Automatic counter of stated interval of length with the aid of nonius

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique particularly to devices for linear measurements and may be used in machine-tool construction.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a bed, a movable mechanism of a mobile carriage, a main and a nonius scale of a measuring ruler, optical units of a main and a nonius scale of a measuring ruler, a unit of photo , elements, units of coincidence of the stated number of the mark of the main and the nonius scale and exact linear meaning of the stated number of the mark of the main and the nonius scale, a stop unit of the mobile carriage, a unit of algebraical summation, a correction memory unit. At that the main and the nonius scales of the measuring ruler are reduced relatively to the minimum interval of length of 0,5 mm with the aid of photographing in 10 and 40 times.

EFFECT: the invention provides increased accuracy at measuring linear distance.

11 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of medical technology /microsurgery/, machine tools, engineering /electro-mechanical robots and so on/.

The level of technology.

Analogs of the invention:

1 - "Control line type KL"

Published: Ruler measuring metal. Calibration method MI 2024-89. The USSR state Committee on the management of quality and standards. - Page 5, Moscow, 1990

2 - OPTIMER OVO-1

Published: Kardashevskiy CENTURIES

"Modern wideband digital devices for linear measurements. - Page 14, Novosibirsk, 1978

3 - Donomar WPI-2

Published: Kardashevskiy CENTURIES

"Modern shirokodiapazonnyj digital devices for linear measurements. - Page 14, Novosibirsk, 1978

4 - Opto-mechanical machine for length measurement: MEAS-11

Published: Vasiliev I.I.

"Mechanical and opto-mechanical instruments for linear measurement. - P.43, Leningrad, SSPI, 1978

5 - OPTIMER ICV-3

Published: Vasiliev I.I.

"Mechanical and opto-mechanical instruments for linear measurement. - P.27.

The Leningrad SSPI, 1978

Closest to the present invention are similar under: No. 1.

The set of features /analog No. 1/, similar to the set of essential features of the invention:

1 - the length scale

2 - intercept

3 - the limit of allowable error.

The set of features /analogues No. 2, 3, 4, 5/, similar to the collection of characteristics significant for the invention:

1 - the lowest price division

2 - measuring range /measuring range external dimensions/

3 - the main limit of permissible error of measurement

4 - the limit of the relative error.

Barriers to obtaining the required technical result in counterparts, relative to the present invention:

1 - the length scale.

The length measurement of the studied objects analogues is limited by the length scale of the control line type TC /analog No. 1/, is equal to: 1020 mm, measuring range optimera OVO-1 /similar No. 2/, is equal to: 0.2 mm, measuring range donomar WPI-2 /similar No. 3/, is equal to: 100 mm, measuring range of the outer lengths of the optical-mechanical machines for measuring lengths ISM-11 /similar №4/, 0÷ 2000 mm, measuring range external dimensions of ICV-3 /similar No. 5/equal to: 0÷ 200 mm

Reasons that prevent obtaining a technical result in analogues: the dimension of the studied objects of unlimited length /20 m and more/are irrational design of measurement devices, leading to a large main limit of permissible error, and their significant cost.

The main limit of permissible error measure is in analog, No. 4 /optical-mechanical machine for measuring the length of the ISM-11/ equal: ± /0,4+4· 10-3L mm/μm, where L is the measured length in mm Thus, the main limit of permissible error of length measurement, the above mentioned analogue depends on the length dimension L.

In the present invention, the main limit of permissible error of length measurement is determined by the dispersion formula, published in the book: Bavguchenko "Course in probability theory", Moscow, 1961:

where:- the number of trials

/Mm L=n· Δ min. int. [mm]/

δ =α -β

P=I-q - limit the probability of occurrence of event E, the corresponding exact stroke, the minimum interval length of the line.

q - limit the likelihood of eventscorresponding to inaccurate stroke, the minimum interval length of the line.

β =I-α - the probability of occurrence frequency of the event E is associated to a homogeneous Markov chain /corresponding exact stroke, the minimum interval length line/.

α - the probability of deviations from a given probability of occurrence frequency of eventsassociated to a homogeneous Markov chain /relevant inaccurate stroke, the minimum interval length line/.

We will adopt the values of the marginal probabilities: P=q=0.5.

Find out what α from equation arising from the integral theorems of Laplace when the corresponding distribution function:

Based on the Chebyshev inequality for large numbers, find the probability of deviations of the measured value, which is more than the specified number α z to unit length:

Then get the main limit of permissible error of measurement of length L mm:

where α n is a function of the minimum measured interval length of the present invention, the probability of accuracy of drawing a single stroke of the minimum interval, the probability of the accuracy of the reference stroke. With a sufficient degree of accuracy α n can be considered equal:

where Δ MININT. - minimum interval length measuring device.

For the present invention:

1 -=5· 10-2mm

- Δ MININT.=10-3mm /Vernier/

L=1000 mm

-

Δ =± /1,4· 10-3L mm+0,5 mm./

2 -=1,25· 10-2mm

- Δ min. int.=0.25 μm. /Vernier/

L=1000 mm

-

The value of the maximum deviations of the margin of error PR is the measuring length L mm is determined in the above calculations is given by the distribution function of the stroke of the measuring range.

The main limit of permissible error in the measurement length L mm can be calculated as follows:

We will measure the length L mm range, which according to GOST 427-56:

- minimum interval: 0,5 mm

- width strokes: 0,15± 0,05 mm

- deflection mm unit =0,05 mm

Then we perform the measurement with a ruler with a Vernier, for which the minimum measurement interval:

1 - ruler with reduced size 1/10:

-=5· 10-2mm

-=1 ám.

2 - line with the reduced size 1/40:

-=1,25· 10-2mm

-=0.25 μm.

It should be noted that when the tolerance strokes minimum interval range may exist three intervals:

1 - the width of the bar: 0.1 mm ± 0.05 mm

2 - stroke widths: 0.15 mm ± 0.05 mm

3 - the width of the bar: 0.2 mm ± 0,05 mm

where ± 0.05 mm - maximum deviation from the bar width:

0,1÷ 0.2 mm /statistical-data/.

Enter the value of the average deviation minimum interval from the exact mathematical value of the minimum interval of length

Thus, there are 3 /three/ group intervals with an average deviation of stroke

1 - Δ T- mathematical exact value of the minimum interval of the measuring range.

2 -- minimum interval length of the ruler is more accurate.

3 -- minimum interval length of the line is less accurate.

We define the length L mm as consisting of the sum of n1the exact values of the minimum interval measuring range:n2the minimum interval length of the ruler is more accurate:n3the minimum interval length of the line is less accurate:

Amount: n1+n2+n3=n is the total number of minimal intervals of the measuring range corresponding to the value of a given number of measuring length L mm

We define the average minimum interval measured length L:

In the case of the ideal measuring ruler /ruler only from the exact /Δt/ minimal intervals of length/ measured thus specified the exact length is equal to:

Thus:

We define the deviation of the measured length from the exact mathematical values of Lton a unit with the m interval length:

Let us denote:

is the probability of occurrence of the minimum intervals exact /ΔT/ at the measured length L.

is the probability of occurrence of the minimum intervals more accuratelyat the measured length L.

is the probability of occurrence of the minimum intervals less accurateat the measured length L.

Get:

Since n1+n2+n3=n, then: P1+P2+P2-1=0

Get:

where:

where: Px1- the probability of the joint event: the appearance of the exact interval /ΔT/, appearanceinterval, the appearanceinterval when measuring in the function of drawing the strokes of the minimum interval of the measuring range.

Px2- the probability of the joint event rate of occurrence per unit length of the three groups of intervals with an average deviation minimum interval measuring range from exact mathematical value of the minimum interval of the length.

Looking for a solution probabilities of evasion per unit length Rxas the product of two probabilitieseach of which is the product of the probabilities of the three groups of joint events for the three groups of strokes, which are summarized by the rule of addition of incompatible events.

With a uniform distribution of the frequency of repetition of the events:

Get:

We define the probability of occurrence of the exact minimum intervalas the ratio of:and- the likelihood of inaccurate stroke less accurate and more precise.

For the present invention:

Get:

1 -=1 ám.

Δ UKL.=±/12,8· 10-3L mm +0,5 mm./

2 -=0.25 μm.

Δ UKL.=±/2,8· 10-3L mm +0.1 mm./

It should be noted that given in the first proof of the limit values of the basic permissible error of length measurement are different for different minimum measurement intervals depending on the distribution function corresponding to the integral is taken in the same limits consider is Ino unit length.

In the second proof of the limit values of the basic permissible error of length measurement is the same for different minimum spacing dimensions /different only α n/ in accordance with uniform distribution function and probability laws.

Determine the accuracy of the measurement length L, with different ways of measurement:

1 - evasion when measuring with a ruler with a Vernier /1 -=1 µm./ for:

L=1000 mm: Δ UKL.=± 2,8 mm

- L=10 m: Δ UKL.=±28 mm

2 - we will measure the length L as:

L=n1m+n2DCM+n3cm +n4mm +n50.1 mm+n6·0.01 mm +n7·10-3mm +n810-4mm +n910-5mm

Moreover, the stroke of the measuring line plotted with the average quadratic deviation of the measurements is of the order of 1 μm decreasing with photographing a measuring range up to 40 times and the allowable error of a stroke on measuring the line:The accuracy of the stroke when the measurement interval length using Vernier after calibration reference instrument is not worse than: 10-7m ÷ 10-8m /television how accurate setting of stroke or differential method accurately set the bar/.

Get for L=10,55578913 m:

when Δ 1 bar =±0.1 ám. /Δ 1 bar accuracy of setting one touch/

evasion:

Δ L≤ /10+5+5+5+7+8+9+1+3/· ± 0.01 µm. ≤ ±of 0.53 μm.

When Δ 1 bar =± 0.1 ám.

Δ L≤ 53· ±0.1 ám. ≤ ± to 5.3 μm.

When Δ 1 bar =± 0,25· um.

Δ L≤ 53· ± 0.25 μm. ≤ ± 13,25 microns.

when Δ 1 bar =± 1 mm.

Δ L≤ 53· ± 1 μm. ≤ ± 53 μm.

When Δ 1 bar =± 1,25· 10-2mm

Δ L≤ 53· ±1,25· 10-2mm≤ 0,6625 mm

3 - we will measure the length L when accurately set the bar with the amendments concerning the standard for each stroke of the measuring range and for any combination of coincidences of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales included in the memory block of amendments electronic unit automatic meter.

Readings electronic scoreboard correspond to the exact amount of the minimum interval length in accordance with the calibration standard. Each interval from zero of the measuring range corresponds to a correction in the memory block with precision: ± 0.01 µm, independent of the accuracy of the component parts of the total interval within the above-specified precision.

For the implementation of the actual schema of the memory block amendments /cheapness, rational design, optimal power consumption/ available on the torus codes equal intervals measuring range: 1 mm, 1 cm, 1 DCM, 1 m, which leads to significantly lower the required amount of memory.

Thus, for L=10,55578913 m:

where i=3÷ -5

Amount:corresponds to the minimum number of intervals of the measuring line, which together withgives the measured value L:

L=L+L.

When Δ UKL.=± 0.01 µm each line L in accordance with the standard (i.e. the amendment of the memory block/:

Δ L≤ 53· ± 0.01 µm +Δ .L.+α n

It should be noted that L. cannot be larger in this example than 0,07÷ 0.1 mm, since the strokes with the amendments of the memory block amendments /each of the 53-x/ can be shifted a maximum of 1.25· 10-3mm with consideration of reducing bias bias /Δ see=0.05 mm/ stroke measuring range in 1/40 times:the total length of which determines the correction length L.: 53· 1,25· 10-3mm =0,07÷ 0,1 mm

Define:

Δ .L.=P× L.

When: Δ UKL. 1st bar =± 0.01 µm. the reduction of the width and shift stroke measurement range: 0.1 mm, 0.15 mm, 0.2 mm 40 times. Repetition codes defined intervals measuring ruler determines the accuracy of the strokes at the current offset: ± 0.01 µm.

Get:

Δ .L.=9,916· 10-7·0.1 mm=0,99· 10-4um.

Δ L=± /of 0.53 μm+0,99· 10-4μm+0.1 ám/=± 0,6301 microns.

Thus, evasion L. of the order of 1 mm gives a value an order of magnitude smaller than the deviation of the exact intervals, whereby there is no need to create a block of memory amendments values of all intervals. L measuring range /true for certain selected measurement accuracy/.

4 - we will measure L with accurate installation strokes with amendments concerning the standard for each stroke of the measuring range listed in the schema memory of the electronic measuring unit /reading electronic scoreboard meet the minimum intervals with amendments/. Will accept for each bar corresponding to the minimum interval of the measuring line,: Δ UKL.=± 0.01 µm.

For L=10,55578913 m:

Δ UKL.=±/PL+0.1 ám/where Px=9,916· 10-7

Δ .L=±/10,55578913 m· 9,916· 10-7+0.1 ám/=±0,0106 mm=± 10.6um

5 - we will measure L. at the exact setting of the stroke with the amendments concerning the standard /for example, Δ UKL.=± 0.01 µm/ for each stroke of the measuring range listed in the schema memory of the electronic measuring unit is.

For the present invention: Δ UKL.=± 0.01 µm for any Ln measuring range, i.e. for any Ln there are nx minimum intervals of the measuring line with evasion

Δ UKL.=± 1/2 Δ .MININT. /for example, Δ UKL.=± 0.1 ám/, which is summed with the value of evasion for any Ln.

The values of the electronic scoreboard match the exact value of the measured value L listed in the schema memory.

For L=10,55578913 m: Δ L=+/0.1 ám +0.01 µm/=± 0,11 mm.

It should be noted that this method of measurement requires a large amount of electronic memory.

Here are some data current standards of measurement:

1 - "New instruments for accurate linear measurements" TMI, Leningrad, 1962

the measurements with intercept: 0,1÷ 0.01 µm.

2 - "research and Development of measuring systems for accurate measurement coordinate points of the product". Pimpadelic, L., 1978

- copyright certificate №206123:

photomultiplier readout device error count-up ± 0.3 microns.

3 - "measuring linear dimensions and angles." Mieler NINTI Moscow, 1964, England: company “Ferranti”:

Method of control of movement using moire fringes generated diffraction gratings.

- Manufacture of parts with intercept: 0.1, and 0.01 microns.

Thus, pre the proposed invention allows to measure the linear dimensions of unlimited length with a significantly lower deviations from the exact values given interval of length relatively analogues, that leads to a transition in the quality with greater accuracy.

Practically the accuracy of the measurement depends only on the pattern.

In the present invention it is possible to measure the lengths of the studied objects: 20 m or more from the required accuracy: 0.005% of the length and fewer percent with a slight relative value measuring device and a small value of the energy consumed relatively analogues.

The processing of products with greater accuracy or transition into quality with greater accuracy /one or more/ most of the industry leads to a considerable saving of metal and reduce the cost of products /for example, tolerance: ± 0,1÷ ±0.01 µm corresponds 02÷ 03 : quality/.

2 - intercept

It is impossible to perform measurement with high accuracy at a great price division of the measuring device.

In the analogues intercept:

1 /similar №1/ - 0,2 and 1,0 mm

2 - 0,001 mm

3 - 0,001 mm

4 - 0.001 mm, 0.1 mm, 100 mm

5 - 0,001 mm

The minimum price tick marks in the present invention: 2 μm, 1 μm and 0.5 μm, 0.25 μm or less, providing a more accurate measurement than the counterparts. In addition, in the present invention can be price tick: 1 m, 1 DCM, 1 cm, 1 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm, 10-3mm /1 μm/. It should be noted that the above prices division: from 1 μm to 0.25 μm and less are osloveien division in the measurement interval length using Vernier.

3 - the limit of allowable error

It is impossible to ensure a high accuracy of measurement with a large limit of allowable error.

In the analogues of the limit of permissible error:

1 - ± 0.66 mm and ±0,08 mm

2 -

3 -

4 - ±/0.4 µm +4· 10-3·L mm/ám.

5 - ±0.3 microns.

The limit of allowable error in the present invention for different measurement methods:

1 - Probabilistic method of determining evasion

Δ UKL.=± /2,8· 10-3L mm +0.1 mm/

L=1000 mm: Δ UKL.=± 2,8 mm

L=10 m: Δ UKL.=4:28 mm

2 - Method of determining deviations in the variable value.

For L=10,55578913 m:

Δ L.≤ ±0,53 mm at=± 0.01 µm.

Δ L.≤ ±5,3 mm at=± 0.1 ám.

Δ L.≤ ±13,25 mm at=± 0.25 μm.

Δ L.≤ ±53 μm when=± 1 micron.

Δ L.≤ ±0,6625 mm at=±1,25· 10-2mm

3 - Method for determination of deviations from exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments to any serial numbers Ln intervals of the measurement range in the measurement interval length using Vernier.

For L=10,55578913 m:

Δ L.≤ ±0,6301 MK is at =±0.01 µm.

4 - the Method of determining deviations from exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments for each of the minimum interval of the measuring line with a Vernier.

For L=10,55578913 m:

Δ L.=± /9,916· 10-7L mm +0.1 mm/

Δ L.=± 10.6 µm.

5 - Method for determination of deviations from exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments for any interval of the measuring line with a Vernier in any combination.

ΔL.=±of 0.11 μm for any Ln /10÷ 20 m and more, limited by the accuracy of the model unit, the minimum interval length measuring range and accuracy of the stroke of the measuring range.

The allowable limit of error provide more accurate measurements than the counterparts.

4 - measuring Range /outside measurements of external dimensions/

Given the analogues characterized by small measuring ranges and small outside dimensions external dimensions.

In the analogues of the measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/:

1 -

2 - 0,2 mm

3 - 100 mm

4 - 0÷ 2000 mm

5 - 0÷ 200 mm

In the present invention, the measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/ may be in the range 0÷ /10÷ 20/ m or more with automatic switchover of the measurement range in the electronic unit, what is significant is but better than the counterparts.

5 - Limits of relative error. The limit of the relative error determines the accuracy of the measurement. In the analogues of the limits of relative error:

1 -

2 - 3· 10-3

3 is 1.5· 10-5

4 -

5 -

In the present invention, the limit of the relative error.:

that is much better than the counterparts.

The essence of the invention.

The essential features of the present invention to provide the corresponding technical result:

1 - the length scale

The length scale in the present invention is determined by the length scale of the measuring line, which can be within:

0÷ /10÷ 20/ m and more.

This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length 0÷ /10÷ 20/ m, with the required accuracy: Δ UKL.=± /0,11 mcm ÷ 53 μm and/ or less functions length measurement.

2 - intercept

The intercept in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.

The smaller the value, the higher the accuracy of the measurement: in the present invention Δ min. int.=0.25 μm, which determines the measurement accuracy: Δ UKL.=± of 0.11 μm at a certain /5/ way of measuring.

This option present invention provides the technical result is t; the dimension of a given length with the required accuracy: Δ UKL.=±of 0.11 μm. It should be noted that rates of fission of the present invention is from 1 μm to 0.25 μm and less are conditional value at measurement interval length using Vernier.

3 - the limit of allowable error

The limit of allowable error in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.

The smaller the limit of allowable error, the greater the accuracy of the measurement: in the present invention, the minimum limit of the margin of error is determined by the accuracy of the reference device and the minimum interval length measuring range: Δ L=± of 0.11 μm at a certain /5/ way to measure,

This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length with the required accuracy:

Δ L=± 0,11 mm.

4 - measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/

Measurement range /outside measurements of external dimensions/ in the present invention determines the universality of the measuring device.

The more measurement range /outside measurements of external dimensions/, the more universal measuring device.

This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length with the required precision is Yu in the range of 0÷ /10÷ 20/ m and more.

5 - the limit of relative error

The limit of the relative error in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.

The smaller the limit of the relative error, the higher the measurement accuracy.

This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of the set /limit/ length with the required accuracy defined by the limit of the relative error:

γ =/2,5÷ 3,8/· 10-8

List of drawings the invention: "Automatic meter interval length using Vernier."

1 - figure 1 is a Simplified block diagram of reference strokes intervals of the measuring range.

Figure 1 shows: 1 - the unit cells; 2 - optical unit; 3 - main scale of the measuring range; 4 - count number of strokes of the measuring range; 5 - lighting the lamp.

2 - figure 2 Block diagram of the optical block of an automatic meter.

Figure 2 shows: 3 - main scale of the measuring range; 6 - optical unit main scale; 7 - optic block Vernier scale; 8 - movable carriage; 9 - the workpiece; 10 - Vernier scale; 11 - unit cells.

3 - figure 3 Block diagram of the electronic unit automatically meter. Figure 3 shows: 6 - optical unit main scale; 7 - optic block the Vernier scale; 11 unit cells; 12 - count number of strokes of the main scale; 13 - block matches a specified number of stroke of the primary scale and precision linear values of this bar; 14 - block determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary scale, 15 - count number of strokes Vernier scale; 16 - block matches a specified number of bar Vernier scale and precision linear values of this bar; 17 - block determine the exact linear values specified number of bar Vernier scale; 18 - block stop movable carriage; 19 - block memory amended; 20 - electronic scoreboard; 21 - pulse amplifier; 22 - block algebraic summation.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.

A method of measuring a given interval length in the present invention is clear from the simplified block diagram of reference strokes intervals of the measuring range /1/. The proper length is measured by counting the strokes of the main scales measuring range /3/ count the number of strokes of the measuring range /4/, which moves relative to the measuring range unit cells /1/ optical block /2/. Lighting lamp /5/ serves to illuminate the strokes of the measuring range.

The scale of the measuring range is obtained by photographing the reference range /minimum the measurement interval: Δ =0.5 mm/ reduction ratio 10 times and 40 times. For example, 10 cm reference line at decrease 10 times will look at pictures of this line as 1 cm, 1 cm - 1 mm with 20 divisions through the minimum measurement interval: 0,05 mm Thus, the minimum interval of the scale of this line will be equal to:

- decreasing 10 times: Δ 1/10=0.05 mm

- decreasing 40 times: Δ 1/40=of 0.0125 mm

The zoom scale of the optical unit 100÷ 1000 times provides shielding of the light flux coming from the light bulb /5/ on the solar cell unit cells, linear size of the stroke. With the passage of the n-th stroke of the measuring range of the optical unit, you receive a current pulse in the unit cells. Thus, there is a reference of a given length corresponding to nx strokes measuring range: l x=nx· Δ min. int. The number of strokes nx is counted by the counter of the number of strokes of the measuring range.

The optical block designs luminous flux on a large surface unit cells, which is a solar cell with a large working area of perception of the light flux that generates a pulse signal voltage Uc≥ 3 in that it is sufficient for a confident account the minimum interval length of the measuring line. The above voltage signal much more on what rajini external interference and is consistent with accepted standards for noise immunity.

A method of measuring a given interval length using Vernier clear from the block diagram of the optical block of an automatic meter /2/.

Determine the accuracy of the measurement using Vernier /A25, A50/ decreasing the reference measuring range and scale of the Vernier using photography 10 times.

- when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=25, and the minimum interval measuring range: Δ 1/10=0,05 mm

- when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=50 /Δ 1/10=0.05 mm/

Determine the accuracy of the measurement using Vernier /A25, A50/ decreasing the reference measuring range and scale of the Vernier using photography to 40 times:

- when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=25, and the minimum interval measuring range: Δ 1/40=1,25· 10-2mm

- when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=50 /Δ 1/40=1,25· 10-2mm/

Automatic measurement of a given length l x using Vernier is as follows:

- optical unit main scale /6/ and the optical block Vernier scale /7/, mechanically connected to each other are set to 0 /zero/ Vernier scale /10/. The movement of relatively movable carriage /8/ - 2.

Then with the help of a movable mechanism movable carriage block is /6, 7 - 2/ together with the carriage are set to 0 /null/ primary scales measuring range /3/ or by any stroke of the primary scale using blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /units 14, 17-3/.

The light pulses that appear in the optical blocks with the passage of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, proceed to block cells /11 - 2, 3/.

Given linear length lxcorresponds to, for example, the length of processing a particular tool, workpiece /9/ - 2

- starts counting the strokes of the main scale in accordance with a given code number of reference strokes to count the number of strokes of the main scale /12/ - 3 /login "and"/.

The signals coming from the optical unit main scale /6/fall through a block of cells /11/ blocks /12, 14/ - 3.

When the coincidence signal the end of the account, Nx touches the main scale and precision linear values of the stroke Nx unit matches a specified number of stroke of the primary scale and precision linear values of this bar /13/ - 3 output above the specified block matches a signal "C" /3/, which allows the account given number of HRP strokes Vernier scale in accordance with the specified ID /input "in"/ in the block count of the number of strokes Vernier scale /15/ - 3 and gives a solution for the s on the movement of the mobile carriage /8/ slow /less than the speed in counting the strokes of the main scale/. In addition, the signal "C" is supplied to the block stop movable carriage /18/ - 3.

Possible mode of operation in which switching to a lower speed of movement of the mobile carriage occurs, for example, when Nx - 1 bar.

starts counting a given number nx strokes Vernier scale, with an appropriate mechanism to move the blocks /6, 7/ - 2 relative to the movable carriage in a corresponding bar Vernier scale /HRP/ signal "C".

The signals coming from the optical block Vernier scale /7/fall through a block of cells /11/ units: count number of strokes Vernier scale /15/ and the block determining the exact linear values specified number of bar Vernier scale /17/ - see figure 3.

When the coincidence signal the end of the account nx-specified number of strokes Vernier scale and precision linear values of the stroke nx unit matches a specified number of bar Vernier scale and precision linear values of this bar /16/ - 3 at the output of the above block matches a signal "d"which gives permission for the movement of the mobile carriage together with blocks /6, 7/ - 2 low speed to match a specified number of stroke nx Vernier scale with the corresponding number of the stroke of the primary scale of the measuring range.

Because the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales /units 6, 7 - 2/ we shall be on the same axis, while the exact definition of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales fixed match a specified number of stroke nx Vernier scale with the corresponding number of the stroke of the primary scale. When an enabling signal the end of the account Nx /signal "C"/, end accounts nx /signal "d"/, listed in the schema memory block stop movable carriage /18/, the positive potential input block /13/receiving pulse signals from the block /12/, /above the positive potential remains positive with the help of schematic memory block /13/, is determined by the block /14/ precision linear value of the corresponding stroke of the primary scale, corresponding to above-mentioned coincidence strokes the main and Vernier scales. When this occurs, the output of block /13/ re signal "C", which arrives on the block stop movable carriage. The output of block stop movable carriage of a signal of stopping the movable carriage coming through the pulse amplifier /21/ for actuating the stopping mechanism movable carriage.

Counting a given number corresponding to a specific length measurement, automatic measurement using Vernier produced.

To improve the accuracy of measurement in the present invention, there is a block of memory amendments /19/ - 3, which through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ gets the amendments to the CE is provided with a reference device and a function of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in blocks 12, 14, 15, 17 - see figure 3. On the electronic scoreboard /20/ highlight the exact values of corresponding linear dimensions or amended depending on the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and values of numbers, sochetannye counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales.

It should be noted that the proposed automatic meter interval length using Vernier gives a very small measurement error due to backlash of gears of vernerova, frictions and various types of mechanical transmission.

In addition, the Markov chain of events when measuring length in a very weak dependence of the strokes great rates tick from strokes lower rates of divisions can be reduced to a small magnitude dependence of the measurement accuracy of the length measurement method of measuring length with variable intercept / # 2/.

Issues in the application of materials required for the implementation of the present invention.

According to the instructions 83-57 State standards Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on verification of measuring metal ruler, Moscow, 1973, GOST 427-56 dimensions of the scale line:

- width strokes: 0.15 mm ± 0,05 mm

- minimum interval or intercept: 0,5 mm

When reducing the scale above the specified line using photography to 40 times: - Δ stroke width=0,375· 10-2mm

- Δ minutes int.=1,25· 10-2mm

According to the book of Bunimovich DZ "the Amateur photographer's Handbook"): Moskovskaya Pravda, 1960 - str-147, tabl, the resolution of the photos is up to 90 gr./mm, that means: 1 mm photographic materials can be located 90 strokes with distances between dashes:

We assume that the interval between strokes, approximately equal to the width of the stroke. The width of the stroke of such a material is equal to: Δ width stroke fotomat.=0,55· 10-2mm

When the ratio of the width of the strokes of the photographic material and the measuring line:for clear playback on the photo above touches the measuring range you want to apply the photographs with a resolution; 90 gr./mm· 1,47=132 gr./mm

When displaying bar measuring range, reduced by photographing 40 times, on the photographic material with a resolution of 90 gr./mm image above this bar will be displayed with a certain probability:i.e. on the material /90 gr./mm/ picture will appear stroke-width: 0,375· 10-2mm a few fuzzy, but completely follows the contour of the barcode that does not lead to a deterioration of the measurement accuracy, since each bar is based is Noah scale measuring ruler is calibrated in accordance with standard as each relative position of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales /"blurring" of the stroke necessary to distinguish between strokes when recording in the electronic memory of the image strokes/. In addition, it is possible to manufacture the measuring line width of the stroke is greater 1.5 times: 0.15 mm· 1,5=0,225 mm /decreasing the scale of this line using photography to 40 times: Δ stroke width =0,55· 10-2mm/, which will lead to a clear image of the barcode that appears on the photographic material with a resolution of 90 gr./mm

Listed on page 17 description of the invention, the multiplier is 0.25 μm does not require the use in the present invention photographs with a resolution of, for example, 4000 gr./mm, because when the automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier required photographs with a resolution of 90 gr./mm, showing the dimensions of strokes width: /0,375÷ 0,55/· 10-2mm, when the measurement should be the same in a certain combination of strokes of the main and Vernier scales. In the description of the invention the calculation of the measurement accuracy of a given length using Vernier decreasing the reference measuring line of the main scale and Vernier scale 40 times when the number of divisions of the Vernier n=50 and Δ min. int. =1,25· 10-2mm

According to: "Description Vernier is" /tutorial for students MEI/ M, 1955 the accuracy of the Vernier is defined as:

where α m - price divisions of the main scale, M is the number of divisions of the Vernier

For our case:

Thus, when the automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier when the coincidence of the respective strokes of the main and Vernier scales /bar width: /0,375÷ 0,55/· 10-2mm can be measured with an accuracy of 0.25 μm or through 0.25 μm, since the measurement accuracy is improved relative to the minimum interval measuring range: 1,25· 10-2mm 50 times equal to the number of divisions of the Vernier. While the above minimum measurement interval of 0.25 μm is a conditional multiplier for automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier.

Note that the stroke of the measuring line is marked on the ruler with tolerable accuracy: ± 0.06 mm in accordance with the technical characteristics of the control line type CL /Ruler measuring metal. Calibration method MI 2024-89. Moscow, 1990/.

When reducing by photographing a measuring range up to 40 times a margin of error of a stroke will be equal to:

When calibrating strokes above the measuring range and the various provisions of the basic strokes and non what usnei scales relative to each other in accordance with the accuracy of the benchmark using the memory block amendments /19/, block algebraic summation /22/, blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/ error caused the stroke of the measuring range in the present invention, as amended, or the accuracy of the stroke when the measurement interval length using Vernier can not be worse: /10-7÷10-8/ m /television how accurate setting of stroke or differential method accurately set the bar/.

When television how accurate setting of the stroke is transmitted to the image width of the stroke of the measuring line, is reduced by the use of photography in 40 times, /according to the Instructions 83-57 for calibration of measuring metal ruler, Moscow, 1973 width of strokes equal to 0.15± 0.05 mm when the multiplier is 0.5 mm/:

Above bar measuring range is after the increase of the optical block 1000 times the width of 3.75 mm square perception of the luminous flux transmitting tube unit cells /11/. When the number of elements in the line scan television transmitting tube of order 1000 and the combination of image width of the stroke with the above specified number of elements in the row offset of the stroke on a single line item complies with:/when the zoom optical is th block of 10,000 times - stroke width on television transmitting tube is 37.5 mm, and the offset of the stroke on a single line item corresponds: to 37.5 μm/, which corresponds approximately to the length occupied by one elementary element of the television transmitting tube.

The true displacement of the bar width: 0,375· 10-2mm is 1000 times smaller relative of 3.75 μm: Δ the true displacement stroke =3,75 mcm· 10-2=3,75· 10-9m

Taking into account various errors television method accurately set the bar in the present invention the accuracy of the stroke can be adopted: 10-7÷10-8m

In the book Waspaloy Applied TV" State energy publishing house, Moscow, Leningrad, 1962 - str shows exemplary data of a television microscope: "resolving power of television microscope is obtained with sufficient magnification up to 1000÷ 1200 times. Large-scale increase when this reaches the value 30000."

Action image recording half of the stroke or its lower part in the memory block, located in the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales that match code signals of the image bar above the specified memory block and the image of the stroke of the measuring line, PE is EDINOGO television transmitting tube of the unit cells, schema matching blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales give the signal, set the position of the stroke.

The differential method, accurate setting of stroke from two side of the solar cell unit cells, separated from the main photocell located in the middle, the partitions are appropriate signals to the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /14, 17/, where compared and amplified. If the values match, the amplitudes of the voltages from the two side cells /side solar cells transmit light signals are not obscured by strokes/ amplifier unit determining the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales produces a signal accurately set the bar.

The accuracy of installation of the stroke depends on the gain of the amplifier blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales.

Get codes number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in the measurement interval length using Vernier.

Take, for example, the interval length:

L=10,5557891 m

According to page 9 of the description of the invention L can be represented as:

L=10 m +5 DCM +5 cm +5 mm +7· 0.1 mm +8· 10-2mm +9· 10-3mm +1· 10-4mm

The minimum interval of the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 40 time:The minimum conditional interval length in the measurement interval length using Vernier:.

Stroke width of the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 40 time:.

We assume that during the measurement interval, the length of the strokes of the measurement range, calibrated with an accuracy standard: 0.01 µm, measured with the same accuracy in accordance with the amendments of the memory block amendments /19/. When this touches the measuring line m, DCM, cm, mm, etc. are in a very weak dependence on strokes minimum interval length of the measuring range, i.e. the measuring range, reduced by photographing 40 times, you can find the bar that meets the above requirements with regard to the displacement accurately set the bar Vernier scale in accordance with the amendments of the memory block amendments /19/. Offset point accurately set the bar Vernier scale in the measurement interval length using Vernier, the values of which are recorded in the memory block amendments /19/, correspond to the fractions of the minimum conditional interval is Lina when measured using Vernier: 0.25 μm, for example: Δ offset =/0,1÷ 0,01/· Δ sister.· 1/2 corresponds to about: 0.25 μm to 0.01 μm.

Get the required number of divisions in accordance with intercept:

n’1=10 /m/, n’2=5 /DCM/, n’3=5 /see/, n’4=5 /mm/, n’5=7· /0.1 mm/, n’6=8· /10-2mm/n’7=9· /10-3mm/n’8=1· /10-4mm/.

Thus the number of divisions in accordance with the multiplier of the present invention are as follows: n 1=10, n 2=5, n 3=5, n 4=5,

When calculating n’8 value: 0,1 introduced in the denominator of the given bias point accurately set the bar Vernier scale in the measurement interval length using Vernier.

Get the translation of the above mentioned numbers of divisions in accordance with the multiplier of the present invention, the required number of reference the minimum of the measurement intervals of the invention or its smaller parts in an integer expression: n1=10 /reference m/, n2=5 /count in DCM/, n3=5 /count in cm/, n4=5 /count in mm/, n5=63 /countdown 1.25· 10-3mm/, n6=6 /countdown 0.25· 10-3mm/, n7=4 /count 0.25· 10-4mm/.

Translate the above number of reference corresponding strokes in the six bit binary code: 010100 - n1, 101000 - n2, 101000 - n3, 101000 - n4, 111111 - n5, 011000 - n6, 001000 - n7.

At this intercept, sootvetstvuyshee count a certain number of strokes, switches in the present invention sequentially in the function code number /for example, in the above-specified example: 1-7/. When counting only the minimum interval length of the measuring line, reduced by photographing 40 times, /Δ min. int.=1,25· 10-2mm/ dimension: 1 mm - requires 7-bit binary code, 1 cm - required 10-bit binary code, 1 DCM - 13-bit binary code of 1 m is required 17-bit binary code.

Binary codes defined intervals length in meters number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales appear in the input pulse voltage resulting from the passage of the appropriate number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales mechanical part of the automatic meter. The above codes specified interval lengths correspond to the input code units /12, 15/, inputs a, b, which are counted by the counters of the number of strokes given code amendments, coming to the same counters from the memory block amendments /19/. In addition, the memory block amendments /19/ through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ start code signals necessary displacement of the point of accurately set the bar Vernier scale in units determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. When sledovatelem playing the above codes in the electronic memory counter of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales is counting the required number of strokes /blocks 12, 15/ in accordance with the multiplier. When the corresponding match signals the end of the count the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales appearing on the output units /12, 15/ after passing through the entire sequence of codes corresponding prices division, and the corresponding signals determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke units /14, 17/ occurs in blocks matches a specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales and precision linear values of this bar /13, 16/ signal the end of the counting interval specified length.

The relationship of the blocks of the present invention.

Figure 1 is a Simplified block diagram of reference strokes intervals measuring range:

Block cells /1/, receiving light signals during the passage of the main strokes of the scale of the measuring range /3/ from the optical block /2/which is mechanically connected with the unit cells and the giver of increase, about 100-1000 times the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 10 or 40 times, produces pulses of voltage to the input count of the number of strokes of the measuring range /4/, which counts the code signals in binary code corresponding to the number of strokes given interval length of the main scale of the measuring range. The backlight of the main strokes of the scale of the measuring range is lighting a lamp /5/

Figure 2 - Block diagram of an optical unit of an automatic meter.

The optical block automatic meter is installed on the frame and consists of: main scales measuring range /3/about which moves a movable carriage /8/ together with the workpiece /9/, an optical unit main scale /6/, an optical unit Vernier scale /7/ Vernier scale /10/, the unit cells /11/. Optical unit main scale /6/ differs structurally from the optical block /2/because it is mechanically connected to the optical block Vernier scale /7/. Blocks 6, 7 with a block of cells /11/ can move the appropriate mechanism relatively movable carriage /8/ and Vernier scale /10/.

A separate count of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, reduced by photographing 10 times or 40 times, comes with a set of photocells receiving light signals from the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales with increasing 100-1000 times the image above mentioned scales.

The outputs of the unit cells /11/: ƒ , q, h, j output from the solar cells, which carry information about the passage of the respective strokes of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales and in the middle of applied design, and from the two side cells, which carry information about technoscience stroke main and Vernier scales the differential method, accurate installation dash /solar cells separated from each other/.

In addition, when the TV method accurately set the bar outputs of the unit cells /11/: q, j provide information about the image of the corresponding stroke of the primary and Vernier scales, receiving it from the television transmitting tubes of the above scales, while the television tube is structurally located in the block of cells /11/. It should be noted that the design of the unit cells /11/ figure 2 differs from the block design of solar cells /1/ - 1.

Figure 3 - Block diagram of the electronic unit of the automatic meter:

The signals coming from the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales /6, 7/ through the block of cells /11/get into the electronic unit automatic meter; from solar cells, which carry information about the passage of the respective strokes of the measuring range, the signals are at the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /12, 15/, from two lateral cells, which carry information about the installation precision of the stroke of the main and Vernier scales, or television transmitting tubes, which carry information about the image of the corresponding stroke of the primary and Vernier scales, the signals fall within the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. After determining the exact linear values specified number of stroke output signal to enter the specified blocks together with the signals the end of counting the number of strokes given interval lengths of the main and Vernier scales units /12, 15/ fall on the blocks matches a specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales and precision linear values of this bar /13,16/. The output signals of blocks /13, 16/ fall on the block stop movable carriage /18/, which, through the pulse amplifier /21/ network stop is movable carriage.

The memory block amendments /19/ through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ generates code signals amended, for each stroke of the main and Vernier scales or any combination of the provisions of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales relative to each other at the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /12, 15/ and the code signals determine the exact linear values of the bar /half bar or smaller part when television or differential method accurately set the bar on blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. Using memory blocks blocks /14, 17/ occurs when the television way of a precise installation of the stroke than parts of images corresponding strokes in the above mentioned blocks 14, 17/ and when you match them with images of strokes, going from a television transmitting tubes of the unit cells /11/, is given the signal to determine the exact linear values of the stroke /or its smaller parts/ main and Vernier scales on the blocks 13, 16/. E t the Blo /20/ issues on the scoreboard code signals, relevant amendments linear values strokes, going from memory block amendments /19/; values given intervals of length in decimal and binary code value; values given intervals, length-specific intercept, etc.

It should be noted that the block algebraic summation /22/ produces the sum specified minimum interval length of the measuring line and their amendments in accordance with the distribution function of the stroke of the measuring range and the specified code number of required measuring a specified interval length and the calculation of the number of strokes corresponding to a certain multiplier, using a memory block of amendments.

Machine design.

According to the "Small Soviet Encyclopedia, Vol.8, Publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia", 1960 str:

"The bed is the main body of the machine: cast, welded or riveted construction, in which the spatial coordinated /linked/ location and kinematic relationships of all of the mechanisms and parts of the machine, and perceived current efforts."

Questions of terminology.

According to the terminology adopted in the "Handbook Metalist" Apenninsky, Vol.2, Homalodisca, 1933 - p.105:

The exact distance scale line: "the distance from the middle of the zero stroke scale range is about mid-any given n-th stroke of the same scale range within the scale of a ruler."

In the description of the invention in accordance with the above accepted notion: "exact linear value of the stroke" main and Vernier scales, which are more reduced /introduced the concept of "linear" means that the specified interval length is measured along one axis or belongs to the ruler/.

Some questions are "reading" stroke measuring ruler, drawing strokes on the scale of the measuring range, the accuracy of setting of the stroke of the measuring range, relations units of automatic meter.

It should be noted that there is no need for use in the present invention photographs with a resolution of, for example, 4000 gr./mm for the implementation of minimum rates of division in the proposed device: 0.25 μm, i.e. there is no need for the photographs, which displays a ruler on a scale which would be caused strokes intervals: 0.25 μm.

In the proposed device has the 2nd scale: main scale and Vernier scale, and α N - value divisions of the Vernier somewhat less α M - price divisions of the main scale /therefore, the observed frequency shift measurement by Vernier to n· Δ the coincidence of the respective strokes of the main and Vernier scales in the function rooms of the bar Vernier scale/.

DG is α - precision Vernier /see the Description of the Vernier; a textbook for students MEI, M., 1955/

For example: α M=1 mm - price divisions of the main scale

n=10 is the number of divisions of the Vernier. Select: α H is the magnitude of the division of Vernier such that when nx divisions of the Vernier =n, the measured interval length α H is equal to: α H· n, and to measure the same interval length α M it is necessary to count on the main scale n-1 divisions: α M· /n-1/; α H<α M fairly equality:

α H· n=α M/n-1/.

Therefore, in this case, the Vernier can count tenths of a mm:

when appropriate matches strokes Vernier and main scale.

It should be noted that in the example above, the scales remain almost the same and the intervals between the strokes are not reduced in 10 times.

The number of divisions of the Vernier scale n can be: 25; 50, 100/see Reference Metalist Vol.2, Apenninsky, 1933 - str/.

In the present invention: α M=0.5 mm; n=50

Reducing a measuring range up to 40 times by photographing'll get:.

Precision Vernier: /Vernier scale is also reduced to 40 times by shooting/

Thus, it is possible to count on the Vernier intervals of length through 0.25 μm, which can be considered mustache is ESD a multiplier in the measurement interval length using Vernier; countdown through 0.25 μm are possible under appropriate matches strokes Vernier and main scale. The main and Vernier scales are almost the same with minimum intervals of approximately 1.25· 10-2mm, so there is no need, for example, to have photos with a resolution of 4000 gr./mm, and it is enough to have photos with a resolution of 90÷ 132 gr./mm

It should be noted that when the reading on the Vernier half of the stroke or its smaller parts /TV way to accurately set the number of lines/ required electronic memory of each stroke /or part/ main and Vernier scales, which can be carried out if there is some blurring of the lines /"blur" becomes visible at certain zoom stroke/ photos different for each stroke that is made of materials with a resolution of about 90 gr./mm /i.e. with no repetition of the image of each bar or smaller part of the many strokes of the measuring range/.

Implementation installation of the stroke with an accuracy better than 10-7÷10-8m is the proposed device, the television way /see page 9, 26, 27 description, when it touches the measuring line is not plotted on the scale more than the specified precision, and calibrated reference meter length, the values of which are recorded in binary form in the electronic memory of the device and played back when required memory block amendments /19/, in addition, each position of the stroke /or part of his/ Vernier scale on each stroke of the main scale corresponds to a binary code recording in the electronic memory of the device during the measurement interval length.

The installation of the stroke of the measuring line with the above specified accuracy /10-7÷10-8m/ television how accurate setting of the stroke is implemented or meets industrial applicability under appropriate television transmitting tubes in which an electron beam creates on the target spot diameter: 10-1÷10-2mm /see "Television" edited Powstancow. Publishing house of Communications and Radio Moscow, 1960 - p.95/ and in the implementation possibilities of the so-called disinformation zoom stroke optics, providing the width of the stroke on the television tube, approximately 1000 elements decay in the line of the television image of the stroke or its lower part (see the Small Soviet encyclopedia, Volume 5, str - microscope State Scientific Publishing house "Great Soviet encyclopedia" 1959/.

"Blurring" of the image stroke or a diffraction pattern image of the stroke does not affect the accuracy of the stroke when the TV way to accurately set the bar with electronic memory image of the stroke, which compares the image signals of the stroke from the pattern memory and television transmitting tube.

Implementation of counters number of strokes /12, 15/ as follows: from the block of cells /11/ outputs ƒ h at the counters of the number of strokes /12, 15/ received pulse signals during the passage of the mechanical part of the automatic meter dashes main and Vernier scales. In blocks 12, 15 through the inputs of these blocks and, in the start code signals with a corresponding number of digits in the binary code representing a given code number of required reference strokes on the measuring line, which correspond to the measurement interval length. Counts the number of strokes of the blocks 12, 15, counting the required number of strokes, give the code number of strokes in the binary code, which when matching the specified ID number of strokes in the schema matching codes these blocks outputs a signal output units 12, 15, coming into blocks matches a specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales and precision linear values of this bar /blocks 13, 16/. It should be noted that the counter Chi is La pulses, caused by passing the mechanical part of the automatic meter touches the measuring line, is a Converter of the number of pulses in 10-th code in the same number of pulses corresponding to the number of digits in the 2nd code.

Implementation of block matching set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and precision linear data values strokes /13, 16/ is as follows: the coincidence of signals in the circuit of the coincidence signals of the blocks 13, 16 of the above output signals of the blocks 12, 15 and output signals of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales 14, 17 diagram of the coincidence of these signals blockage 13, 16 generates output signals coincidences that give commands to the movement of the mechanical part of the automatic meter and stop this enables blocks: 18 - block stop movable carriage, 21 - pulse amplifier.

Implementation of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales /14, 17/ is as follows: the inputs of the blocks 14, 17 signals q, j from the block of cells /11/, which is the differential signals from the two side cells, separated from each other by partitions. When the exact setting of the stroke of the above scales the differential signal is al 2 side solar cells gives a zero signal, after transformation /blocks 14, 17/ is output on these units in the form of positive potential. Blocks 19, 20, 22 serve to display the amendments and institutions amendment values set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in accordance with the reference meter interval length in blocks 12, 15, 14, 17. In the same blocks infest amendment values strokes of the measuring range when the television way of a precise definition of linear values specified number of strokes in accordance with the reference meter interval length. Amendments in the form of image signals of specified part numbers, bar appear in the electronic memory of the automatic meter.

All the above blocks function blocks are well known in the prior art.

1. Automatic meter interval length using Vernier consisting of a bed, a moving mechanism movable carriage, the main scale of the measuring range, characterized in that applied the main and Vernier scales measuring line, is reduced relative to the minimum interval length approximately equal to 0.5 mm and different for the main and Vernier scales, using photography in 10-40, optical blocks, corresponding numerically to the number of scales, with unit cells that are located on a movable carriage, fur the mechanism of movement of the optical block relative to the movable carriage, located on the frame and moving relative to it at the existing kinematic relationships relevant mechanisms, the blocks located in the electronic unit of the automatic meter: counts the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales, the inputs of which are filed with the signals from the unit cells, and the output signals of the above mentioned blocks are received at blocks match set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and precision linear data values strokes, while for the counter of the number of strokes in the above blocks start code signals in binary code with the appropriate number of digits representing a given code number of the required counting the number of strokes on the main or the Vernier scale when this counts the number of strokes, counting the voltage pulses that occur during the passage of the mechanical part of the automatic measuring of the respective strokes and which converters the number of striae in 10-ary code in the same number of strokes in a 2-ary code, generate code given number of strokes in a 2-ary code, which when matching mishandled code number of strokes in the schema matching code blocks above produces the output signal coming into blocks matching a specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scale and precision linear values dinogetia, as for the blocks match set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales accurate linear values of this bar, in addition to the above signals appear at the inputs of the above blocks the output signals of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales on which the circuit output coincidence output, giving commands to the movement of the mechanical part of the automatic meter and stop; blocks determine the exact linear values strokes the main and Vernier scales, the inputs of which are filed with the signals from the unit cells, and the output signals are filed on the above blocks of matches for the implementation of the work units determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales precision linear value of the stroke is determined using the memory block image half of the stroke or its lower part located in the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales, when the coincidence signal block of memory and the video image of the strokes coming from the television transmitting tube unit cells, or by means of two lateral solar cell unit cells divided from the main Central photocell, and giving the information about the completion of the stroke, partitions, in this case approximately equal to the signals from the lateral cells in the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales a signal installation precision linear values of the stroke when installing the center of the stroke in a given geometric point, the block stop movable carriage, permitting the stop is movable carriage through a pulse amplifier when the coincidence of the output signals coming from the blocks match set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and precision linear data values strokes, memory block of amendments, giving code amendments geometric location of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales through the block algebraic summation, producing the sum specified minimum intervals the length of the measuring line and their amendments, at the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and the code signals of the reference half-width of the stroke or its lower part into blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that for measuring the interval length used measuring line with the main and Vernier scales with a minimum interval length dimension approximately equal to 0.5 mm and different for the primary and nonEU the Noah scales reduced by photographing in 10-40 times, with two optical blocks: one for each scale with a magnification greater than or equal to 1000, while the geometric deviation of the measuring range of the above values, the minimum interval length from a mathematical precise location data interval length tends to a small value by the institution in the memory block of amendments each value of the interval length of the measuring line in the function counting the number of strokes of the same measuring line while determining the exact linear values of the stroke units determine the exact linear values of this bar; if the relationship or joint functional actions optical units, unit cells, counters the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales, block a specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales and the exact value of this stroke, the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales, memory block of amendments, which winds through the power of the algebraic summation of corresponding amendments to the geometry of the set value of interval length in the counter number of the main and Vernier scales, while the above blocks are located in the electronic unit of the automatic meter

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the function of the measurement accuracy specified intervals of length with a measuring range depending on the mechanical backlash of the transmission gears, friction, etc. tends to a small value, because construction of the proposed device is that the reference interval length is directly from the measuring lines of the main and Vernier scales located on the frame, and a movable carriage is moved together with the workpiece against the frame without mechanical transmission, significantly affecting the accuracy of the measurement interval length.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that there is the possibility of automatic measurement interval length using Vernier at a corresponding design: using two optical blocks corresponding to the main and Vernier scales, and unit cells, two independently moving mechanical devices against the frame and movable carriage; optical blocks, a block of cells, the bed, the mechanical device movement, and a movable carriage connected mechanical connections and represent a separate building block.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the implemented capacity is ü if appropriate to the design of the implementation of the functions of influence of external electromagnetic interference, which is reduced to a small value when removed from the unit cells, where the cells with a large area of perception of the light signal, giving the received signal is an output voltage greater than or equal to three volts, which is supplied to the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales located in the electronic unit automatically meter.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that to increase the accuracy of the measurement interval length realized the possibility of the implementation of the correction function on any interval of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales in accordance with the standard instrument amendments which relative to the existing geometric layout of the strokes of the measuring line is written in the memory block of amendments, depending on the number of the stroke of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales; when this code amendments signals from the memory block amendments through the block algebraic summation, producing the sum specified minimum interval length of the measuring line and their amendments, are counts of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales, producing a count of the number of strokes interval length of linear movement with Aceto is amended; while the above blocks are located in the electronic unit automatically meter.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that to increase the accuracy of the measurement interval lengths were accurate determination of the linear values of the stroke of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales in blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales, in the above non of the stroke of the main and Vernier scales, in the above-mentioned blocks start signals from the unit cells, when comparing the signals from the two side cells, separated from the Central cell walls, at the output of the above blocks a signal on the passage of a movable carriage through the point corresponding to half of the width of the stroke, which corresponds to the differential method exact installation of the stroke, when the TV way accurate setting of stroke from the unit cells are image signals of a specified number of bar measuring range from television transmitting tube located in the unit cells, the blocks define a linear value specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales, where the comparison of a specified number of the stroke and image fragments of the same number of stroke recorded in the memory block BL is ka determining the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales it is possible to count the points of passage of the movable carriage, the corresponding half of the image of the stroke or its lower part, which greatly increases the accuracy of the measurement interval length when the respective signals are required readout of the image of the bar going from memory block amendments through the power of the algebraic summation of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales, while the above blocks are located in the electronic unit of an automatic meter, and the unit cells on the frame.

8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the possible application of the method of measurement specified interval length with a variable multiplier, which automatically switches to the electronic unit of the automatic meter; when the specified interval of length L is defined as:

L=n1 m+n2 DM +n3 cm +n4 mm +n5·0.1 mm +n6·10-2mm +n7·10-3mm +n8·10-4mm +n9·10-5mm

where nx is the number of strokes corresponding to a particular intercept: m - 10-5mm

that leads to greater measurement accuracy and reduce to a small value according to the measurement accuracy of the length measurement with a very small dependence of the values of the strokes of the measuring range greater rates of fission from the values of the strokes is enishi price divisions of the same measuring line; the calculation of the number of strokes corresponding to a certain multiplier, with the help of the memory block of the amendments and block algebraic summation producing a summation of the minimum interval length of the measuring line in accordance with the distribution function of the stroke of the measuring range and the specified code number of required movement of the mobile carriage, with the above code is put in the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales, which is filed with the appropriate signals from the memory block amendments and block algebraic summation, which is counting the number of strokes corresponding to a certain multiplier, while the above blocks are located in the electronic unit automatically meter.

9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the possible implementation of the method of measurement that defines the specified interval length of the measuring line as the corresponding minimum number of intervals of length at a particular selected combination of the location of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, the code of which is included in the memory block of amendments, matches exactly the specified interval length standard: less than or equal to 0.11 μm, which reduces the dependence of the measurement accuracy of the length measurement to a small amount; however, the memory block poprawa is through the power of the algebraic summation starts the codes given interval length in meters number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales counting in accordance with the above codes the number of antennas located on the main and Vernier scales, while infest the corresponding signals of the amendments in the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales to measure half the width of the stroke or its lower part; the above blocks are located in the electronic unit automatically meter.

10. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the proposed design of the device is realized the possibility of expanding the functions of the values of the rates of divisions, which in the measurement can be within 1 m of 0.25 microns and below the lower limit of the minimum rates of division; the function values of the rates of divisions is carried out without deterioration of the measurement accuracy, while maintaining a small dependence of the measurement accuracy of the length measurement with the help of a memory block of amendments, block algebraic summation, which starts the corresponding signals to the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales for counting half the width of the stroke or its lower part; the above blocks are located in the electronic unit automatically meter.

11. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that in the construction of the mouth of the STS implements the expansion of the function values of the measurement range, in accordance with the length scale with great accuracy: the accuracy of the benchmark, summative and a half of the minimum measurement interval may be in the range of 0-2 m and more, the function values of the measurement range is performed without deterioration of the measurement accuracy, while maintaining a small dependence of the measurement accuracy of the length measurement with the help of a memory block of amendments, block algebraic summation, which starts the corresponding signals to the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales for counting half of the stroke or its lower part; the above blocks are in the electronic unit automatically meter.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.

EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has bed, movable mechanism of movable carriage, optical units of basic and vernier dial of measuring rule, photo-element unit disposed onto movable carriage, mechanism for moving optical units relatively movable carriage, device for counting optical lines of basic and vernier dials of measuring rule, line coincidence unit of basic and vernier dials, difference signal determination unit, correction memory unit. The latter has corrections relatively standard depending on number of line of measuring rule of basic and vernier dials introduced through algebraic adding unit into measuring rule basic and vernier dial number of lines counters and units of determining précised linear value of lines of basic and vernier dials. Basic and vernier dials of measuring rule are reduced relatively minimal interval of length of 0, 5 mm 10 to 40 times by means of photographing.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of linear distances.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: woodworking industry, particularly for measuring moving timber thickness.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises conveyer for feeding timber material to be adjusted to obtain predetermined timber thickness, thickness measuring means, processing unit to determine insufficient timber thickness, means to distinguish above timber from another ones. Thickness measuring means determines timber thickness in several points during conveyance thereof on the base of main output signals generated by displacement transducers. Displacement transducers are located in several locations along timber width. If timber has several parts of a given length with thicknesses deviated from tolerance band for predetermined value in conveyance direction one can come to conclusion that timber has insufficient thickness.

EFFECT: reduce time of thickness determination, increased quality thereof.

5 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: measurement of object shape.

SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photo-receiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measuring arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: device providing receiving of information on condition of object's surface.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting surfaces of objects at tunnel and atomic-power modes of operation in scanning probe microscope. Power probe for scanning probe microscope has quartz crystal vibrator provided with needle fixed at surface of one arm of quartz vibrator due to chemical bond between needle and surface. There are variants of the device where thread-shaped crystals are used as needles and nanotubes. Thread-shaped crystals can be made of carbon, metal, semiconductor and isolator. Needles can be also fixed at external surface of arm of quartz vibrator as well as its edge and side surfaces. Needles can be arranges as in parallel to axis of symmetry of quartz vibrator and in perpendicular to its axis. According to one more variant, needle can be fixed at random angle to axis of plane of one arm of quartz vibrator. In some cases surface of arm of quartz vibrator can used for fixing several needles of different lengths.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of probe; widened operational capabilities.

12 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: device for measuring linear sizes has additional counter, two subtracters, two decoders and AND-OR gate. Output of amplitude selector is connected with inputs of first and second permanent storages through additional counter. Outputs of permanent storages are connected with first inputs of first and second subtracters. The second inputs and outputs of subtracters are connected with output of unit for counting marks and with first inputs of first and second decoders. Outputs of decoders are connected with first and second inputs of AND-OR gate. The third input and output of AND-OR gate are connected correspondingly with output of unit for counting number of marks and with first input of indicator.

EFFECT: reduced influence of error of object installation; improved precision of measurement.

1 dwg

The invention relates to measurement and can be used on car-repair enterprises in complete wheelset bogie freight wagons

The invention relates to the field of analysis of metallic coatings by dissolving the catchment area of the sample surface and can be used to determine the thickness and composition of the coating

FIELD: pipeline transport.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying acoustical energy to the outer surface of the pipeline, determining the law of vibration damping for the pipeline whose inner side is free of the deposit and for sections of the pipeline covered with the deposit of known thickness, and determining the thickness of the deposit by comparing the data.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.

EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has bed, movable mechanism of movable carriage, optical units of basic and vernier dial of measuring rule, photo-element unit disposed onto movable carriage, mechanism for moving optical units relatively movable carriage, device for counting optical lines of basic and vernier dials of measuring rule, line coincidence unit of basic and vernier dials, difference signal determination unit, correction memory unit. The latter has corrections relatively standard depending on number of line of measuring rule of basic and vernier dials introduced through algebraic adding unit into measuring rule basic and vernier dial number of lines counters and units of determining précised linear value of lines of basic and vernier dials. Basic and vernier dials of measuring rule are reduced relatively minimal interval of length of 0, 5 mm 10 to 40 times by means of photographing.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of linear distances.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance.

SUBSTANCE: geometry of track is measured by using high-accuracy measuring circuit with two mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanical part of measuring system and including covered distance meter and truck tilting level sensors relative to horizon and at least one radiating mark (optical radiation source) rigidly installed on first test truck in direction of movement and providing pressing of flange of wheel to inner head of base rail, and optical electronic receiving-and-analyzing system rigidly secured on second truck. Second truck is double axle, with flanges of corresponding wheelsets pressed to inner surface of head of base rail, thus forming measuring base identifying position of base rail in points of contact of corresponding wheelsets.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurement at simplification of process.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: woodworking industry, particularly for measuring moving timber thickness.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises conveyer for feeding timber material to be adjusted to obtain predetermined timber thickness, thickness measuring means, processing unit to determine insufficient timber thickness, means to distinguish above timber from another ones. Thickness measuring means determines timber thickness in several points during conveyance thereof on the base of main output signals generated by displacement transducers. Displacement transducers are located in several locations along timber width. If timber has several parts of a given length with thicknesses deviated from tolerance band for predetermined value in conveyance direction one can come to conclusion that timber has insufficient thickness.

EFFECT: reduce time of thickness determination, increased quality thereof.

5 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: measurement of object shape.

SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photo-receiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.

SUBSTANCE: method of pulling contact system cable comes to the following: each rail 6 is read off by means of distance pickup 16 placed over rail and moved continuously in longitudinal direction of track and scanning in plane 20 passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Problem points of measurement 25 on rail defining geometry of switch are recorded as measurement values in polar system of coordinates. Polar coordinates for measurement values are converted into Cartesian coordinates and information is recorded in memory at continuous measurements of distance by means of measuring wheel after which lateral section for switch 1 is calculated basing on recorded measurement values. Actual measurement values are compared in definite points of measurement 25 with preset values of at least two of enumerated parameters kept in memory, namely, width of clearance between counter-rail and running rail, through clearance or state of tongue as to its wear, minimum width between edge of guide rail and side edge of running rail in curve, width of gauge and/or distance between counter-rails or guide surfaces and deviation of obtained values from preset values. In device for noncontact measurement of lateral section or rail-to-rail distance of track, each pickup 16 is arranged in area over corresponding rail 6 being essentially laser scanner 17 for reading problem points of measurement 25 defining geometry of switch which is made for reciprocation at angle of scanning (α).

EFFECT: provision of quick and accurate determination and evaluation of measurands of vital importance for switch.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: definition of the diameter of wheel pairs.

SUBSTANCE: the mode and photolaser arrangement for definition of the diameter of wheel pairs of a railway mobile train in conditions of its moving is based on the principle of measuring with the help of a photolaser arrangement of sizes which characterize the changing of the diameter of wheel tread and a degree of deterioration(wear) of the wheel pair band and also is based on the principle of computing the diameter of the wheel according to a wheel rolling circle according to the formula characterizing the changing of the diameter depending on current meaning of a chord of the wheel tread and the magnitude of a wheel tread wear. The execution of the mode of measuring of the chord and of the wheel tread wear is made by way of using of laser sources of light installed along one side of the track, horizontal and vertical photoreceiving mould "toolbars" installed on the other side of the inset in the rail and the track. Precision of measuring of geometric sizes of the wheel pair in the range of ±0.1 mm is achieved at the expense of using of laser sources of light and of photoreceivers in the shape of the mould "toolbars".

EFFECT: increases quality of precision of measuring; using of a laser commutation system and reliability of measuring elements under any weather conditions.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: hologram interferometering of a flat object.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of hologram interferometering of a flat object is in making of a double exposure hologram of the surface of the object in counter rays. Then two images of the surface of the object reconditioned by the hologram are directed in an optical system in which one after another two direct Fournier-Frenel transform are carried out, interferograms of the images of the surface of the object are fixed. The object and the interferogram are located at such distances from the lenses that the in-focus image of the surface of the object in the surface of the interferogram is made and at the expense of variations of these distances and the focal distances of the lenses, measured sizes are divided and wishful sensitivities of measurements of travel and inclination constant along the whole surface are chosen.

EFFECT: ensuring constant surface and variable sensitivity, increased range of measuring of travel and inclination.

1 dwg

FIELD: measuring instruments.

SUBSTANCE: the interferometer for controlling of the form of prominent, concave spherical and flat surfaces of large-sized optical components has a source of monochromatic radiation, a collimator and an objective, one after another located a beam divider, a flat mirror and an aplanatic meniscus with a reference surface and also an observation branch located behind the beam divider in beam return and a working branch consisting out of a spherical mirror with a compensator which form a focusing system. Depending of the form of a controlled surface focusing of the working branch of the interferometer is executed at replacing the compensator and the basic block of the interferometer which has an illuminating branch. A beam divider, a flat mirror, an aplanatic meniscus and an observation branch relative to a fully stabilized spherical mirror along an optical axis on such a distance at which the beams reflected from the spherical mirror fall on the controlled surface transversely to its surface.

EFFECT: expansion of nomenclature of controlled surfaces, decreasing large-sized dimensions of the interferometer.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: according to method, gas is supplied through entrance nozzles to measuring chamber of differential pneumatic measurement device and then through measuring nozzles to gap between surface of standard member and edge surfaces of measuring nozzles. Standard pressure inside measuring chamber is registered by means of sensing element and range of measurement is set. The standard member is replaced by member to be measured and deviation of pressure against standard pressure is registered. Results of measurement are represented in form of light scale. Results of measurement are sent from sensing element to pressure processing electronic unit. Whole range of measurements is divided to sub-ranges correspondingly to required precision of measurement. Electrical transmission ration is set for each sub-range. Minimal width of sub-range is put to lower limit of indication scale in measurement processing electronic unit. Maximal width of sub-range is put to upper limit of indication scale. Limits of measurement for each sub-range are tuned by means of corresponding standard members. Limits of measurements, electrical transmission ratios and results of measurements are stored in memorizing unit. Method allows to change range of measurement without changing measuring equipment.

EFFECT: increased precision of measurement.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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