Device for balancing boom machine implement gravity (variants)

FIELD: handling machinery, particularly soil-shifting, mining, agricultural and loading cyclic machines.

SUBSTANCE: device includes implement, main hydraulic cylinders and balancing hydraulic cylinder, at least one gas cylinder and hydropneumatic accumulator, main and additional hydrodistributors, as well as safety valve. Gas cylinder communicates with gas chamber of hydropneumatic accumulator. Device made in the first embodiment has the second additional hydrodistributor connecting working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with pump. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder communicates with rod ends of the main ones. In the second embodiment additional hydraulic cylinder is arranged in main hydrodistributor case and connected to hydrolines of the main hydraulic cylinders through hydrolines. Additional hydrodistributor is installed so that additional hydrodistributor may connect working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with the pump when additional hydrodistributor is installed in the first position. Additional hydrodistributor being installed in the second position may connect working chambers of main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with drain. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with rod ends of main hydraulic cylinders.

EFFECT: increased machine productivity due to increased implement hoisting speed.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

Group of inventions relates to loaded earthmoving, mining, agricultural, forklifts and other lifting-transport machines circular action.

A device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machines (see, e.g., A.S. No. 543715, CL E 02 F 9/22, publ. 1977),converts the potential energy of the forces of gravity working equipment in potential energy of the compressed gas in the hydropneumatic accumulator when lowering the boom and use this energy when lifting boom, containing the main balancing hydraulic cylinders, hydropneumatic accumulator, primary and secondary valves.

The known device has the disadvantage inherent in the hydropneumatic accumulator, which consists in changing the gas pressure in the gas cavity at the time of charging and discharging in the process. This deficiency leads to the necessity of increasing the volume of the hydropneumatic accumulator and reduces the efficiency of the counterbalance system of the operating equipment.

Known technical solutions closest to the technical nature of the claimed group of inventions is a device for counter-balancing force of gravity working equipment : machine containing operating equipment, basic and one of the balancing hydraulic cylinders and graynamore, one gas cylinder and a hydropneumatic accumulator, main and one additional valves, safety valve, and the gas cylinder is connected with a gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator (see, e.g., RF patent № 2190062, CL. E 02 F 9/22, publ. 27.09.2002).

A disadvantage of this device is that, despite balancing the forces of gravity working equipment and reducing the load on the engine with all the ensuing advantages of fuel economy and increase system reliability, the lifting speed of the working equipment remains almost the same as in the case of unbalanced working equipment. That is, the productivity of the machine with a balanced work equipment under this technical solution is limited to the nominal speed of the motor shaft.

The aim of the present group of inventions is to increase productivity by increasing the speed of rise of the operating equipment.

The task in the first embodiment perform solved due to the fact that the device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine containing operating equipment, basic and one of the balancing hydraulic cylinders and at least one gas cylinder and a hydropneumatic accumulator, main and one additional guide is raspredeliteli, relief valve, and the gas cylinder is connected with a gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator according to the invention provided with a second additional valve that is installed with the possibility of connection of the working cavities of the main cylinders with each other and with the pump rod and the cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the rod cavities of the main cylinders.

In this case, at least one gas cylinder can be made in one body with a hydropneumatic accumulator.

The task for the second variant execution is solved due to the fact that the device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine containing operating equipment, basic and one of the balancing hydraulic cylinders and at least one gas cylinder and a hydropneumatic accumulator, main and one additional valves, safety valve, and the gas cylinder is connected with a gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator according to the invention, the auxiliary valve is made in one body with the main valve and is connected by a hose with hose main cylinder, and the auxiliary valve is installed with the possibility of connection in one position of the working cavities major hydrocil ndrew between themselves and with the pump, and in the second position with possibility of connection of the working cavities of the main hydraulic cylinders between themselves and with the sink, and the rod cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the rod cavities of the main cylinders.

The group of inventions is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the working equipment front loader withthe main and balancing cylinders; figure 2 - working equipment excavator with the main and balancing cylinders; figure 3 is a hydraulic diagram of the device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine according to the first embodiment; Fig. 4 is a hydraulic diagram of the device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine according to the second embodiment of the invention.

According to the first embodiment (Fig 3) the structure of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine contains the working equipment 1, the main cylinder 2, a balancing cylinder 3, the main control valve 4 of the working fluid, the hydropneumatic accumulator 5, the hydraulic cavity which is connected by hydroline 6 with the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3, the gas cylinder 7 connected to the gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 5, hydroline 8 connecting rod is alost balancing cylinder 3 with rod cavities of the main cylinder 2, the pump 9 connected to the internal combustion engine (figure 3 not shown), the tank 10, the auxiliary valve 11 connected to the hydroline 12 of the main cylinder 2 and connecting in the enabled position working cavity of the main cylinder 2 between themselves and with the pump 9, the auxiliary valve 13, connecting in one position of the hydraulic cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 5 hydroline 6 with the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3, and in another position connecting the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3 with discharge to the tank 10 through hydroline 14, the feeding device containing check valve 15, valve 16, the valve 17.

In this embodiment, the auxiliary valve is a valve accelerated the rise of a working equipment.

According to the second embodiment (figure 4) the structure of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine contains the working equipment 1, the main cylinder 2, a balancing cylinder 3, the main control valve 4 of the working fluid, the hydropneumatic accumulator 5, the hydraulic cavity which is connected by hydroline 6 with the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3, the gas cylinder 7 connected to the gas cavity, pneumovirus is cumulator 5, hydroline 8 connecting rod cavity of the balancing cylinder 3 with rod cavities of the main cylinder 2, the pump 9 connected to the internal combustion engine (not shown in figure 4), the tank 10, the auxiliary valve 18, is made in one body with the main valve 4 and connected by a hose 12 to the main cylinders.

In this embodiment, the auxiliary valve rapid rise connected with additional valve rapid lowering of the operating equipment. In this case, the auxiliary valve rapid lowering connects the cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders between themselves and with the sink and made in one body with the main valve.

The nature of the work of balancing both versions of the performance of the device is as follows. For working equipment with an empty bucket of gravity is balanced by the force ofT1on the shaft of the balancing hydraulic cylinders

T1= And1p1,

whereAnd1- the area of the balancing piston cylinder;p1-- the pressure in the hydropneumatic accumulator.

Therefore, when the rise of the working equipment with an empty bucket force in the rod of the main cylinder is almost equal to zeroT = 0 and the engine is running at idle. When lifting working equipment with loaded bucket engine performs useful work lifting, without wasting energy on the rise of the working equipment.

When lifting working equipment with loaded bucket in sequential mode, connection rod and piston cavities of the main cylinder force in the rods of the main cylinders is equal to

T = Ar

whereAndsquare cross-section rod of the main cylinder; R -working pressure in the hydraulic system.

Serial connection rod and piston cavities of the main hydraulic cylinders for lifting the boom leads to reduce the active area of the main cylinder to a value ofAndthe sectional area of the rod of the main cylinder, however, thanks to the balancing forces of gravity working equipment pressure, pin the hydraulic system is within the valid values for hydraulic p≤[R].

The device according to the first embodiment (Fig 3) works as follows. For lifting working equipment 1 spool of the main valve 4 of the working fluid include down, while the auxiliary valve 11 is in the neutral position, the working fluid pump 9 delivers the piston in the cavity of the main cylinder 2, through the rise of the arrows. About is also in the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3 operates in a constant pressure hydropneumatic accumulator 5, which creates a lifting forceT1.Thus balancing the forces of gravity working equipment 1 when lifting.

When lowering work equipment 1 spool of the main valve 4 of the working fluid is moved upward, the valve of the additional valve 11 is in the neutral position, the working fluid pump 9 delivers in the rod end of the main cylinder 2 and cylinder 3 through hydroline 8. Of the piston cavities of the main cylinder 2, the working fluid is discharged into the tank 10, and a piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3 is displaced in the hydropneumatic accumulator 5, charging him with the working fluid.

Two modes are considered characterize the operation of the counterbalance system to normal operating speed of the working equipment, and in the scheme of connection speed lifting and lowering will be about the same as when lowering work equipment the working fluid is supplied to the rod end of the main and balancing hydraulic cylinders, and when the rise is only in the piston cavity of the main cylinders.

For fast lifting of work equipment 1 includes a valve main valve 4 down and at the same time turn the spool additional hydrolaser the divider 11 to the left. In this case, the working fluid pump 9 feeds simultaneously in the piston and the rod end of the main cylinder 2. Due to the serial connection working cavities of active cylinders is the cross-sectional area of the rod of the main cylinder 2, so the working fluid from the pump 9 is used only to fill the same volume as the piston rod of the main cylinder. Due to the fact that with the rise of work equipment 1 the working fluid from the rod ends of the main cylinder 2 is not discharged into the tank 10, and is served in the piston cavity of these cylinders is provided by the increasing speed of the piston of the main cylinder 2 and the fast rise of the working equipment 1. So is the accelerated advance of the operating equipment.

Device trim allows you to perform additional functions. The auxiliary valve 13 is installed with the possibility of operating modes system trim on and system balancing is disabled". In the position of the additional control valve device 13 trim is enabled in operation, as the hydraulic cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 5 hydroline 6 is connected with the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3.

When turning left additional hydrographical the indicator device 13 trim disabled, the auxiliary valve 13 connects the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder 3 with discharge to the tank 10 through hydroline 14.

When the system starts up after its manufacture required charging of the hydropneumatic accumulator working liquid. For this there is a system of feeding (figure 3). When the pressure of the working fluid in the hydropneumatic accumulator 5 pressure valve 16 connects the pump 9 through the control valve 4 and the pressure hydroline 12 of the main cylinder 2 with a hydraulic cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator 5, charging him with the working fluid.

After charging the hydropneumatic accumulator 5 working fluid pressure valve 16 is set in the locked position, the device is ready for continuous operation.

The device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipmentaccording to the second embodiment, the hydraulic scheme is presented in figure 4, allows you to perform rapid rise arrows by including a valve of only one additional valve 18. So when you enable an additional spool valve 18 downward to be connected to the piston and the rod end of the main cylinder 2 between themselves and with the pump 9, resulting in the accelerated advance of work equipment 1. When enabled, the spool will complement the high point up 18 are connected to the piston and the rod end of the main cylinder between themselves and with the sink in the tank 10. This ensures biznesowy mode, because the pump 9 when this position is not enabled and continues to operate in the idle mode. Thus beznadejnoe rapid lowering of equipment.

The proposed device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment made by any of the two proposed options, saves fuel consumed by the engine, in addition, the increasing speed of lifting and lowering the boom with the help of the device balancing improves the performance of the machine.

1. The device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine containing operating equipment, basic and one of the balancing hydraulic cylinders and at least one gas cylinder and a hydropneumatic accumulator, main and one additional valves, safety valve, and the gas cylinder is connected with a gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator, characterized in that the device has a second additional valve that is installed with the possibility of connection of the working cavities of the main cylinders with each other and with the pump rod and the cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the rod cavities of the main cylinders.

2. The device according to P1, characterized in that at least one gas cylinder is made in one body with a hydropneumatic accumulator.

3. The device of the balancing forces of gravity working equipment : machine containing operating equipment, basic and one of the balancing hydraulic cylinders and at least one gas cylinder and a hydropneumatic accumulator, main and one additional valves, safety valve, and the gas cylinder is connected with a gas cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator, characterized in that the auxiliary valve is made in one body with the main valve and is connected by a hose with hose main cylinder, and the auxiliary valve is installed with the possibility of connection in one position of the working cavities of the main cylinders with each other and with the pump and a second position with the possibility of connection of the working cavities of the main hydraulic cylinders between themselves and with the sink, and the rod cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the rod cavities of the main cylinders.



 

Same patents:

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