeration units, the authors did not detect any signs prejudicial to the novelty of the proposed solution.

Currently, the proposed refrigeration unit is developmental laboratory tests to prepare it for implementation in production.

1. Absorption-diffusion refrigerating unit, containing an evaporator, a condenser, a reflux condenser, an absorber, a receiver, a liquid heat exchanger, a gas heat exchanger, generator with electric heater on the tube a weak solution with its steam cavity, which is connected via a reflux condenser with a condenser, and in which the tube strong solution with its pressurized steam cavity with hydraulic gate in its lower part, in which is immersed the lower end of thermosyphon, the middle part of which is held in the tube of strong solution, and its upper end extends from it in a steam chamber tube weak solution, characterized in that the middle part of the steam cavity of the tube a weak solution around the pipe section is made of a capillary-porous insert.

2. Absorption and diffusion cooling unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the capillary-porous insert in the form of flat stacked one on another to licevyh mesh from steel wire.

3. Absorption and diffusion cooling unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the capillary-porous insert is made of steel space formed wire.

4. Absorption and diffusion cooling unit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the bottom immersed in the solution part of thermosyphon is made with a diameter less than the diameter of its other part.



 

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FIELD: refrigerating and cryogenic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorption-diffusion household and industrial refrigerators. Proposed refrigerator contains evaporator, condenser, fractional column, absorber, receiver, liquid heat exchanger, gas heat exchanger, generator with electric heater on weak solution tube with its vapor space connected through fractional column with condenser. Strong solution tube is installed in vapor space with its own sealed vapor space and with hydraulic back-pressure valve in lower part into which lower end of thermal siphon is dipped. Middle part of thermal siphon passes in strong solution tube, and its upper end gets from said tube into vapor space of weak solution tube. Capillary porous insert is made in middle part of weak solution tube vapor space over its passage section.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of refrigerator.

4 cl 2 dwg

Refrigeration unit // 2262048

FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly one of absorption-diffusion type used in industrial and domestic refrigerators.

SUBSTANCE: refrigeration unit is filled with inert gas and ammonia-water solution to which corrosion inhibitor is added. Refrigeration unit comprises low-temperature members, namely evaporator, condenser, refluxer, absorber, solution accumulator and high-temperature members, namely generator and liquid heat-exchanger. Generator outlet is connected to refluxer. Heat-exchanger has rich solution pipe with inlet connected to solution accumulator and lean solution pipe with outlet connected to absorber. Welded connections between generator outlet and refluxer and between rich solution pipe inlet and solution accumulator, as well as between lean solution pipe outlet and absorber include bimetallic bushes made of aluminum and steel. Bushes have aluminum ends facing low-temperature members and steel ends facing high-temperature members. Low-temperature members are formed of aluminum, high-temperature ones are made of steel.

EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold involves the following stages. A cooling agent is evaporated from a strong solution. A heated vapour flow is expanded with the performance of work and formation of spent vapour. Vapour is condensed. A liquid cooling agent is expanded and evaporated so that the cooling effect is formed. The cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature is absorbed. Pressure of the solution is increased and the solution is heated before evaporation. The heated cooling agent vapour is separated into two flows after evaporation, one of which expands with the performance of work, and the other one is condensed and used for generation of cold and/or heat energy. The cooling agent vapour flow, after its expansion with the performance of work, and the flow of the cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature and reduced pressure, which is obtained at evaporation of the cooling agent with the formation of the cooling effect, are absorbed using a common weak solution and with the formation of a strong solution including the cooling agent of both flows that are specified above. A device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold is described.

EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of efficient generation of mechanical energy, heat and cold.

13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

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