Electrolyte for lead-acid storage batteries and its additive

FIELD: chemical current supplies; electrolytes used for lead-acid batteries.

SUBSTANCE: electrolyte is doped with polyacrylamide in the amount of 0.001 to 6.0 mass percent per amount of electrolyte. Polyacrylamide added to electrolyte depends for its action on its coagulating properties and on increase of electrolyte viscosity which holds powdered active masses and products of reaction on electrolyte surface thereby preventing their fall-down, creeping, and wash-out. Polyacrylamide is introduced in the form of its aqueous solution before or after battery is filled with electrolyte to function as its additive.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics and enhanced service life of batteries.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to chemical current sources, in particular to the composition of the electrolyte used in lead acid batteries.

Known electrolyte for lead acid batteries containing distilled water and sulfuric acid with a concentration within 32-41 wt.% (Nepadoties, Appalaches and other Applied electrochemistry - L., GNTI chemical literature, 1962. S).

Also known compositions of electrolyte for lead acid batteries, consisting of an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and various additives, for example:

the electrolyte additionally contains 5-7 wt.% phosphoric acid (Vsemoguschii, Amisconde. Chemical sources of current - Meters, Energoizdat, 1981. S);

- electrolyte optionally containing cadmium sulfate, nitrilotriacetates and 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid (U.S. Pat. RF 2115198 / Suehirocho, Yemtsov. The electrolyte for lead acid batteries and additive in the electrolyte).

A disadvantage of the known compositions of the electrolytes is that they slightly increase the resource and service life of the batteries, and do not prevent such harmful processes such as sulfation and passivation of the electrodes.

The purpose of the invention is the improvement of operational properties of lead batteries, resources and life.

This is achieved by the fact that electro is it containing of 0.1 to 50.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and distilled water as an additive is injected polyacrylamide in an amount of 0.001 to 6.0 wt.%, in terms of the basic substance. Polyacrylamide in aqueous solution with the concentration of the basic substance is 0.01-99.99 wt.% is introduced into the electrolyte before or after it fills in the battery.

Polyacrylamide - high-molecular substance belonging to the class of polyelectrolytes, contains ionogenic group, which, together with ions of sulfuric acid are carriers of current, i.e. it does not increase the internal resistance of the battery.

The effect of the polyacrylamide in the electrolyte based on its coagulating properties and increased viscosity of the electrolyte, which holds the powdered active material and the reaction products on the electrode surface, preventing them from sliding, falling and washout.

Giving polyelectrolyte layers of electrolyte structural-mechanical properties, polyacrylamide, when the battery contributes to the formation of lead sulfate with a loose structure that prevents sulfation and passivation of the electrodes.

The results of the tests showed that the introduction of acid in the electrolyte polyacrylamide improves the performance properties of lead batteries, especially in winter, and increases the lifetime of the battery 2 times in is compared to batteries, working in the electrolyte of known composition.

1. The electrolyte for lead acid batteries, containing distilled water, sulfuric acid and an additive, wherein the additive is applied polyacrylamide in the following ratios, wt.%:

H2SO40,10-50,0

Polyacrylamide 0,001-6,0

Distilled water the Rest

2. Additive in the electrolyte of lead-acid batteries, characterized in that the additive is an aqueous solution of polyacrylamide in the following ratios, wt.%:

Polyacrylamide 0,01-99,99

Distilled water the Rest



 

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FIELD: chemical current supplies; electrolytes used for lead-acid batteries.

SUBSTANCE: electrolyte is doped with polyacrylamide in the amount of 0.001 to 6.0 mass percent per amount of electrolyte. Polyacrylamide added to electrolyte depends for its action on its coagulating properties and on increase of electrolyte viscosity which holds powdered active masses and products of reaction on electrolyte surface thereby preventing their fall-down, creeping, and wash-out. Polyacrylamide is introduced in the form of its aqueous solution before or after battery is filled with electrolyte to function as its additive.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics and enhanced service life of batteries.

2 cl

FIELD: electrical engineering; chemical current sources; production of lead-acid cells, additives for sulfuric-acid electrolytes in particular.

SUBSTANCE: proposed additive is made from mixture of sulfate of metal with phosphonocarboxylic acids and aminoalkylphosphonic or hydroxyalkylene diphosphonous acids in diluted sulfuric-acid medium at pH no more than 0.8 and total content of phosphonous acids equal to 0.001-0.015 mass-% and metal sulfate of 10-18 mass-%. Additive may additionally include fluorine-containing surfactants in the amount of 0.01-0.1 mass-%. Proposed additive is used for excluding sulfitation of plates of lead-acid cells and restoration of sulfated storage batteries.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: electrical engineering; lead battery manufacture.

SUBSTANCE: proposed lead battery has strengthened active material on its positive plate thereby enhancing its utilization efficiency at low internal resistance of battery. Novelty is that only positive plates hold in their voids gel-like sulfuric-acid electrolyte and remaining space of battery is filled with liquid sulfuric acid electrolyte.

EFFECT: enlarged service life of battery.

1 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for preparing electrolyte aqueous component for chemical current supply includes magnetization of distilled water for which purpose permanent magnet is immersed in the latter, then water is heated to boiling temperature, and boiling water is doped with animal-origin substrate in the amount of 5 to 8 g per 1 liter of water and boiled for 20 - 30 minutes, whereupon vegetable-origin oil in the amount of 15 - 20 ml per 1 liter of water and vegetable-origin resin in the amount of 20 - 25 ml per 1 liter of water are added thereto, and boiling is continued for 5 - 10 minutes; then solution obtained is cooled down and filtered off.

EFFECT: enhanced power characteristics of battery.

4 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for reconditioning lead battery cells filled with sulfuric acid based electrolyte using additive based on aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, saccharides, and/or aldehydes, or their derivatives. Novelty is that lead battery is alternately or periodically charged and discharged in the course of electrochemical reconditioning of cells upon its treatment with some reconditioning additives based on aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and after main charge. Battery is charged to full possible level by current amounting to 1.1-4% of rated value and its discharge is conducted with current of 0.01-5% of rated capacity of cell or battery; as an alternative, battery is charged in two phases by current of constant magnitude. Discharge below admissible value is conducted by current amounting to 1 to 4% of rated capacity followed by charging with current amounting to 3-10% of battery capacity until voltage per cell or per any cell of battery is reduced to 1.6 V. In the process battery acquires 10-15% of its rated capacity; entire procedure is repeated two to five times. Reconditioning additive has 1 to 70 ml of sulfuric acid at density of 1 to 1.32 g·cm-3, 0.1 to 10 g of saccharides in the form of solid material and/or aldehydes, or their derivatives, 0.1 to 10 g of sodium and/or potassium bicarbonate, and/or at least one hydroxide out of group of alkali metals in the form of solid material, and 0.1 to 20 g (better 0.5 to 2 g) of disulfonic acid dinaphthyl methane disodium salt per every liter of hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. Reconditioning additive can also incorporate 0.1 to 10 g of sodium perborate and/or tetraborate, and/or pyrophosphate in the form of solid material.

EFFECT: enhanced battery capacity exceeding primary rated value.

11 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to lead batteries (AB). In this invention lead AB contains group of plates fitted into accumulator jar and ionogen introduced in it for plate group saturating with ionogen with simultaneous forming processing. Here lead AB is adapted to be used partly charged when charge condition is limited within interval from exceeding 70% to less than 100%. Plate group is formed by package consisting of large number of negative electrode bases including grid bases filled with active material of negative electrodes, of large number of positive electrode bases including grid bases filled with active material of positive electrodes and porous separator located between negative electrode bases and positive electrode bases. Ionogen contains at least one kind of ions selected from group consisting of aluminium ions, selenium ions and titanium ions.

EFFECT: creation of lead battery suitable to be used in partly charged condition.

23 cl, 9 tbl, 71 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compounds of formula I, production and use thereof to obtain corresponding organophosphinates [Kt]z+ z[(CnHmF2n+1-m)xPCIyF6.x.y]- (I) where [Kt]z+ is an organic cation of formula (1) [NR4]' (1) where R is an optionally phenyl-substituted linear C1-4-alkyl; formula (2) [PR24]+ (2) where R2 is independently C6-14-alkyl; or formula (6) [HetN]z+ (6), where HetNz+ is a heterocyclic cation selected from a group comprising imidazolium, pyrazolium, dihydroimidazolium, pyrrolidinium, triazolium, pyridinium, pyridazinium, pyrimidinium, piperidinium, piperazinium, pyrazinium, R1,-R4, denote H or C1-10-alkyl; n=1-4, m=0 to 2n+1, x=1-4, y=1, z=1-2, under the condition that x+y<5.

EFFECT: novel compounds, a method of producing said compounds and use of said compounds to obtain valuable compounds are disclosed.

12 cl, 10 ex

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: as halogenide of another element, potassium bromide is taken at the following ratio of components (wt %): lithium nitrate 76.5…73.5; potassium bromide 23.5…26.5.

EFFECT: reduced temperature of melting and specific enthalpy of melting, which reduces power inputs for putting electrolyte into working condition and expands temperature range of electrolyte usage.

5 ex

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical current sources, particularly to compositions of electrolytes, used in lead-acid accumulators, and can be used for production of accumulator batteries for electric vehicles, automobiles with combined power plant, as well as for vehicles with traditional petrol engine. Electrolyte contains, wt %: borate methylphosphite 0.6-0.8, perfluoropolyether acids flouranhydrides with molecular weight of 800-1,000 0.1-0.3, Chitosan 0.1-0.3, sulphuric acid 20.0-30.0, and distilled water up to 100.

EFFECT: technical result is improved electrical and operating characteristics of lead accumulator, as well as increasing its service life.

1 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical current supplies; electrolytes used for lead-acid batteries.

SUBSTANCE: electrolyte is doped with polyacrylamide in the amount of 0.001 to 6.0 mass percent per amount of electrolyte. Polyacrylamide added to electrolyte depends for its action on its coagulating properties and on increase of electrolyte viscosity which holds powdered active masses and products of reaction on electrolyte surface thereby preventing their fall-down, creeping, and wash-out. Polyacrylamide is introduced in the form of its aqueous solution before or after battery is filled with electrolyte to function as its additive.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics and enhanced service life of batteries.

2 cl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for cycling lead-acid batteries includes following steps: withdrawal of first electrolyte of desired concentration and temperature from first tank; distribution of mentioned first electrolyte within battery; continuous circulation of mentioned first electrolyte at predetermined and actually constant concentration and temperature for predetermined primary charge time; DC current supply to mentioned batteries in the course of circulation of mentioned first electrolyte within preset primary charge time; stopping of mentioned first electrolyte circulation followed by circulation of second electrolyte in mentioned batteries, mentioned second electrolyte of higher concentration compared with that of primary electrolyte being taken from second tank at actually constant temperature during additional preset time; DC current supply to mentioned batteries in the course of mentioned second electrolyte circulation within preset secondary charge time.

EFFECT: enhanced cycling speed and safety of process.

19 cl, 3 dwg 1 tbl

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