Memory cell

FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: memory cell, containing three-layer structure, including two electrodes, between which a functional zone is located, as electrodes metal and/or semiconductor and/or conducting polymer and/or conducting and optically transparent oxide or sulfide are used, and functional zone is made of organic, metal-organic and non-organic materials with different types of active elements built in molecular and/or crystalline structure, and also their combinations with each other and/or clusters on their basis, which change their condition or position under effect from outside electrical field and/or light radiation.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities, higher manufacturability.

25 cl, 24 dwg

 

The invention relates to computer technology and can be used in storage devices of computers for various purposes, in the development of systems of associative memory devices, creation of synapses (element of an electric circuit with programmable electrical resistance) for neural networks, the creation of data banks with direct access, creating photo-video-audio equipment of new generation.

Modern computers use a storage device for various purposes with different characteristics speed recording, time of storage, access time and read the information. This significantly complicates the work of computing systems increases the time of preparation of the computers to work, complicates the problem of preserving information, and so on

One of the priorities of standing in the field of microelectronics, is the creation of a universal mass storage device with high speed recording and reading information along with a large storage and high information density. Along with this there is a great need for the establishment of an effective and simple element of the synapse for neural computers. The absence of such element restrains the creation of real Neurocomputers.

However, the potential physical principle is in, inherent in the operation of electronic devices, semiconductor microelectronics, almost exhausted. Currently there is an intensive search for new principles of operation and production of electronic devices based on the ideas of molecular electronics using new, including molecular materials or supramolecular ensembles.

Due to the aforementioned shortcomings associated with existing technology storage devices, a priority of the microelectronics industry is the creation/development of a universal mass storage device/system having a high speed read/write, a high density of information and long term preservation of data.

U.S. patent 6055180 (IPC6G 11 11/36, 2000) describes an electrically addressable passive storage device for recording, storing and/or processing data containing a functional medium in the form of continuous or embossed patterns, capable of experiencing physical or chemical state changes. Functional environment includes individually addressable cells, each of which is registered or detected value or is assigned to a predetermined logical value. Each cell is enclosed in a layered sandwich structure between the anode and cathode (electrodes), which are in contact with the functional medium of the cell to provide electrical connection through it, while functional environment has a non-linear frequency response impedance (impedance), due to which the cell can directly get the energy to implement changes in physical or chemical state of the cell.

The lack of storage devices described in U.S. patent 6055180 is, however, that the recording of information can occur only once, and the reading of stored information is performed optically, leading to increased device size and complexity of the device and its use and at the same time reduces the reliability of reading information from the difficulty of accurately positioning the optical beam. In addition, an alternative recording method using thermal breakdown caused by application of a high voltage, also has the disadvantage that the recording of information can occur only once and that require high voltage and, consequently, a high electric field.

Japanese patent 62-260401 (IPC H 01 7/10, With 23 14/08, N 01 1/12, 1990) describes a storage element with a three-layer structure consisting of a pair of electrodes with high temperature compound between them. The storage element operates on the principle of using is it the change in the electrical resistance of the compound after application of an external electric field. Since the conductivity of the compound may be controlled to change between two different levels, it is possible to store information in bit form.

U.S. patent 5761116 (IPC G 11 16/04, H 01 L 29/788, 1998) describes a "programmable metallized cell"consisting of "Explorer mobile ions"such as a film or layer of chalcogenide doped metal ion, such as silver or copper, and a pair of electrodes, for example, the anode (e.g., silver) and cathode (e.g., aluminum), located at a specified distance from each other on the surface of the doped chalcogenide. Silver ions or copper can be made to move through the chalcogenide film or layer under the influence of an electric field. Thus, when the voltage supplied between the anode and the cathode, a metal dendrite ("nano-wire") grows on the surface of the chalcogenide film or from the cathode to the anode, greatly reducing the resistance between the anode and cathode. The growth rate of the dendrite is a function of the supplied voltage and frequency of its application. The growth of the dendrite may be terminated by removing the supplied voltage and can be turned in the opposite direction, toward the cathode, by changing the polarity of the supplied voltage.

U.S. patent 5670818 (IPC H 01 29/00, 1997) describes a persistent storage at trojstvo in the form of electrically programmable antiprotosanoe” jumpers, consisting of a layer of amorphous silicon between the metal conductors. Under the influence of the high voltage portion of the amorphous silicon layer undergoes a phase change, and the atoms of the metal conductors migrate into the silicon layer, resulting in the formation of thin conductive thread ("nano-wires"), a complex mixture of silicon and metal.

The principal disadvantages of the above-described storage devices based on the formation of nano-wires, are associated with lower performance because of the long interval required for the implementation of significant changes in the electrical resistance between the electrodes/conductors and the need for high voltage, for example, ~60 C. These disadvantages greatly limit the practical use of these elements in the existing high-speed electronic devices.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is toxoplasmic bistable threshold or memory switch (U.S. patent 4652894, IPC H 01 L 29/28, 1987), consisting of a layer of polycrystalline organic semiconductor material enclosed between a pair of metal electrodes, where the layer of organic semiconductor material is an electron acceptor to provide a fast p is relucent at low voltages between States of high and low impedance.

The practical implementation of the threshold storage switch described in U.S. patent 4652894 has, however, a fundamental limitation due to the use of low-temperature organic semiconductor compounds, which are not mechanically stable and, more importantly, have insufficient resistance to chemical degradation when exposed to elevated temperatures, usually associated with modern technology for manufacturing semiconductors, i.e. above about 150° and up to 400° C. in Addition, the physical characteristics of organic semiconductor materials cause poor repeatability cycle read/erase/write, and memory is limited to only 1 bit of information, not thereby making it possible to implement applications/devices with high information density.

The main disadvantages of the known technical solutions are, first, the impossibility of combining the existing technology of production of semiconductor devices with the proposed manufacturing technology known memory cell, since it uses low-molecular compounds are mechanical, and most importantly, thermally unstable substances, capable to withstand temperature up to 150° C. It is not possible to use them together with modern technology manufactured the effect of semiconductors, use in technological processes temperature up to 400° C.

Secondly, a well-known memory cell capable of storing only one bit of information that does not allow you to use it to create devices with high information density.

In addition, the physical characteristics of the materials used cause poor repeatability cycle (write-read-erase).

All of the above, and also known in the literature of the memory cells of this type have a common drawback - allow you to store only one bit of information.

In view of the foregoing, there is a clear need for storage devices, which would be free from the aforementioned shortcomings associated with existing storage devices. Therefore, the present invention has as its principal purpose the development of a universal mass storage device/system for high-speed storage and data retrieval with the ability of long-term memory with a high density of bits.

The problem solved by the invention is the creation of a fundamentally new memory cell, which would allow to store multiple bits of information that could be characterized by fast switching resistance and low working voltages, but it would allow to combine t is hnology its manufacturing production technology of modern semiconductor devices.

This task is achieved in that in the memory cell containing a three-layer structure comprising two electrodes between which there is a functional area, as the electrodes are metal and/or semiconductor and/or conductive polymer, and/or conductive and optically transparent oxide or sulfide, and the functional area is made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with built-in molecular and/or crystalline structure of different types of active elements and their combinations with each other and/or clusters based on them, which change its state or position under the action of external electric field and/or light radiation.

Preferably electrode of the memory cell in the form of several spatially and electrically separated elements, for example, two or three elements above the functional layer, which allows more accurate control of the amount of electrical resistance of the cell, thereby increasing the level of discreteness of the recording information, or the accuracy of the magnitude of the analog values of electrical resistance of the cell, and allows you to unleash the electrical circuit of the recording and reading information.

It is preferable to perform the functional area of a cell from the active layer on the basis of the content of inorganic fillers, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements of positive or negative ions, including molecular ions, namely based on composites of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated active elements of the clusters based on solid electrolytes. The specified performance of functional areas allows you to create a structure capable of changing the electrical resistance of the active layer and/or to form the highly conductive region or the threads in the active layer under the influence of external electric and/or light effects on the memory cell and to maintain this state for a long time without the application of external electric fields.

Very effectively be used as one of the active elements of the functional zones of the memory cell molecules and/or ions with an electric dipole moment and/or integrated as active elements clusters on the basis of solid polymer and inorganic ferroelectrics that ensures the operability of the memory cells at low applied voltages. This is due to the fact that the presence of ferroelectric elements increases the magnitude of the intensity of the internal electric field, and therefore, will require the application of a smaller nesnera electric voltage when recording information.

It is preferable to perform the functional area of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements donor and/or acceptor molecules, organic and/or inorganic salts and/or acids and/or water molecules. Built as the active elements of the molecule can dissociate in an electric field and/or under the action of light radiation and have a variable valence metal or atomic groups within them. Functional area preferably from the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic conjugated polymers with built-in the main chain and/or attached to a chain or plane and/or embedded in the structure of the active elements, forming or not forming a light emitting structure.

It is preferable to perform the functional area of a memory cell in a multilayer structure consisting of several active, passive, barrier, light emitting and photosensitive layers made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with built-in molecular and/or crystalline structure of the active elements and/or clusters based on them, which change its state or position under the action shall eat the external electric field and/or light radiation, that allows you to extend the range and increment values of electrical resistance, and therefore, to increase the information density memory.

It is advisable to perform the functional area of a memory cell in a multilayer structure consisting of alternating active and passive barrier layers with optical elements or electrical isolation, while passive layers made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials, which donors and/or acceptors charge carriers and having ionic and/or electronic conductivity, and the barrier layer is made of material with electronic conductivity and low ionic conductivity, which improves the temporal stability of the memory cell and simultaneously to increase the information density due to the higher discreteness of the stored values of electrical resistance of the memory cell. This embodiment of the functional areas allows you to create multi-layered structure capable of changing the electrical resistance of the active layer and/or to form the highly conductive region or yarn with metallic conductivity in the active layer under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation to the memory cell and to maintain this state for a long time without the application of externally is x electric fields.

Functional area has a two-layer structure consisting of active and passive layers, where the active layer is made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials and has a low electronic conductivity.

Functional area has a three-layer structure with outer layers made of an active layer and a barrier layer located between them, the four-layer structure with two active layers, which are separated by a third barrier layer, and the fourth is a passive layer, and patalaloka structure with two external passive layers and located between the two active layers, which are separated by a fifth barrier layer.

Elements of the electric junction is made in the form of additional electrode made of electrically conductive material and the layer of semiconductor and/or organic material, forming a diode structure.

It is advantageous to perform the electrode of the memory cell in the form of two parallel, spatially separated semiconductor and/or organic light-emitting material elements and forming, for example, or a diode structure, or foetoprotein or photosensitive element that allows electrically or optically to unleash a chain of recording and reading information.

Also it is advantageous to perform the electric is on memory cells in the form of three parallel spatially separated semiconductor and/or organic light-emitting material elements and forming, for example, a light-emitting structure and foetoprotein or photosensitive element, which also allows optical to unleash a chain of recording and reading information.

The specified execution memory cell allows you to create a memory element with a single-bit or mnogopudovymi way of recording, storing and reading information. When this information is stored as a resistance value of the functional areas. For a memory cell with single-bit storage mode information, the resistance value of the cell has two levels - high (corresponds to a value of, for example, 0) and low (corresponds to a value of, for example, 1)and for memory cells with mnogopudovymi storage mode information, the resistance value of the cell has multiple levels corresponding to a particular bit of information. For example, for the case of double-bit cell, there are four levels of values of its resistance to chetyrehmetrovoy sixteen levels, etc. of the memory Cell differs from the currently used memory elements so that during storage of information it does not require constant power. The data storage time depends on the structure of the memory cell and the material used functional zones, recording mode and may vary from a few seconds (can be used to create dynamic memory) to walk the fir years (can be used to create long-term memory, type flash memory).

The present invention is based on the fact that: (1) exist or can be prepared the materials, which show reversible changes, i.e. modulation, their conductivity upon application and subsequent removal of the electric field and/or light radiation; and (2) it is possible to make useful devices, in particular memory device - a memory cell in which the phenomenon is reversible changes or modulation of conductivity exhibited by such materials, forms the basis for the operation of these devices.

There is a wide variety of materials with relatively low electrical conductivity, including a variety of dielectrics, ferroelectrics, semiconductors, ceramics, organic polymers, molecular crystals, and the connection of the above-mentioned materials, which are potentially suitable as the active layer of the memory cell. Such materials can be formed into layers, showing a significant increase in conductivity (i.e., the conductivity modulation) when the doping charged particles of different types, for example, ions, or a combination of ions and electrons, which are embedded in the material under the influence of the supplied electric field of one polarity, and which layers means show significant reduction in conductivity, Bagdasarian particles should at least partially, to leave the material due to exposure to the electric field of the other (opposite) polarity. Thus, the active layers according to the present invention, subjected to conductivity modulation by embedding active elements - reversible introduction/removal of charged particles, e.g. ions, or a combination of ions and electrons, under the influence of the supplied electric field of appropriate polarity.

One of the most sensitive materials according to the change in conductivity under the action of the electric field in the presence of active elements are conjugated polymers, organic, ORGANOMETALLIC materials, consisting of molecules that form complexes with charge transfer, different types of connections-enable.

Another important class of materials, which change their conductivity is also a wide class of inorganic materials, in particular, semiconductor materials, as well as connections-enable mixed-type conductivity. For this type of material is characterized by changes in conductivity during implementation under the influence of an electric field such active elements, what are the different types of ions. The latter materials are also characterized by high mobility of ions of type lithium, sodium, hydrogen, etc.

In : the polymers with variable electrical conductivity are conjugated polymers, characterized by a conjugated unsaturated bonds, which contribute to the movement of electrons. In a number of suitable conjugated polymers include those selected from the group consisting of polydiphenylsiloxane, poly(t-butyl)diphenylacetylene, poly(trifluoromethyl)diphenylacetylene, Polius(t-butyl)diphenylacetylene, poly(trimethylsilyl)diphenylacetylene, poly(carbazole)diphenylacetylene, polydiacetylene, polyphenylacetylene, polypyromellitimide, polymethacrylamide, poly(t-butyl)phenylacetylene, polyetrafluoroethylene, poly(trifluoromethyl)diphenylacetylene, poly(trimethylsilyl)phenylacetylene, poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) and their derivatives containing catching ions molecular groups selected from the group consisting of crown-ethers, cyclic analogues of crown ethers, carboxy, diimines, sulfonic compounds, phosphonic compounds and dithiocarbonate connections.

Other suitable polymers include those selected from the group consisting of polyaniline, polythiophene, polypyrrole, polysilane, polyfuran, polyindole, lazuline, Polyphenylene, polypyridine, paliperidone, polyphthalocyanine and their derivatives containing catching ions molecular groups selected from the group consisting of crown ethers, cyclic analogues of crown ethers, carboxy, di is Minov, sulfonic, phosphonic and dithiocarbonate connections.

Other appropriate and related chemical compounds are: aromatic hydrocarbons; organic molecules with donor and acceptor properties (N-ethylcarbazole, tetrathiotetracene, tetrathiofulvalene, tetracyanobenzene), ORGANOMETALLIC complexes (bidimensionnel, biorthogonalization, tetraaza-tetramethylaniline etc.); porphyrin, phthalocyanine and derivatives thereof, in particular those that contain absorbing ions molecular groups selected from the group consisting of crown ethers, cyclic analogues of crown ethers, carboxy, diimines, sulfonic, phosphonic and dithiocarbonate connections etc.

The preferred polymers are those that have high heat resistance, for example, remain thermally stable at a temperature of about 300-400° C and above.

It is also desirable to use a composite material comprising a porous dielectric containing at least one polymer with variable conductivity. Among the suitable to create porous materials include those selected from the group consisting of amorphous silicon (Si), silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2About3), copper oxide (si2O), titanium oxide (TiO2), boron nitride (BN), vanadium oxide (V2About3), NITR is Yes carbon (SP 3), ferroelectric materials, including barium titanate-strontium etc.

At least one active layer has a thickness of from about 10 to aboutpreferably, from about 500 to about

The ability of a material to change its conductivity under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation is determined by the presence in the composition of the material of active elements, which, by changing the electronic state structure or the spatial position under the action of the electric field influence on the electronic conductivity of the material. The embedding of active elements in the functional area to conduct a variety of ways: they can be incorporated into the material during its manufacture or in the process of creating the active layer of the memory cell, or introduced into the active layer during operation of the cell under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation.

As the active elements used any known from the prior art, which change its state or position under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation.

The active elements that are proposed to be used, primarily include: positive or negative ions, including molecular IO is s; molecules or molecular groups that contain a metal or atomic groups with variable valence; molecules, organic, inorganic or ORGANOMETALLIC salts, organic and inorganic acids and water molecules dissociate in an electric field and/or light radiation; donor and acceptor molecules or atomic groups, molecules, ions, atomic groups with an electric dipole moment; molecules or atomic groups capable of capturing ions of different type; clusters based on solid electrolytes, polymeric and inorganic ferroelectrics.

When using as active elements of metal ions (silver, copper, lithium, sodium and so on) in the active layer may be formed of nano-dots or nano-wires, which is also accompanied by a sharp change in the electrical resistance between the electrodes of the memory cell. For this type of cells you can use almost any material with its own low electrical conductivity, it is preferable to use a porous or defective structure materials.

Among the preferred active elements are molecules and/or ions with an electric dipole moment, or clusters, based on the solid polymer and inorganic ferroelectrics, because they allow usage is to use a lower voltage when recording information.

A key feature of the present invention is the presence of an additional layer of material, referred to as the passive layer, which can means to function as a source of charged particles, e.g. ions or ions+electrons, which strikeouts (injections) in the active layer during application of the electric field of one polarity, and as the acceptor (drain) of charged particles that are removed from the active layer during application of the electric field of the other (opposite) polarity. In accordance with the invention, the donor/acceptor materials reversal of charged particles suitable for use as a passive layer include, for example, the connection with the mobile ions, including superionic conductors and connections including, for example, AgI, AgBr, Ag2S, Ag2Se, Ag2-xTe, rbag data member4I5, CuI, CuBr, Cu2-xS, Cu2-xSe, Cu2-xTe, AgxCu2-xS, Cu3HgI4, AuI, Au2S Au2Se, AI2S3, NaxCuySe2, Li3N, LiNiO2, LixTiS2, LixMoSe2, LixTaS2, LixVSe2, LixHfSe2, LixTiSe2, LixVSe2, LixNbSe2, LixCoO2, LixWO3, CuxWO3-x, NaxWO3-xHxWO3-x, LixMoO3-x, PAxMoo3With xMoo3, LixV2O5HxPd, PAβ -Al2About3, (AgI)x(Ag2OnB2O3)1-xAg2CdI4, CuxPb1-xBr2-x, Li3M2(RHO4)3where M = Fe, Sc or Cr, K3Nb3In2O12, K1-xTi1-xNbxOPO4, SrZr1-xYbxO3, Sr1-x/2TiI-x, NbxAbout3that β -Mg3Bi2, Cs5H3(SO4)x·H2O, NZr2(RHO4)3, NayFeP2O8(OF)1-x, ZrO2-xCeO2-xCaF2and BaF2. These materials means give/take silver ions (Ag), copper (cu), gold (AU), lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), calcium (CA), ions of other metals or metal-containing ions, hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), fluorine (F) and other halogenated ions.

Some of the above materials, for example, LixVSe2, LixHfSe2, LixTiSe2, LixVSe2, LixNbSe2, LixCoO2, LixMoO3-x, can simultaneously be used for the active layer and the passive layer, by means of this embodiment of the memory devices made according to the invention with such materials capable of simultaneously functioning as the active and the passive layer, because the functionality is supplemented flax area includes a single layer, sandwiched between a pair of electrodes.

In some embodiments memory device manufactured according to the present invention, at least one active layer and at least one passive layer consist of the same material, due to which functional area having a multilayer structure, in essence, includes a single layer. Functional zone - uniform layer includes a composite material comprising a porous dielectric comprising at least one polymer with variable conductivity. The porous dielectric is selected from the group consisting of Si, amorphous Si, silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2About3), copper oxide (si2O), titanium oxide (Tio2), boron nitride (BN), vanadium oxide (V2O3), carbon nitride (CN3), ferroelectric materials, including barium titanate-strontium. Multilayer structure with a single layer may further include a barrier layer that is located inside a structure and consisting of a material which prevents the spontaneous movement of the charged particles when the electric potential difference is not attached between the said first and second electrodes.

In some embodiments memory device manufactured in accordance with the present invention, a multilayered structure, in essence,includes a single layer, containing at least one polymer with variable conductivity, which legarrette charged particles or electrolyte clusters when embedding them in resin.

The materials used as the passive layer, characterized by lightness, i.e. the speed with which they give and receive charged particles, e.g. ions or ions+electrons, under the influence of a relatively weak electric field, i.e. in the range of electric fields used in typical semiconductor devices, such as flash memory. Thus, the application of an electric field of one polarity to the functional area of the multilayer structure, the layer stack comprising at least one active layer and at least one passive layer, will cause movement of charged particles such as ions or ions+electrons from the last layer in the first and the application of an electric field on the other (opposite) polarity will cover at least some of the ions or ions + electrons from the first layer and return them to the second layer. Next, the giving and receiving charged particles are reversible (reversible) processes and can be modulated over extremely long periods of time and over a million cycles.

In accordance with the invention, resocialization storage elements or devices are a function of the characteristics of the modulation of the conductivity of the polymer material of the active layer. Therefore, the ease with which charged particles such as ions, means are embedded (given) in the active layer (i.e. alloyed) and removed therefrom, determines the ease with which is "programming" and "erase" in the storage device. As a prerequisite of this characteristic is the ease of motion of charged particles, e.g. ions or ions+electrons in the active layer and from him, ions or ions+electrons are free to move in polymer material and will, therefore, have a tendency to return to its original state or location under the influence of internal electric fields (as is the case in the absence of an electric field acting from the outside). Therefore, according to the invention, to improve the retention characteristics of data storage devices, the interval during which induces relaxation is adjustable, adjustable interval when a previously injected mobile ions or ions+electrons partially displaced or out of the active layer and return to the passive layer, so that the conductivity decreases. Such adjustment may, for example, be achieved by introducing at least one barrier layer to prevent the movement of charged particles in the absence of supplied electric field. The poet is mu material that can be used as a barrier layer must have the property does not allow easy movement through it charged particles such as ions or ions+electrons, or the property is not to draw or even to repel ions or ions+electrons. Therefore, the barrier layer limits the spontaneous movement of charged particles (i.e. movement in the absence of an electric field acting from the outside) between the active layer and a passive layer, thereby increasing the hold time of the data storage device. Among the materials suitable for use as a barrier layer according to the invention, consists of SiOx, AlOx, NbOx, TiOx, CrOx, VOx, TaOx, MoOx, CuOx, MgOxWOx, AlNx, Al, Pt, Nb, Be, Zn, Ti, W, Fe, Ni and PD.

In accordance with the invention is formed functional area with a multi-layered structure that includes at least one active layer and at least one passive layer, and may include at least one barrier layer. Functional area with a multi-layer structure is located between a pair of electrically conductive electrodes, which serve as electrical connections to ensure that the effects of external electric fields.

In a number of suitable conductive materials used in the quality of the ve electrodes, includes metals, metal alloys, nitrides, oxides, sulfides of metals, carbon, and polymers, including, for example: aluminum (Al), silver (Ag), copper (cu), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), their alloys and nitrides, amorphous carbon, transparent oxides, including indium oxide and tin (TO), transparent sulfides and organic polymers. The work functions of the different materials used for the electrodes, determined by the ease with which electrons and/or holes are embedded (injections) in the memory cell under the influence of the supplied electric field, and, in turn, affect the function of the device, i.e. the speed at which the device can be programmed, read and erased, and the amount of power required to perform these functions. In addition, one of the electrodes may, in some cases, to serve as a material of a reagent for the formation of the passive layer of the device.

figure 1 (A)-1 (C) schematically show a perspective view in partial section of an example two-layer memory cell 10 corresponding to the invention, to illustrate the principle of the modulation of conductivity;

figure 2 is a graph of dependence of current (I) and voltage (V) (- V characteristic), illustrating operation of a memory cell in accordance with the invention;

figure 3 is a graph of voltage as a function of (V) and current (I) from time (n is the EC) in the course of the switching memory cell in accordance with the invention from the state of "OFF" with high resistance (corresponding to logical 0) to "ON" with low resistance (corresponding to logical 1);

figure 4-21 illustrate in simplified schematic view in cross section of various designs of memory cells corresponding to the invention, each of which contains a stack of layers between the vertically spaced apart first and second electrodes;

Fig, 23 are diagrams illustrating the principle of recording, erasing and reading information from the claimed memory cell;

Fig are plots of voltage and current when recording, erasing and reading information from the claimed memory cell.

Figure 1 (A)-1 (B) shows a schematic perspective view with partial section of an example two-layer memory cell that corresponds to the invention to illustrate the principle of the modulation of the conductivity. As shown in figure 1(A)-1(B), the memory cell includes the upper electrode 1 and lower electrode 2 with the functional area that is located between them and consisting of an upper, active layer 3 (limited vertically opposite long sides of the sealing protective material 9)in contact with the upper electrode 1 and lower passive layer 5 in contact with the lower electrode 2. The specified memory location does not contain a barrier layer 4. The passive layer 5 is the source of active elements (i.e. donor and acceptor charged particles, for example, the positive saragani the ions 6 (typical metal ions), and the active layer 3 is made of a material with poor electrical conductivity (e.g., insulator), including many micro-channels or pores 7, with mainly vertical length between the passive layer 5 and the upper electrode 1, which contribute injection and movement of ions 6 in the active layer 3.

Consider the operation of a memory cell in the example of the most complex operation, the most characteristic for the invention of the cell, which is depicted in figure 10.

Figure 1 (A) illustrates the state of the memory cell when it has high resistance and is in the state "OFF", characterized by low conductivity, i.e. in the absence of the electric field, while the active elements are mobile ions 6 is essentially limited by the passive layer 5, and the micro-channels or pores 7, essentially devoid of ions 6; whereas figure 1 (B) illustrates the state of the memory cell when it has low resistivity and is located in the state of "ON", characterized by high conductivity, i.e. after application of the electric field polarity and tension which is sufficient to cause embedding of active elements - injection ion 6 of the passive layer 5 in the micro-channels or pores 7 of the active layer 3 to form with conductive nano-wires 8. (Regarding this, it should be noted that some of the ions which 6 can be present inside the micro-channels or pores 7, when the memory cell (figure 10) is in the "OFF"; however, the number of ions is insufficient to create a conductive nano-wire" 8).

Referring to figure 2, we see a graph of current (I) and voltage (V) (- V characteristic), illustrating operation of memory cells in accordance with the invention. Since the starting point of the graph (i.e., V and I=0), voltage (V)applied to the device in the OFF (isolating, high resistance or low conductivity), initially increases along the curve 1. When the supplied voltage reaches the programming threshold voltage VPusually in the range of 0.5 to 4 V, the memory cell can be changed very quickly from a state of "OFF" with high resistance, following the curve 2. During programming ions from the passive layer mobilise the supplied electric field, built - injections in the active layer and are distributed in the conductive microchannels (as shown in figure 1 (B)). A sharp decrease in resistance corresponds to the point at which the formation of the electrically conductive micro-channels is completed, thereby providing a low resistance.

With the memory cell can be read at any voltage below the threshold voltage VPi.e. in the "read area". Therefore, a low voltage can be used to test the testing device and test its resistance, when low current indicates that the device is "OFF" with high resistance and high current indicates that the device is "ON" with low resistance. Operation "read" is non-destructive and does not violate the device's status.

From the state with low resistance supplied voltage can be reduced to 0, following the curve 3. The decay curve I-V indicates that the memory cell is in a state of low resistance, and the steeper the decline curve I-V, the lower the resistance. The difference between the States "on" and "off" is determined by the ratio of ON/OFF, which can have a value up to 9 orders of magnitude for the memory cells described in the invention, i.e. from a few M’Ω to ~ 10-100’Ω but usually is ~ 4-6 orders of magnitude.

When the memory cell is in state "ON" with low resistance can be erased by applying a more negative voltage (following curve 3), has not yet reached the threshold erase voltage (Vc), at the point which the device rapidly switches back to "OFF" with high resistance, following the curve 4. The threshold voltage of the erase Vcusually are in the same range as the programming threshold voltage Vpbut can be adjusted depending on the choice of materials for the act the main and passive layers, electrodes, and depending on the thickness of the layer. In conceptual terms, the erase operation corresponds to the removal of such minimum number of charged particles, e.g. ions, from the micro-channels or pores, which is enough to interrupt the continuity of the conductive nano-wires. As a consequence, only a small number of ions must be removed from the micro-channels or pores to effectively break the conductive wire, thereby to increase the resistance.

Referring to figure 3, which is a graph of voltage (V) and current (I) time (NSEC) during switching memory cell in accordance with the invention from the state of "OFF" with high resistance (corresponding to logical 0) to "ON" with low resistance (corresponding to logical 1), we see that the switching time is very fast, on the order of about 100 NS, which indicates high speed.

Efficient operation of the memory cell is also favorable that the mobility of ions in an electric field strongly depends on its tension. As is well known, ion mobility increases dramatically when the electric field intensity of more than 104-105V/cm, which corresponds to Annex IV to the film thickness of 1μ . Typically, the first time (initializing) a memory cell requires bol the higher voltage programming than the subsequent steady mode. In a stable operation mode of the cell is sufficient mixing of the ions of 1 to 2 period, and in some cases significantly less, to dramatically change the conductivity of the active layer. It requires less voltage and determines the speed of the memory cell. The behavior of current-voltage characteristics similar to each other for different types of materials of the active layer, and largely defined characteristic parameters of the test generator used when programming and erasing memory cells (see “Procedure for recording, reading and erasing information in the memory cells”).

The invention allows to create various designs memory cell comprising layers between vertically spaced apart first and second electrodes, shows a simplified schematic view in cross section on figure 4-21, where each of the various components of the layers consists of one or more of the above materials are marked as suitable for use as a component of the layer.

The claimed memory cell (figure 4) contains two solid electrodes 1 and 2, between which there is a single layer functional area, consisting of one active layer, which can be derovan 3 ions or clusters of electrolytes (3A) (4-5) or two actioneduponnoderef layers 3b and 3C (6), or two active layers with clusters of electrolytes 3 g and 3D (7), or two active doped layers 3b and 3C (Fig), separated by a barrier layer 4, or the two active layers with clusters of electrolytes 3 g and 3D (Fig.9), separated by a barrier layer 4. Figure 10-15 functional area is made of a multilayer structure consisting of one active layer 3 and one passive layer 5 (figure 10) or of the two active layers 3b and 3b and one passive layer 5 (11) or from one of the active layer 3, a single barrier 4 and one passive layer 5 (Fig) or of two active layers 3b and 3C, one of the barrier layer 4, separating them and one passive layer 5 (Fig) or of two active layers 3b and 3C, two barrier layers 4A, 4B and one passive layer 5 (Fig), or of two active layers 3b and 3C, one barrier 4 and two passive layers 5A and 5B (Fig).

On Fig the claimed memory cell contains aluminum electrodes 1 and 2, the upper electrode 1 consists of two elements 1A and 1B. Between the electrodes is the functional area of a single active layer 6, is accomplished similarly to that depicted in figure 4-5, or a functional area with a multi-layered structure, which can be performed similarly to the functional areas shown in Fig.6-15.

On Fig the claimed memory cell contains aluminum electrodes 1 and 2 with the top power is 1 consists of three elements 1A, 1B and 1B. Between the electrodes is the functional area of a single active layer 6, is accomplished similarly to that depicted in figure 4-5, or functional area, which has a multilayer structure and may be performed similarly to the functional areas shown in Fig.6-15.

On Fig presents the claimed memory cell containing the electrodes 1 and 2, each of which consists of two elements 1A, 1B and 2A, 2B. Between the electrodes is the functional area of a single active layer 6, is accomplished similarly to that depicted in figure 4-5, or a functional area with a multi-layered structure, which can be performed similarly to the functional areas shown in Fig.6-15.

The claimed memory cell Fig-20 contains two solid aluminum electrodes 1 and 2, between which is the functional area of the multilayer structure 6, which can be performed similarly depicts the functional zones, depicted in Fig.6-15 and provided with electrical isolation - additional electrode 7 and layer 8 of the semiconductor and/or organic material, forming a diode structure Fig, or elements of the optical isolation - additional electrode 9 of electrically conductive and optically transparent material and a layer 10 of the semiconductor and/or organic material, obrotowe what about foetoprotein or photosensitive element (Fig), or elements of the optical isolation electrode 7 made of electrically conductive material and the two layers 10, 11 of the semiconductor and/or organic materials separated electrode 9 made of electrically conductive and optically transparent material and forming a photodiode or a light-emitting structure 11 and foetoprotein or photosensitive element 10 (Fig).

Each of the layers in each of the implementations of the memory cells is illustrated in figure 4-21, has the following thickness:

first and second electrically conductive electrodes 1 and 2: from about 1000 to aboutwith a preferred value of from 3000 to about

the active layer 3 or the active layers 3A and 3b: from about 10 to aboutwith a preferred value of from 500 to about

the passive layer 5 or passive layers 5 a and 5B: from about 20 to aboutwith a preferred value of from 100 to aboutand

the barrier layer 4: from about 20 to aboutwith the preferred value of

Each of the constituent layers can be prepared according to known methods. For brevity, the details are not here PR is found, except as specified below and in the following examples 1-51:

the electrodes are created using conventional thin film deposition, for example, thermal vacuum evaporation, magnetron sputtering, electron beam deposition, etc.;

- the passive layer may be formed using conventional thin film deposition, such as thermal vacuum evaporation, magnetron sputtering, chemical deposition from the gas phase, coating by centrifuging, or by deposition of the first metal layer, ultimately, to be included in the passive layer, for example, by reaction of the initially formed layer of si with gas or liquid containing S, Se or Te to get the layer composed of the reaction product, for example, Cu2S or Cu2Se in contact with the layer C;

porous active layers such as porous polymeric materials can be formed using known methods of thin film deposition, such as thermal spraying, coating by centrifugation, chemical deposition from the gas phase (CVD), etc.

In accordance with the implementation of the present invention, the polymer (polymers) of the active layer (s) can first be deposited as Monomeric precursor by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Example, education is one of the active layer by using the above process includes the formation of a polymer film, such as polydiphenylsiloxane film on the surface of the passive layer from diphenylacetylene as Monomeric precursor. Similarly, an example of the formation of more than one active layer by using the above process includes the formation of a polymeric film, such as phtalocyanine film on the surface of the first active layer from tetracyanobenzene as Monomeric precursor.

The procedure of recording, reading and erasing information in the memory cells is as follows.

To explain the principle of recording, erasing and reading information from the claimed memory cell consider the scheme shown in Fig. 22, containing: a special test generator 12 based on a programmable current generator and providing a controlled amount of current during recording of information, constant voltage during reading, and forming a negative voltage pulses when erasing; a memory cell including the electrodes 1, 2 and functional area 6, which may be in the form of one of the options presented on figure 4-15; the ballast resistor 13 and a device for registering the voltage 14 and 15, which may be in the form of voltmeters, chart recorder or oscilloscope. Measuring the voltage drop across the ballast resistance 13, you can get is the information on the current magnitude, passing through the memory cell.

The device operates as follows.

Test generator 12 generates a voltage pulse 16 (Fig)exceeding the threshold value 23. After the magnitude of the current pulse recording 19 reaches the programmed value, the generator 12 enters the scan mode, and generates a voltage readout 18, which is significantly below the threshold value 23. The record is produced, if the monitored current accounts 19 reaches the programmed value, then the applied voltage is turned off. The current 22 (a-d) through the ballast resistor 13 can judge the resistance value of the memory cell and the values of the resistances can be put into correspondence with a certain bit of information. For example, for the case of double-bit memory:

current 22A corresponds to the value (00);

current 22b corresponds to a value (01);

current 22p corresponds to the value (10);

current 22d corresponds to the value (11).

The time information storage and and discretion to establish appropriate values of electric resistance of the memory cell depends on the choice of the functional areas and materials used. Erasing of information is performed by the generator 12 by filing a pulse of negative voltage 17. Erasing with udaetsya produced, if the monitored current value of the erase 20 reaches the preset value, then the applied negative voltage is turned off. After erasing the memory cell returns to its original state with a very large electrical resistance functional area 6. For the on pig structure of the memory cell, before each act of recording information necessary to translate the memory cell in the initial state, i.e. delete the information available.

Similarly is the work of memory cells, the electrodes are in the form of several separated elements depicted in Fig-18. Consider the example cell shown in Fig. To do this, use the test generator 12 shown in Fig. The programming of the memory cell occurs when the application of a pulse electric field to the lower electrode 2 and the Central element of the upper electrode 1B, which value exceeds the threshold value 23 while controlling the value of electric resistance between the extreme elements of the upper electrode 1A and 1B. The record is produced, if the controlled value of the electrical resistance reaches a predetermined value, after which the applied voltage is turned off. Reading information from ACE the key is a method to measure the electrical resistance between the extreme elements of the upper electrode 1A and 1B using a pulse voltage of low magnitude, while the Central electrode 1B and the lower electrode 2 may in some cases be applied additional control voltage. Erasing memory cells occurs under the application of a negative pulse electric field to the lower electrode 2 and the Central element of the upper electrode 1B while controlling the value of electric resistance between the extreme elements of the upper electrode 1A and 1B. Erasing is done, if the controlled value (current or resistance) is reached, after which the applied negative voltage is turned off. This cell is characterized by a higher information density due to the isolation of electrical circuits of the write-read-and, consequently, a more precise control of the magnitude of the programmed value of the electric resistance of the memory cell.

Below are different ways to perform the claimed memory cell.

Example 1: Ti/polyphenylacetylene+molecules chloranil or tetracyanoquinodimethane/ amorphous carbon (a-C). The lower electrode is formed of materials selected from among aluminum, silver, copper, palladium, platinum, titanium, tungsten and their alloys and nitrides, conductive oxides (ITO) and amorphous carbon (a-C). The first layer or the lower elec is kind of has a thickness of about with the preferred value ofThe active layer is a composite of polymer polyphenylacetylene and molecules chloranil or tetracyanoquinodimethane or dichloro-dicyanobenzoquinone, which precipitates from the solution by centrifuging. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is deposited on the top surface of the active layer in the same manner as the first electrode. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 2: Ti /copper phthalocyanine/ fluorinated phthalocyanine copper / a-C or Pd, or an oxide of indium and tin (ITO). The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutthe preferred value ofThe lower active layer 3A - phthalocyanine copper, which is applied by thermal spraying, has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe upper active layer 3b - fluorinated copper phthalocyanine, which is applied by thermal spraying, has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of The second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 3: Ti / Policeman with N-carbonylbromobis groups+porous silicon oxide (SiO2) / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 1 except that the active layer is a composite comprising a porous silicon oxide (SiO2and polysilane with N-carbonylbromobis groups.

Example 4: Ti/Polythiophene with cyclopentadienyl groups/amorphous carbon (a-C). This memory cell is manufactured analogously to example 1, except that the material of the active layer is polythiophene with cyclopentadienyl groups.

Example 5: Ti/Polythiophene N-carbonylbromobis groups / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is polythiophene with N-carbonylbromobis groups.

Example 6: Ti/Policeman with cyclopentadienyl groups / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is polysilane with cyclopentadienyl groups.

Note the R 7: Ti/Policeman with amino groups / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is polysilane with amino groups.

Example 8: Ti/Polythiophene with amino groups / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is polythiophene with amino groups.

Example 9: Ti/Polythiophene with alkylaminocarbonyl / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is polythiophene with alkylaminocarbonyl.

Example 10: Ti/Polythiophene N-carbonylbromobis groups+porous silicon oxide (SiO2) / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 3, except that the active layer is a composite comprising a porous silicon oxide (SiO2and polythiophene with N-carbonylbromobis groups.

Example 11: Ti/Policeman with cyclopentadienyl groups+porous silicon oxide (SiO2) / a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 3, except that the material of the active layer is a composite comprising a porous silicon oxide (SiO2and polysilane with cyclopentadienyl groups.

Example 12: Ti/polydivinylbenzene with carbazole groups+dinitro-n-phenyl/a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell manufactured by the Lena as in example 3, except that the material of the active layer is a composite, consisting of polydiphenylsiloxane with carbazole groups+dinitro-n-phenyl.

Example 13: Ti/polyethyleneoxide+LiCF3SO3/ a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is a composite consisting of polyethyleneoxide+salt lithium triptorelin sulfonate (LiCF3SO3).

Example 14: Ti/polydivinylbenzene with carbazole groups +dinitro-n-phenyl+porous ferroelectric (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) /a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 3, except that the material of the active layer is a composite, consisting of polydiphenylsiloxane with carbazole groups+dinitro-n-phenyl+porous ferroelectric (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)).

Example 15: Ti/polyethyleneoxide+K4[Fe(CP)6]/ a-C or Pd or ITO. This memory cell is made as in example 4, except that the material of the active layer is a composite consisting of polyethyleneoxide+salts potassium hexacyanoferrate (K4[Fe(CN)6]).

Example 16: Ti/Politicalaction/ amorphous carbon (a-C). This memory cell is manufactured analogously to example 1, except that the material of the active layer is politicalsocial.

Prima is 17: Ti/Li xiS2/poly(1-butyl) diphenylacetylene/Al or Ti or amorphous carbon (a-C). The first or bottom electrode is formed from materials selected from among aluminum, silver, copper, titanium, tungsten and their alloys and nitrides, conductive oxides (oxide of indium and tin (ITO)) and amorphous carbon (a-C). Layers of the first or bottom electrode have a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe passive layer LixTiS2applied using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The passive layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofIntercalation of lithium ions in the layer TiS2is performed using a solution of n-utility in hexane. The active layer is poly(t-butyl)diphenylacetylene, which precipitates from solution by coating by centrifugation. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is deposited on the top surface of the active layer of poly(t-butyl)diphenylacetylene the same manner as the first electrode. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 18: Ti/Polimer the second electrolyte+poly(t-butyl) diphenylacetylene/a-C. The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe active layer is a polymer electrolyte mixture containing poly(propylene oxide) with a lithium salt (LiClO4and poly(t-butyl)diphenylacetylene, which may be deposited from solution by coating by centrifugation. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 19: Ti/si2-xS/polydivinylbenzene/a-C. the First or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe passive layer consists of si2-xS. the Passive layer of Cu2-xS is deposited on the top surface of the first or bottom electrode. The copper layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThis layer is deposited in the chamber with gas H S for 15 minutes at room temperature. Cu2-xS is obtained by the reaction between copper and gas H2S. the Active layer consists of polydiphenylsiloxane, which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Polydiphenylsiloxane film is formed on the surface of Cu2-xS at 125° from diphenylacetylene as Monomeric precursor. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer from polydiphenylsiloxane by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of.

Example 20: Ti/Ag2S/polyphenylacetylene/a-C - a memory cell is fabricated in the same manner as in example 19, except that the passive layer is made of Ag2S, which is deposited on the upper surface of the lower electrode. The passive layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe passive layer of Ag2S applied using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or evaporation. The active layer consists of polyphenylacetylene, to the which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or by centrifugation.

Example 21: Ti/LixWO3/ poly(t-butyl) diphenylacetylene /Pd or Ti, or a-C - a memory cell is fabricated in the same manner as in example 17, except that the passive layer is made of LixWO3and deposited on the upper surface of the first or bottom electrode. The passive layer of LixWO3precipitates as the following process: tungsten layer is deposited on the upper surface of the lower electrode. Tungsten layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThis layer is deposited in the chamber with gas O2within 20 minutes at 250° C. In the reaction between tungsten and gaseous oxygen get WO3. Intercalation of lithium ions in the WO3is formed by using a solution of n-utility in hexane. The passive layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 22: Ti/W/CuxWO3/ poly(t-butyl) diphenylacetylene /Al or Ti or a-C of the memory cell is fabricated using CuxWO3as a passive layer. The passive layer of CuxWO3precipitates as the following process: tungsten layer is deposited on the upper surface of the first or bottom electrode and has a thickness of about with the preferred value of. This layer is deposited in the chamber with gas About2within 20 minutes at 250° C. In the reaction between tungsten and oxygen get WO3. Then CuI is deposited on the layer WO3from a solution by coating by centrifugation. After heating to a temperature of 150° get CuxWO3. Poly(t-butyl) diphenylacetylene serves as the active layer.

Example 23: Ti/W/HxWO3/polyaniline/Al or Ti or a-C or ITO. The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe passive layer from WO3precipitates as the following process: tungsten layer is deposited on the upper surface of the first or bottom electrode and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThen, a tungsten layer is deposited in the chamber with gas O2within 20 minutes at 250° C. the Active layer is polyaniline, which precipitates from solution by coating by centrifugation. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is composed of the amorphous plastics technology : turning & the Yes, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer of polyaniline by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofTungsten (W) serves as a barrier layer.

Example 24: Ti/polyaniline/PD/polyaniline/a-C or Ti or ITO. The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe lower active layer composed of polyaniline, which precipitates from solution by coating by centrifugation and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe barrier layer is comprised of palladium, which may be deposited by magnetron sputtering and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe upper active layer is also composed of polyaniline with a preferred thicknessThe second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the second active layer of polyaniline by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith predpochtite is determined as being a value of .

Example 25: T1/C2S/SiO2+positivenegative/a-C or Ti or TA. The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe passive layer consists of Cu2-xS. the Passive layer of Cu2-xS applied using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The active layer is a composite material containing a porous silicon dioxide (SiO2and polydivinylbenzene. The active layer is deposited in the form of the following process: first, a film of porous silicon dioxide is applied to the upper surface of the passive layer using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Then the film of polydiphenylsiloxane grown in the pores of the silica from diphenylacetylene used as Monomeric precursor, at 125° C. the Active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of.

Example 26: Ti/Cu2-xS/porous ferro is electric+positivenegative/a-C or Ti or ITO. The memory cell is made as in example 25, except that the active layer is a composite material made of polydiphenylsiloxane and porous (BA, Sr)Tio3, which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Cu2-xS serves as a passive layer.

Example 27: Ti/Cu2-xS/ polydivinylbenzene /polyphthalocyanine/a-C or Ti or ITO. The first or bottom electrode is formed from titanium and has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe lower active layer consists of polydiphenylsiloxane, which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Polydiphenylsiloxane film is formed on the surface of the passive layer of Cu2-xS at 125° from diphenylacetylene as Monomeric precursor. The upper active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second active layer consists of polyphthalocyanine with the preferred thicknessPolyphthalocyanine film formed from tetracyanobenzene, as Monomeric precursor on the surface of the film polydiphenylsiloxane. The second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited n the upper surface of the second active layer of polyphthalocyanine by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 28 Ti/si2S/polyphthalocyanine/and From the memory cell manufactured using polyphthalocyanine as the active layer, which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Polyphthalocyanine film is formed on the surface of the passive layer of Cu2-xS of the monomer tetracyanobenzene. The active layer has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value ofThe second electrode is composed of amorphous carbon, which is deposited on the top surface of the active layer by magnetron sputtering. The second electrode has a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 29: Ti/W/HxWO3/SiO2+polyaniline/ Ti or a-C or ITO. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 23, except that the active layer is a composite material containing a porous silicon dioxide (SiO2and polyaniline.

Example 30: Ti/W/HxPd/SiO2+polyaniline / Ti or a-C or ITO. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 29, except that the passive with the ow consists of palladium, which is applied by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or thermal evaporation.

Example 31: Ti/Cu2-xS/Cu2O+polyphenylacetylene/a-C or ITO. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 25, except that the active layer is a composite material containing a porous oxide of copper (cu2O) and polyphenylacetylene.

Example 32: Ti/W/HxWO3/porous ferroelectric+polyaniline / Ti or a-C or ITO. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 29, except that the active layer is a composite material containing polyaniline and porous (BA,Sr)Tio3, which is applied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

Example 33: Ti/SiO2+polyaniline /Pd/SiO2+polyaniline /a-C or Ti or ITO. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 24, except that each active layer is a composite material containing a porous silicon dioxide (SiO2and polyaniline. The active layers have a thickness of aboutwith the preferred value of

Example 34: Ti/LixWO3/ poly (ethylenedioxythiophene)+poly (styrene sulfonic acid)/Ti or a-C or ITO. This memory cell b is La made similarly, as in example 21, except that each active layer is a composite material containing poly (ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly (styrene sulfonic acid).

Example 35: Ti/LixHfSe2/Pd (or Ti). This LixHfSe2is both an active and a passive layer. LixHfSe2is applied by means of CVD method with the thickness of aboutpreferablyThe intercalation of the lithium ions is produced by treatment in a solution of butyl lithium in hexane.

Example 36: Ti/LixTiS2/VSe2/ Pd (or Ti). LixTiS2a passive layer, a VSE2- active layer. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 35, except that VSE2- active layer is applied by means of CVD method on the surface of LixTiS2- passive layer before deposition of the top electrode. The thickness of the VSe2the active layer ispreferably

Example 37: Ti/LixVSe2/HfSe2/ Pd (or Ti). LixVSe2a passive layer, and HfSe2- active layer. This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 35.

Example 38: Ti/LixVSe2/Li3N/HfSe2/ Pd (or Ti). Lix VSe2a passive layer, and HfSe2- active layer, Li3N serves as the barrier layer, and VSe2serves as an active layer. Li3N layer is aboutpreferablyThis memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 35.

Example 39: Ti/LixTiS2/a-Si/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 36, except that the material of the active layer is an amorphous silicon (Si).

Example 40: Ti/LixTiS2/p-Si/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 39, except that the material of the active layer is a porous silicon (p-Si).

Example 41: Ti/LixWO3/p-Si/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 34, except that the material of the active layer is a porous oxide silicon (p-Si).

Example 42: Ti/Cu2-xS/p-SiO2/Al (or Ti). Cu2-xS is a passive layer, and a porous SiO2- active layer. Cu2-xS (preferably Cu1.8S) formed as follows. On the surface of the bottom electrode (Ti) is applied to the copper layerThen kept in a cell with H2S gas for the formation of Cu2-xS

Example 43: Ti/Cu2-xS/Cu2O/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 42, except that the material of the active layer is a porous si2O. the Layer of si2Oh is formed by the subsequent heating in an atmosphere of oxygen.

Example 44: Ti/Cu2-xSe/p-SiO2/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 42, except that the material of the passive layer is a Cu2-xSe and to get used H2Se gas instead of N2S.

Example 45: Ti/Ag2S/p-SiO2/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 42, except that the material of the passive layer is an Ag2S

Example 46: Ti/ LixTiS2/Moo3/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 41, except that the material of the active layer is an NGO3that is applied by thermal method or magnetron sputtering and is about

Example 47: Ti/si2S/WATO3/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 41, except that the material of the active layer is a ferroelectric, Vato3that is which is applied to a CVD method and is approximately

Example 48: Ti/si2S/PS/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 42, except that the material of the active layer is a polystyrene, which is applied from a solution using a centrifuge and is about

Example 49: Ti/CuxWO3/p-Si/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 40, except that the material of the passive layer is a CuxWO3and formed as follows. On the surface of the bottom electrode (Ti) layer of tungstenThen is maintained in the chamber in an atmosphere of oxygen at a high temperature of approximately 250° to form a layer WO3then from solution a layer CuI, followed by heating at approximately 150° to form a layer of CuxWO3. approximately

Example 50: Cu/Cu2-xS/p-SiO2/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 42, except that the material of the first conductive layer is a copper (cu).

Example 51: Ag/Ag2S/p-SiO2/Al (or Ti). This memory cell was manufactured in the same manner as in example 45, except tor the, what a material of the first conductive electrode is a silver (Ag).

The above examples of the memory cells and their components manufactured in accordance with the idea and methodology of the invention, reflect exceptional flexibility and versatility in terms of the structure of the memory cell and selection of materials for it, which makes it possible for the present invention. How characteristics of reading, writing, and erasing of the memory cells described in the invention, are susceptible to change through appropriate selection of materials and layer thicknesses, as well these devices are suitable for various applications, where the currently used conventional storage devices based on semiconductors. In addition, the memory cell described in the invention, it is possible to easily manufacture a simple, economic method, using conventional production technology.

Samples of the inventive memory cells were fabricated and tested on a special stand with a test generator. Were made variants with solid electrodes of aluminum, as well as variants using two and three elemental aluminum electrodes, between which is conjugated polymer positivenegative doped lithium ions. The bottom layer of aluminum was deposited on the wall is Lannoy substrate, and the upper electrode deposited on the layer of conjugated polymer. Used conjugated polymer can withstand heat up to 400° that allows to produce the claimed memory cell together with the production of semiconductor devices. Tests proved the feasibility of creating a memory cell that can store both multi-bit and single-bit digital information, and generate analog values of its electrical resistance, which allows to use it also as synapses to neural networks.

Thus, the claimed memory cell can be regarded as a fundamentally new device for storing information, both in digital and in analog form.

1. The memory cell containing a three-layer structure comprising two electrodes between which there is a functional area, characterized in that the electrodes are metal and/or semiconductor and/or conductive polymer, and/or conductive and optically transparent oxides or sulfides, or functional area made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with built-in molecular and/or crystalline structure of the active elements of different types, as well as their combinations with each other and/or clusters based on them, which change their state or ulozhenie under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation.

2. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the electrode is made of several spatially and electrically separated elements.

3. The memory cell according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the electrode is made in the form of two or three separated elements located above the functional area.

4. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements of positive or negative ions, including molecular ions.

5. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of an active layer based on composites of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated active elements of the clusters based on solid electrolytes.

6. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated active elements, molecules and/or ions with an electric dipole moment.

7. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of an active layer based on composites of organic, metallorganic the ski and inorganic materials with integrated active elements of the clusters on the basis of solid polymer and inorganic ferroelectrics.

8. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements donor and/or acceptor molecules.

9. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements of organic and/or inorganic salts and/or acids and/or water molecules.

10. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements molecules, which can dissociate in an electric field and/or under the action of light radiation.

11. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with integrated as active elements, inorganic and/or ORGANOMETALLIC, and/or organic salts and/or molecules of variable valency metals or atomic groups within them.

12. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functionality is the main area is made of the active layer based on organic, ORGANOMETALLIC conjugated polymers with built-in the main chain and/or attached to a chain or plane and/or embedded in the structure of the active elements, forming or not forming a light emitting structure.

13. The memory cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the functional zone has a multilayer structure consisting of several different active layers made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with built-in molecular and/or crystalline structure of the active elements and/or clusters based on them, which change its state or position under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation.

14. The memory cell according to item 13, characterized in that the functional zone has a multilayer structure comprising multiple active, passive, barrier, light emitting and photosensitive layers made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials with built-in molecular and/or crystalline structure of the active elements and/or clusters based on them, which change its state or position under the action of an external electric field and/or light radiation.

15. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a multilayer structure, comprising the th of alternating active, passive and barrier layers with optical elements or electrical isolation.

16. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the passive layers are made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials, which donors and/or acceptors charge carriers and having ionic and/or electronic conductivity.

17. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the barrier layer is made of a material with electronic conductivity and low ionic conductivity.

18. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a two-layer structure consisting of active and passive layers.

19. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a two-layer structure, one layer is made of organic, ORGANOMETALLIC and inorganic materials and has a low electronic conductivity, and the second is a passive layer.

20. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a three-layer structure with outer layers made of an active layer and a barrier layer located between them.

21. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a four-layer structure with two active layers, which are separated by a third barrier layer, and the fourth is a passive layer.

2. The memory cell according to 14, characterized in that the functional zone has a five-layer structure with two external passive layers and located between the two active layers, which are separated by a fifth barrier layer.

23. The memory cell according to item 15, wherein the electrical junction is made in the form of additional electrode made of electrically conductive material and the layer of semiconductor and/or organic material, forming a diode structure.

24. The memory cell according to item 15, wherein the optical isolation elements made in the form of additional electrode made of electrically conductive and optically transparent material and a layer of semiconductor and/or organic material, forming or foetoprotein, or photosensitive element.

25. The memory cell according to item 15, wherein the optical isolation elements made in the form of additional electrode made of electrically conductive material and two layers of semiconductor and/or organic materials separated by a second additional electrode made of electrically conductive and optically transparent material and forming a photodiode or a light-emitting structure and foetoprotein or photosensitive element.



 

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The invention relates to electrically adisoemarto device for recording, storing and/or processing data

The invention relates to memory devices implemented using the methods of micro - and nanotechnology

Memory cell // 2256957

FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: memory cell, containing three-layer structure, including two electrodes, between which a functional zone is located, as electrodes metal and/or semiconductor and/or conducting polymer and/or conducting and optically transparent oxide or sulfide are used, and functional zone is made of organic, metal-organic and non-organic materials with different types of active elements built in molecular and/or crystalline structure, and also their combinations with each other and/or clusters on their basis, which change their condition or position under effect from outside electrical field and/or light radiation.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities, higher manufacturability.

25 cl, 24 dwg

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