Device for automatic measuring preset interval of length by means of vernier
FIELD: measurement technology; instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has bed, movable mechanism of movable carriage, optical units of basic and vernier dial of measuring rule, photoelement unit disposed onto movable carriage, mechanism for moving optical units relatively movable carriage, device for counting optical lines of basic and vernier dials of measuring rule, line coincidence unit of basic and vernier dials, difference signal determination unit, correction memory unit. The latter has corrections relatively standard depending on number of line of measuring rule of basic and vernier dials introduced through algebraic adding unit into measuring rule basic and vernier dial number of lines counters and units of determining précised linear value of lines of basic and vernier dials. Basic and vernier dials of measuring rule are reduced relatively minimal interval of length of 0, 5 mm 10 to 40 times by means of photographing.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of linear distances.
3 cl, 3 dwg
The present invention relates to the field of medical technology /microsurgery/, machine tools, engineering /electromechanical robots and so on/.
The prior art. Analogs of the invention:
1  "Control line type KL"
Published: Ruler measuring metal. Calibration method MI 202489, the USSR State Committee on the management of quality and standards.
Moscow 1990  page 5
2  OPTIMER OVO1
Published: Kardashevskiy CENTURIES
"Modern wideband digital devices for linear measurements."
Novosibirsk 1978  p.14
3  Donomar WPI2
Published: Kardashevskiy CENTURIES
"Modern wideband digital devices for linear measurements."
Novosibirsk 1978  p.14
4  Optomechanical machine for measuring length; ISM11 Published: Vasiliev I.I.
"Mechanical and optomechanical instruments for linear measurement."
The Leningrad SSPI 1978  p.43
5  OPTIMER ICV3
Published: Vasiliev I.I.
"Mechanical and optomechanical examples for linear measurements."
The Leningrad SSPI 1978  p.27
Closest to the present invention are similar under: No. 1.
The set of features /analog No. 1/, similar to the set of essential features of the invention:
1  length HQ the crystals
2  intercept
3  the limit of allowable error
The set of features /analogues No. 2, 3, 4, 5/, similar to the set of characteristics significant for the invention:
1  the lowest price division
2  measuring range /measuring range external dimensions/
3  the main limit of permissible error of measurement
4  limit of relative error
Barriers to obtaining the required technical result in analogues with regard to the proposed invention are:
1  the length scale
The length measurement of the studied objects in the analogues is limited by the length scale of the control line type TC /analog No. 1/, is equal to: 1020 mm, measuring range optimera OVO1 /similar No. 2/, is equal to: 0.2 mm, measuring range donomar WPI2 /similar No. 3/, is equal to: 100 mm, measuring range of the outer lengths of the opticalmechanical machines for measuring lengths ISM11 /similar №4/, is equal to: 02000 mm, measuring range external dimensions of ICV3 /similar No. 5/, is equal to: 1200 mm
A reason to obtain a technical result in analogues: the dimension of the studied objects of unlimited length /20 m and more/are irrational design of measurement devices, leading to a large main limit of permissible error, and their significant cost.
The main limit of permissible error of measurement in the analog is 4 /opticalmechanical machine for measuring the length of the ISM11/ equal: ± /0,4+4· 10^{3}L mm/μm, where L is the measured length in mm Thus, the main limit of permissible error of length measurement in the above analogue depends on the length dimension L.
In the present invention, the main limit of permissible error of length measurement is determined by the dispersion formula, published in the book: B.V. Gnedenko "Course in probability theory", Moscow 1961:
where: the number of trials
/L_{mm}=n· Δ_{MININT.}[mm]/
δ =α β
P=1q is the marginal probability of event E, the corresponding exact stroke, the minimum interval length of the line;
q  limit the likelihood of eventscorresponding to inaccurate stroke, the minimum interval length of the line;
β =1α  the probability of occurrence frequency of eventsrelated in a homogeneous Markov chain /corresponding exact stroke, the minimum interval length line/;
α  the probability of deviations from a given probability of occurrence frequency of the event E is associated to a homogeneous Markov chain /relevant inaccurate stroke, the minimum interval length line/.
We will adopt the values of the marginal probabilities: P=q=0.5. Op is edelim α from equation arising from the integral theorems of Laplace when the corresponding distribution function:
Based on the Chebyshev inequality for large numbers, find the probability of deviations of the measured value, which is more than the specified number α_{Z}for unit length:
Then get the main limit of permissible error of measurement of length L, mm:
Δ =±/P_{x}·_{}L+α_{n}/,
where α_{n}function of the minimum measured interval length of the present invention, the probability of accuracy of drawing a single stroke of the minimum interval, the probability of the accuracy of the reference stroke. With a sufficient degree of accuracy α_{n}can be considered equal:
α_{n}=/0,4÷ 0,5/· Δ_{MININT.},
where Δ_{MININT.} minimum interval length measuring device.
For the present invention:
 Δ_{minutes online.}=10^{3}mm /Vernier/
L=1000 mm

Δ =±/1,4· 10^{3}. L+0.5 µm/
 Δ_{MININT.}=0.25 μm /Vernier/
L=1000 mm
Δ =±/5· 10^{4}L+0.1 ám/
The magnitude limit of the Devi ations of permissible error of length measurement L is determined in the above calculations given by the distribution function of the stroke of the measuring range.
The main limit of permissible error of length measurement L can be calculated as follows.
We will measure the length L line, which according to GOST 42756:
 minimum interval: 0,5 mm
 width strokes: 0,15± 0.05 mm
 deflection mm unit: ≤ 0.05 mm
Then we perform the measurement with a ruler with a Vernier, for which the minimum measurement interval:
1  ruler with reduced size 1/10:
2  line with the reduced size 1/40:
It should be noted that when the tolerance strokes minimum interval range may exist three intervals:
1  the width of the bar: 0.1 mm± 0.05 mm
2  stroke widths: 0.15 mm± 0.05 mm
3  the width of the bar: 0.2 mm± 0,05 mm
where ± 0.05 mm  maximum otklonennye from the bar width: 0,1÷ 0.2 mm /statisticaldata/.
Enter the value of the average deviation minimum interval from the exact mathematical value of the minimum interval length Δ_{T}:.
Thus, there are 3 /three/ group intervals with an average deviation of stroke:
1  Δ_{T} mathematical exact value of mi is kalinago interval measuring range.
2  Δ_{T}+ minimum interval length of the ruler is more accurate.
3  Δ_{T} minimum interval length of the line is less accurate.
Determine the length L as consisting of the sum of n_{1}the exact values of the minimum spacing of the measuring range n_{1}·_{}Δ_{T}n_{2}the minimum interval length of the ruler is more accurate: n_{2}/Δ_{T}+/, n_{3}the minimum interval length of the line is less precise: n_{3}/Δ_{T}/.
Amount: n_{1}+n_{2}+n_{3}=n is the total number of minimal intervals of the measuring range corresponding to the value of a given number of measured length L.
We define the average minimum interval measured length L:
In the case of the ideal measuring ruler /ruler only from the exact /Δ_{t}/ minimal intervals of length/ measured thus specified the exact length is equal to:
L_{t}=n· Δ_{t}
Thus:
L_{MEAs.}=n· Δ_{cf.}=L_{t}±_{}Δ_{UKL.}
± Δ_{UKL.}=n· Δ_{cf.}n· Δ_{t}
Define clonemasters length from the exact mathematical values of L_{ t}on a single minimum interval length:
Let us denote:
is the probability of occurrence of the minimum intervals exact /Δ_{t}/ at the measured length L.
 the probability of occurrence of minimum intervals of more accurate /Δ_{t}+/ at the measured length L.
is the probability of occurrence of the minimum intervals less accurate /Δ_{t}/ at the measured length L.
Get:
± Δ_{all}=Δ_{t}·_{}/P_{1}+P_{2}+P_{3}1/+/P_{2}R_{3}/·
Since n_{1}+n_{2}+n_{3}=n, then: P_{1}+P_{2}+P_{3}1=0
Get:
Δ_{all}=±/P_{2}P_{3}/·,
where: P_{x1}=± /P_{2}R_{3}/
=P_{x2}·_{}Δ_{MININT.}
Δ_{all}=± P_{X1}·_{}P_{X2}·_{}Δ_{MININT.},
where: P_{x1} the probability of the joint event: the emergence of a precise interval /Δ_{t}/appearance /Δ_{t}+/ interval, the appearance /Δ_{t} / interval when measuring in the function of drawing the strokes of the minimum interval of the measuring range.
P_{X2} the probability of the joint event rate of occurrence per unit length of the three groups of intervals with an average deviation minimum interval measuring range from exact mathematical value of the minimum interval length.
Looking for a solution probabilities of evasion per unit length R_{X}as the product of two probabilitieseach of which is the product of the probabilities of the three groups of joint events for the three groups of strokes, which are summarized by the rule of addition of incompatible events.
With a uniform distribution of the frequency of repetition of the events:
Get:
We define the probability of occurrence of the exact minimum intervalas the ratio of:andthe likelihood of inaccurate stroke smaller and more accurate.
For the present invention:
Get:
Δ_{UKL.}=±/2,8· 10^{3}·^{}L+0.5 µm/
Δ_{UKL.}=±/2,8· 10^{3}·^{}L+0.1 ám/
It should be noted that given in the first proof of the limit values of the basic permissible error of length measurement are different for different minimum measurement intervals depending on the distribution function corresponding to the integral is taken in the same limits as to the unit length.
In the second proof of the limit values of the basic permissible error of length measurement is the same for different minimum spacing dimensions /different only α_{n}/ according to a uniform distribution function and probability laws.
Determine the accuracy of the measurement length L under different methods of measurement:
1  evasion when measuring with a ruler with a Vernierfor:
L=1000 mm: Δ_{UKL.}=±2.8 mm
 L=10 m: Δ_{UKL.}=±28 mm
2  the uedem to measure the length L as:
L=n_{1}m+n_{2}DCM+n_{3}cm+n_{4}mm+n_{5}·_{}0,1mm+n_{6}·_{}0.01 mm+n_{7}·_{}10^{3}mm+n_{8}·_{}10^{4}mm+n_{9}·_{}10^{5}mm
Moreover, the stroke of the measuring line plotted with the average quadratic deviation of the measurements is of the order of 1 μm decreasing with photographing a measuring range up to 40 times and permissible errors of a stroke on measuring the line:The accuracy of the stroke when the measurement interval length using Vernier after calibration reference instrument is not worse than: 10^{7}m÷ 10^{8}m /television how accurate setting of stroke or differential method accurately set the bar/.
Get for L=10,55578913 m:
when Δ_{1}_{stroke}=±0.01 µm / Δ_{1}_{stroke} the accuracy of the installation one touch/
evasion:
Δ_{L}≤_{}10+5+5+5+7+8+9+1+3/±0,01 micron ≤ ±of 0.53 microns
when Δ_{1}_{stroke}=± 0.1 ám
Δ_{L}≤_{}53±0.1 ám≤ ± 5,3 mcm
when Δ_{1}_{stroke}=± 0.25 µm
Δ_{L}≤_{}53±0.25 μm≤ ±13,25 mcm
when Δ_{1}_{stroke}=≤ ± 1 μm
Δ_{L}≤_{}53±1 μm≤ ±53 μm
when Δ _{1}_{stroke}=±1,25· 10^{2}mm
Δ_{L}≤_{}53· ±1,25· 10^{2}mm≤ ± 0,6625 mm
3  we will measure the length L of the fine setting of the stroke with the amendments concerning the standard for each stroke of the measuring range and for any combination of coincidences of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales included in the memory block of amendments electronic unit automatic meter.
Readings electronic scoreboard correspond to the exact amount of the minimum interval length in accordance with the calibration standard. Each interval from zero of the measuring range corresponds to a correction in the memory block with precision: ± 0.01 µm, independent of the accuracy of the component parts of the total interval within the specified accuracy.
For the implementation of the actual schema of the memory block amendments /cheapness, rational design, optimal power consumption/ possible replay codes equal intervals measuring range: 1 mm, 1 cm, 1 DCM, 1 m, which leads to significantly lower the required amount of memory.
Thus, for L=10,55578913 m:
where i=35
Amount:corresponds to the minimum number of intervals of the measuring line, which together withgives the change in the value AAMWU L:
L=L_{t}+L_{the PDP.}
When Δ_{UKL.}=±0.01 µm each line L in accordance with the standard (i.e. amendments memory block/:
Δ_{L}=53· ± 0.01 µm+Δ_{UKL.}L_{the PDP.}+α_{n}
It should be noted that the L_{the PDP.}cannot be larger in this example than 0.07 to 0.1 mm, since the strokes with the amendments of the memory block amendments /each of the 53x/ can be shifted a maximum of 1.25· 10^{3}mm with consideration of reducing bias bias /Δ_{cm}=0.05 mm/ stroke measuring range in 1/40 times:the total length of which determines the correlation length L_{the PDP.}: 53· 1,25· 10^{3}mm=0,070,1 mm
Define:
Δ_{UKL.}L_{the PDP.}=P_{x}·_{}L_{the PDP.}
When: Δ_{WKLth stroke}=±0.01 µm with regard to reducing the width and shift stroke measurement range: 0.1 mm, 0.15 mm, 0.2 mm 40 times. Repetition codes defined intervals measuring ruler determines the accuracy of the strokes at the current offset: ± 0.01 µm. Get:
P_{x}=/0,992· 4· 10^{3}.4· 10^{3} +0,995· 2,65· 10^{3}·^{}2,65· 10^{3}+0,996· 1,99· 10^{3}·^{}1,99· 10^{3}/· /1/3/^{3}=9,916· 10^{7}
Δ_{UKL.}L_{the PDP.}=9,916· 10^{7}·^{}0.1 mm=0,99· 10^{4}mcm
Δ_{L}=± /of 0.53 μm+0,99· 10^{4}μm+0.1 ám/=± 0,6301 mcm
Thus, the deviation L_{the PDP.}of the order of 1 mm gives a value an order of magnitude smaller than the deviations of the exact intervals, whereby there is no need to create a block of memory amendments values of all intervals L of the measuring range /true for certain selected measurement accuracy/.
4  we will measure L with accurate installation strokes with amendments concerning the standard for each stroke of the measuring range listed in the schema memory of the electronic measuring unit, /reading electronic scoreboard meet the minimum intervals with amendments/.
Will take Δ_{UKL.}=±0.01 µm for each bar corresponding to the minimum interval of the measuring range.
For L=10,55578913 m:
Δ_{UKL.}=±/P_{x}L+0.1 ám /, where R_{x}=9,916· 10^{7}
Δ_{.L}=±/10,55578913 m· 9,916· 10^{7}+0.1 ám/=±0,0106 mm=±10.6um
5  we will measure L with a precise setting of the stroke with the amendments concerning the standard /for example, Δ_{UKL.}=± 0.01 m the m/ for each stroke of the measuring line, listed in the schema memory of the electronic measuring unit.
For the present invention:
Δ_{UKL.}=± 0.01 µm for any L_{n}measuring range, i.e. for any L_{n}there are n_{x}the minimum spacing of the measuring line with evasion Δ_{UKL.}=1/2 /Δ_{MININT.}/for example, Δ_{UKL.}=±0.1 ám/, which is summed with the value of evasion for cast L_{n}.
The values of the electronic scoreboard match the exact value of the measured value L listed in the schema memory.
For L=10,55578913 m: Δ_{L}=±/0.1 ám+0.01 µm/=± 0,11 mcm
It should be noted that this method of measurement requires a large amount of electronic memory.
Here are some data current standards of measurement:
1  "New instruments for accurate linear measurements." MSI, Leningrad, 1962
the measurements with intercept: 0,1÷ 0.01 µm
2  "research and Development of measuring systems for accurate measurement coordinate points of the product." Pimpadelic, Leningrad, 1978
 copyright certificate №206123: photomultiplier readout device error countup ±0.3 microns.
3  "measuring linear dimensions and angles." Mieler, CNIII, Moscow, 1964, England: company " Ferranti ":
Method of control move using the moire is s bands, generated diffraction gratings.
 Manufacture of parts with intercept: 0.1, and 0.01 μm
Thus, the invention allows to measure the linear dimensions of unlimited length with a significantly lower deviations from the exact values given interval of length relative to analogs, which leads to a transition in the quality with greater accuracy.
Practically the accuracy of the measurement depends only on the pattern.
In the present invention it is possible to measure the lengths of the studied objects: 20 m or more from the required accuracy of 0.005% of the length and fewer percent with a slight relative value measuring device and a small value of the energy consumed relatively analogues.
The processing of products with greater accuracy or transition into quality with greater accuracy /one or more/ most of the industry leads to a considerable saving of metal and reduce the cost of products /for example, tolerance: ±0,1÷ ± 0.01 µm corresponds 02÷ 03 : quality/.
2  intercept
It is impossible to perform measurement with high accuracy at a great price division of the measuring device.
In the analogues of the price of division: 1 /analogue No.1/  0.2 and 1.0 mm
2  0,001 mm
3  0,001 mm
4  0.001 mm, 0.1 mm, 100 mm
5  0,001 mm
The minimum price tick marks in the proposed picture the shadow: 2 μm, 1 µm, 0.5 µm, 0.25 µm or less, providing a more accurate measurement than the counterparts. In addition, in the present invention can be price tick: 1 m, 1 DCM, 1 cm, 1 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm, 10^{3}mm /I mm./. It should be noted that the above rates division: from 1 μm to 0.25 μm and less are conditional graduation in the measurement interval length using Vernier.
3  the limit of allowable error
It is impossible to ensure a high accuracy of measurement with a large limit of allowable error.
In the analogues of the limit of permissible error:
1  ± 0.06 mm and ± 0.08 mm
2 
3 
4  ± /0.4 µm +4· 10^{3}L mm/mm
5  ±0.3 microns
The limit of allowable error in the present invention for different measurement methods:
1  Probabilistic method of determining evasion
Δ_{UKL.}=±/2,8· 10^{3}·^{}L mm+0.1 mm/
L=1000 mm : Δ_{UKL.}=±2.8 mm
L=10 m : Δ_{UKL.}=±28 mm
2  Method of determining deviations in the variable value.
For L=10,55578913 m:
Δ UKL.≤ ± 0,53 mm at=± 0.01 µm
Δ_{UKL.}≤_{}±5,3 mm at=± 0.1 ám
Δ_{UKL.}≤_{}± 13,25 mm at=± 0.25 µm
Δ_{UKL.}≤_{}#x000B1; 1,53 mm at=± 1 μm
Δ_{UKL.}≤_{}± 0,6625 mm at=± 1,25· 10^{2}mm
3  Method for determination of deviations from exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments to cast a serial number L_{n}intervals of the measurement range in the measurement interval, Dlink using Vernier.
For L=10,55578913 m:
Δ_{L.}=± 0,6301 microns at=± 0.01 µm
4  the Method of determining deviations c exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments for each of the minimum interval of the measuring line with a Vernier.
For L=10,55578913 m:
Δ_{L UKL.}=± /9,916· 10^{7}L_{mm}+0.1 ám/
Δ_{L}_{UKL.}=± 10.6um
5  Method for determination of deviations from exact setting of the stroke and electronic memory amendments for any interval of the measuring line with a Vernier in any combination.
Δ_{L UKL.}=± of 0.11 μm, for any L_{n}/10÷ 20 m and more, limited by the accuracy of the model unit, the minimum interval length measuring range and accuracy of the stroke of the measuring range.
The allowable limit of error provide more accurate measurements than the counterparts.
4  measuring Range /limits of Areni external dimensions/
Given the analogues characterized by small measuring ranges and small outside dimensions external dimensions.
In the analogues of the measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/:
1 
2  0.2 mm
3  100 mm
4  0÷ 2000 mm
5  0÷ 200 mm
In the present invention, the measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/ may be in the range 0÷ /10÷ 20/ m or more with automatic switchover of the measurement range in the electronic unit, which is much better than the counterparts.
5  Limits of relative error.
The limit of the relative error determines the accuracy of the measurement.
In the analogues of the limits of relative error:
1 
2  3· 10^{3}
3 is 1.5· 10^{5}
4 
5 
In the present invention, the limit of the relative error:
that is much better than the counterparts.
The invention
The essential features of the present invention to provide the corresponding technical result:
1  the length scale
The length scale in the present invention is determined by the length scale of the measuring line, which can be within:
0÷ /10÷ 20/ m and more.
This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length 0÷ /10÷ 20 m with the required accuracy: Δ _{UKL.}=± /0,11 mcm ÷ 53 μm and/ or less functions length measurement.
2  intercept
The intercept in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.
The smaller the value, the higher the accuracy of the measurement: in the present invention Δ_{MININT.}=0.25 μm, which determines the measurement accuracy: Δ_{UKL.}=±of 0.11 μm at a certain /5/ way of measuring.
This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length with the required accuracy:
Δ_{UKL.}=±of 0.11 μm. It should be noted that rates of fission of the present invention is from 1 μm to 0.25 μm and less are conditional value at measurement interval length using Vernier.
3  the limit of allowable error
The limit of allowable error in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.
The smaller the limit of allowable error, the greater the accuracy of the measurement: in the present invention, the minimum limit of the margin of error is determined by the accuracy of the reference device and the minimum interval length measuring range: Δ_{L}=± of 0.11 μm at a certain /5/ way of measuring.
This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length with heart and soul is my precision:
Δ_{L}=± 0,11 mcm
4  measuring range /outside measurements of external dimensions/
Measurement range /outside measurements of external dimensions/ in the present invention determines the universality of the measuring device.
The more measurement range /outside measurements of external dimensions/, the more universal measuring device.
This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of a given length with the required accuracy in the range of 0÷ /10÷ 20/ m and more.
5  the limit of relative error
The limit of the relative error in the present invention determines the accuracy of the measurement.
The smaller the limit of the relative error, the higher the measurement accuracy.
This option present invention provides the technical result: the dimension of the set /limit/ length with the required accuracy defined by the limit of the relative error:
γ =/2,5÷ 3,8/· 10^{8}
List of drawings the invention: "Automatic meter interval length using Vernier".
1  1. A simplified block diagram of reference strokes intervals of the measuring range.
Figure 1 shows: 1  the unit cells; 2  optical unit; 3  main scale of the measuring range; 4  MF who tcic number of strokes of the measuring range; 5  lighting the lamp.
2  2. A block diagram of an optical unit of an automatic meter. Figure 2 shows: 3  basic was Acala measuring line; 6  optical unit main scale; 7  optic block Vernier scale; 8  movable carriage; 9  the workpiece; 10  Vernier scale; 11  unit cells.
3  3. The block diagram of the electronic unit automatically meter.
Figure 3 shows: 6  optical unit main scale; 7  optic block Vernier scale; 11 unit cells; 12  count number of strokes of the main scale; 13  block matches a specified number of stroke of the primary scale and precision linear values of this bar; 14  block determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary scale, 15  count number of strokes Vernier scale; 16  block matches a specified number of bar Vernier scale and precision linear values of this bar; 17  block determine the exact linear values specified number of bar Vernier scale; 18  unit stop movable carriage; 19  block memory amended; 20  electronic scoreboard; 21  pulse amplifier; 22  block algebraic summation.
Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.
A method of measuring a given interval length in the present invention is clear from the simplified block diagram of reference W is Rehov intervals of the measuring range /1/. The proper length is measured by counting the strokes of the main scales measuring range /3/ count the number of strokes of the measuring range /4/, which moves relative to the measuring range unit photocells /I/ and an optical block /2/. Lighting lamp /5/ serves to illuminate the strokes of the measuring range.
The scale of the measuring range obtained by photographing the reference range /minimum measurement interval: Δ =0.5 mm/ reduction ratio 10 times and 40 times. For example, 10 cm reference line at decrease 10 times will look at pictures of this line as 1 cm, 1 cm  1 mm with 20 divisions through the minimum measurement interval: 0.05 to them. Thus, the minimum interval of the scale of this line will be equal to:
 decreasing 10 times: Δ 1/10=0.05 mm
 decreasing 40 times: Δ 1/40=of 0.0125 mm
The zoom scale of the optical unit 100÷ 1000 times provides shielding of the light flux coming from the light dumps /5/ on the solar cell unit cells, linear size of the stroke. With the passage of the nth stroke of the measuring range of the optical unit, you receive a current pulse in the unit cells. Thus, there is a reference of a given length corresponding to n_{x}the strokes measuring range: l_{x}=n_{x}·_{}9 _{MININT.}Number of strokes n_{x}counted by the counter of the number of strokes of the measuring range.
The optical block designs luminous flux on a large surface unit cells, which is a solar cell with a large working area of perception of the light flux that generates a pulse signal voltage U_{c}≥_{}3 In that it is sufficient for a confident account the minimum interval length of the measuring line. The above voltage signal significantly more stress external interference and is consistent with accepted standards for noise immunity.
A method of measuring a given interval length using Vernier clear from the block diagram of the optical block of an automatic meter /2/.
Determine the accuracy of the measurement using Vernier /A25, a50/ decreasing the reference measuring range and scale of the Vernier using photography 10 times:
 when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=25, and the minimum interval measuring range: Δ 1/10=0.05 mm
 when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=50 /Δ 1/10=0.05 mm/
Determine the accuracy of the measurement using Vernier /A25, A50/ decreasing the reference measuring range and scale of the Vernier using photography to 40 times:
 when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=25 minimalna interval measuring range: Δ 1/40=1,25· 10^{2}mm
 when the number of divisions of the Vernier: n=50 /Δ 1/40=1,25· 10^{2}mm/
Automatic measurement of a given length l_{x}with the help of Vernier is as follows:
 optical unit main scale /6/ and the optical block Vernier scale /7/, mechanically connected to each other are set to 0 /zero/ Vernier scale /10/. The movement of relatively movable carriage /8/  2.
Then with the help of a movable mechanism, a traveling carriage blocks /6, 7  2/ together with the carriage are set to 0 /null/ primary scales measuring range /3/ or by any stroke of the primary scale using blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /units 14, 17  3/.
The light pulses that appear in the optical blocks with the passage of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, proceed to block cells /11  2, 3/.
Given linear length l_{x}corresponds to, for example, the length of processing a particular tool, workpiece /9/  2.
 starts counting the strokes of the main scale in accordance with a given code number of reference strokes to count the number of strokes of the main scale /12/  3 /login "and"/.
The signals coming from optical the Loka main scale /6/, fall through the block of cells /11/ blocks /12, 14/  3.
When the coincidence signal the end of the account N_{x}strokes of the main scale and precision linear values of the stroke N_{x}in the block matches the preset number of the stroke of the main scale and precision linear values of this bar /13/  3 at the output of the above block matches a signal "C" /3/, which allows the account given number of n_{x}strokes Vernier scale in accordance with the specified ID /input "in"/ in the block count of the number of strokes Vernier scale /15/  3 and permit the movement of the mobile carriage /8/ slow /less than the speed in counting the strokes of the main scale/. In addition, the signal "C" is supplied to the block stop movable carriage /18/  3.
Possible mode of operation in which switching to a lower speed of movement of the mobile carriage occurs, for example, when N_{x}1 the bar.
starts counting a given number of n_{x}strokes Vernier scale, with an appropriate mechanism to move the blocks /6, 7/  2 relative to the movable carriage in a corresponding bar Vernier scale /n_{x}/ the signal "C".
The signals coming from the optical block Vernier scale /7/fall through a block of cells /11/ units: count number of strokes Vernier scale /15/ and the block determining the exact Lin is inogo values specified number of bar Vernier scale /17/  see figure 3.
When the coincidence signal the end of the account n_{x} a given number of strokes Vernier scale and precision linear values of the stroke n_{x}in the block matches a specified number of bar Vernier scale and precision linear values of this bar /16/  3 output above the specified block matches a signal "d "which gives permission for the movement of the mobile carriage together with blocks /6, 7/  2 low speed to match a specified number of stroke n_{x}Vernier scale with the corresponding number of the stroke of the primary scale of the measuring range.
Because the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales /units 6, 7  2/ are on the same axis, while the exact definition of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales fixed match a specified number of stroke n_{x}Vernier scale with the corresponding number of the stroke of the primary scale. When an enabling signal the end of the account N_{x}/signal "c"/, the end of the account n_{x}/signal "d "/, listed in the schema memory block stop movable carriage /18/, the positive potential input block /13/receiving pulse signals from the block /12/, the above positive potential remains positive with the help of schematic memory block /13/, is determined by the block /14/ precision linear value of the corresponding stroke of the primary scale corresponding to the above with the drop touches the main and Vernier scales. When this occurs, the output of block /13/ re signal "c", which arrives on the block stop movable carriage. The output of block stop movable carriage of a signal of stopping the movable carriage coming through the pulse amplifier /21/ for actuating the stopping mechanism movable carriage.
Counting a given number corresponding to a specific length measurement, automatic measurement using Vernier produced.
To improve the accuracy of measurement in the present invention, there is a block of memory amendments /19/  3, which through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ gets amendments in accordance with the reference device and a function of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in blocks 12, 14, 15, 17  see figure 3. On the electronic scoreboard /20/ highlight the exact values of corresponding linear dimensions or amended depending on the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and values of numbers, regarded counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales.
It should be noted that the proposed automatic meter interval length using Vernier gives a very small measurement error due to backlash of gears of vernerova, frictions and various types of mechanical transmission.
In addition, the Markov chain of events when measuring length in a very weak for the W ill of strokes higher rates of divisions from strokes lower rates of divisions can be reduced to a small magnitude dependence of the measurement accuracy of the length measurement method of measuring length with variable intercept / # 2/.
Issues in the application of materials required for the implementation of the present invention.
According to the instructions 8357 State standards Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for the calibration of measuring and testing of metal lines Moscow  1973 GOST 42756 dimensions of the scale line:
 width strokes: 0.15 mm ± 0.05 mm
 minimum interval or intercept: 0,5 mm
When reducing the scale of the above line using photography to 40 times:
 Δ_{stroke width}=0,375· 10^{2}mm
 Δ_{MININT.}=1,25· 10 mm
According to the book of Bunimovich DZ "the Amateur photographer's Handbook"  M.: Izd. Moskovskaya Pravda, I960,  str147, tabl, the resolution of the photos is up to 90 gr./mm, which means that; 1 mm photographic materials can be located 90 strokes with distances between dashes:
We assume that the interval between strokes is approximately equal to the width of the stroke. The width of the stroke of such a material is equal to: Δ_{the width of the stroke fotomat.}=0,55· 10^{2}mm
When the ratio of the width of the strokes of the photographic material and the measuring line:for clear playback on the photo above touches the measuring range you want to apply the photographs with a resolution capable of the TEW 90 gr./mm· 1,47=132 gr./mm).
When displaying bar measuring range, reduced by photographing 40 times, on the photographic material with a resolution of 90 gr./mm image above bar will appear with a certain probability:i.e. on the material /90 gr./mm/ picture will appear of the stroke width 0,375· 10^{2}mm a few fuzzy, but completely follows the contour of the barcode that does not lead to a deterioration of the measurement accuracy, since each stroke of the primary scales of the measuring ruler is calibrated in accordance with standard as every relative position of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales. The blurring of the stroke necessary to distinguish between strokes when recording in the electronic memory of the image lines or smaller parts of the strokes. In addition, it is possible to make the measuring line width of the stroke, the greater 1.5 times: 0.15 mm· 1,5=0,225 mm /decreasing the scale of this line using photography to 40 times: Δ_{stroke width}=0,55· 10^{2}mm/, which will lead to a clear image of the barcode that appears on the photographic material with a resolution of 90 gr./mm
Listed on. page 17 description of the invention, the multiplier is 0.25 μm does not require the use in the present invention photographs with razriada ability, e.g. the, 4000 gr./mm, because when the automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier required photographs with a resolution of 90 gr./mm, showing the dimensions of strokes width: /0,375÷ 0,55/· 10^{2}mm, when the measurement should be the same in a certain combination of strokes of the main and Vernier scales. On page 21 description of the invention the calculation of the measurement accuracy of a given length using Vernier decreasing the reference measuring line of the main scale and Vernier scale 40 times when the number of divisions of the Vernier n=50 and
Δ_{MININT.}=1,25· 10^{2}mm
According to: "Description Vernier" /User manual for students MEI/ M, 1955, the accuracy of the Vernier is defined as:
where
α_{m} price divisions of the main scale
n  the number of divisions of the Vernier
For our case:
Thus, when the automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier when the coincidence of the respective strokes of the main and Vernier scales /bar width: /0,375÷ 0,55/· 10^{2}mm can be measured with an accuracy of 0.25 μm or through 0.25 μm, since the measurement accuracy is improved relative to the minimum interval measuring range: 1,25· 10^{2}mm 50 times equal to the number of divisions of the Vernier. When the above m is the minimum measurement interval of 0.25 μm is a conditional multiplier for automatic measurement of a given length using Vernier.
Note that the stroke of the measuring line is marked on the ruler with tolerable accuracy: ± 0.06 mm in accordance with the technical characteristics of the control line type CL /Ruler measuring metal. Calibration method MI 202489, Moscow, 1990/.
When reducing by photographing a measuring range up to 40 times a margin of error of a stroke will be equal to:
When calibrating strokes above the measuring range and the various provisions of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales relative to each other in accordance with the accuracy of the benchmark using the memory block amendments /19/unit algebraic summation /22/, blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/ error caused the stroke of the measuring range in the present invention, as amended, or the accuracy of the stroke when the measurement interval length using Vernier can not be worse: /10^{7}÷^{}10^{8}/ m /television how accurate setting of stroke or differential method accurately set the bar/.
When television how accurate setting of the stroke is transmitted to the image width of the stroke of the measuring line, is reduced by the use of photography in 40 time /s is under the Instructions 8357 for calibration of measuring metal lines. Moscow, 1973, the width of strokes equal to 0.15± 0.05 mm when the multiplier is 0.5 mm/:
The above bar measuring range is after the increase of the optical block 1000 times the width of 3.75 mm square perception of the light drip of the transmitting tube of unit cells /11/. When the number of elements in the line scan television transmitting tube of order 1000 and the combination of image width of the stroke with the above number of elements in the row offset of the stroke on a single line item complies with:with increasing optical block 10,000 times the width of the stroke on the television transmitting tube is 37.5 mm, and the offset of the stroke on a single line item corresponds: to 37.5 μm/, which corresponds approximately to the length occupied by one elementary element of the television transmitting tube.
The true displacement of the bar width: 0,375· 10^{2}mm is 1000 times smaller relative to the 3.75 ám:
Δ_{the true offset of the stroke}=3,75 mcm· 10^{3}=3,75· 10^{9}m
Taking into account various errors television method accurately set the bar in the present invention the accuracy of the stroke can be adopted: 10^{7}÷^{}10^{8}m
In the book Waspaloy Applied TV", State energy publishing house, Moscow is, Leningrad, 1962  str shows exemplary data of a television microscope: "resolving power of television microscope is obtained with sufficient magnification up to 1000÷ 1200 times. Largescale increase when this reaches the value 30000."
Action image recording half of the stroke or its lower part in the memory block, located in the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales that match code signals of the image bar above memory block and the image of the stroke of the measuring range, the transmitted television transmitting tube of unit cells, in the schema matching blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales give the signal, set the position of the stroke.
The differential method, accurate setting of stroke from two side of the solar cell unit cells, separated from the main photocell located in the middle, partitions, go appropriate signals to the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /14, 17/, where compared and amplified. If the values match, the amplitudes of the voltages from the two side cells /side solar cells transmit light signals, not the ZAT the United touches/ amplifier unit determining the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales produces a signal accurately set the bar.
The accuracy of installation of the stroke depends on the gain of the amplifier blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales.
Get codes number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in the measurement interval length using Vernier.
Take, for example, the interval length:
L=10,5557891 m
According to the above, L can be represented as:
L=10 m+5 DCM+5 cm+5 mm+7· 0.1 mm+8· 10^{2}mm+9· 10^{3}mm+1· 10^{4}mm
The minimum interval of the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 40 time:The minimum conditional interval length in the measurement interval length using Vernier:Stroke width of the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 40 time:We assume that during the measurement interval, the length of the strokes of the measurement range, calibrated with an accuracy standard: 0.01 µm, measured with the same accuracy in accordance with the amendments of the memory block amendments /19/. When this touches the measuring line m, DCM, cm, mm, etc. are in a very weak dependence on strokes minimum interval length of the measuring range, i.e. the measuring range is reduced by using the fot is grafirovanija 40 times, you can find the bar that meets the above requirements with regard to the displacement accurately set the bar Vernier scale in accordance with the amendments of the memory block amendments /19/. Offset point accurately set the bar Vernier scale in the measurement interval length using Vernier, the values of which are recorded in the memory block amendments /19/, correspond to the fractions of the minimum conditional interval length when measured using Vernier: 0.25 μm, for example: Δ_{offset}=1/2· /0,1÷ 0,01/· Δ_{sister.}corresponds to the dimension of the interval length about: 0.25 μm÷ 0.01 µm.
Get the required number of divisions in accordance with intercept: n’_{1}=10 /m/n’_{2}=5 /DCM/n’_{3}=5 /see/, n’_{4}=5 /mm/, n’_{5}=7· /0.1 mm/n’_{6}=8· /10^{2}mm/n’_{7}=9· /10^{3}mm/n’_{8}=1· /10^{4}mm/.
Thus the number of divisions in accordance with the multiplier of the present invention: n_{1}=10, n_{2}=5, n_{3}=5, n_{4}=5,
When calculating the n_{8}value: 0,1 introduced in the denominator of the given bias point accurately set the bar Vernier scale in the measurement interval length using Vernier.
Get the translation of the above numbers of divisions in accordance with the multiplier of the present invention, the required number of reference the minimum of the measurement intervals of the invention or its smaller parts in an integer expression: n_{1}=10 /reference m/, n_{2}=5 /count in DCM/, n_{3}=5 /count in cm/, n_{4}=5 /count in mm/n_{5}=63 /countdown 1.25· 10^{2}mm/n_{6}=6 /countdown 0.25· 10^{3}mm/n_{7}=4 /count 0.25· 10^{4}mm/.
Translate the above number of reference corresponding strokes in sixdigit binary code: n_{1}: 010100, n_{2}: 101000, n_{3}: 101000, n_{4}: 101000, n_{5}: 11111, n_{6}: 011000, n_{7}: 001000.
At this intercept, which corresponds to counting a predetermined number of strokes, switches in the present invention sequentially in the function code number /for example, in the above example: 1÷ 7/. When counting only the minimum interval length of the measuring line, reduced by photographing 40 times, /Δ_{MININT.}=1,25· 10^{2}mm/ dimension: 1 mm required 7bit binary code, 1 cm required 10bit binary code, 1 DCM 13bit binary code, 1 m required 17bit binary code.
Binary codes defined intervals length in meters number of basic strokes and nonius the th scales appear in the feedback input pulse voltage, caused by passing the appropriate number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales mechanical part of the automatic meter. The above codes specified interval lengths correspond to the input code units /12, 15/, inputs a, b, which are counted by the counters of the number of strokes given code amendments, coming to the same counters from the memory block amendments /19/.
In addition, the memory block amendments /19/ through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ start code signals necessary displacement of the point of accurately set the bar Vernier scale in units determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. The sequential playback of the above codes in the electronic memory counter of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales is counting the required number of strokes /blocks 12, 15/ in accordance with the multiplier. At the respective match signals the end of the count the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales appearing on the output units /12, 15/ after passing through the entire sequence of codes corresponding prices division, and the corresponding signals determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke units /14, 17/ occurs in blocks matches a specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales and accurate if anago values of this bar /13, 16/ signal the end of the counting interval specified length.
The relationship of the blocks of the present invention.
Figure 1 is a simplified block diagram of reference strokes intervals measuring range:
Block cells /1/, receiving light signals during the passage of the main strokes of the scale of the measuring range /3/ from the optical block /2/which is mechanically connected with the unit cells and giving a magnification of about 100÷ 1000 times the measuring range, reduced by photographing a 10 or 40 times, produces pulses of voltage to the input count of the number of strokes of the measuring range /4/, which counts the code signals in binary code corresponding to the number of strokes given interval length of the main scale of the measuring range. The backlight of the main strokes of the scale of the measuring range is lighting a lamp /5/.
Figure 2  block diagram of an optical unit of an automatic meter.
The optical block automatic meter is installed on the frame and consists of: main scales measuring range /3/about which moves a movable carriage /8/ together with the workpiece /9/, an optical unit main scale /6/, an optical unit Vernier scale /7/, Vernier scale /10/, the unit cells /11/. Optical unit main scale /6/ differs structurally about the optical block /2/, because it is mechanically connected to the optical block Vernier scale /7/. Blocks 6, 7 with a block of cells /11/ can move the appropriate mechanism relatively movable carriage /8/ and Vernier scale /10/.
A separate count of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, reduced by photographing a 10 or 40 times, comes with a set of photocells receiving light signals from the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales with increasing 100÷ 1000 times the image of the above scales.
The outputs of the unit cells /11/: f, q, h, j output from the solar cells, which carry information about the passage of the respective strokes of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales and in the middle of applied design, and from the two side cells, which carry information about the installation precision of the stroke of the main and Vernier scales the differential method, accurate installation dash /solar cells separated from each other/.
In addition, when the TV method accurately set the bar outputs of the unit cells /11/: q, j provide information about the image of the corresponding stroke of the primary and Vernier scales, receiving it from the television transmitting tubes of the above scales, while the television tube is structurally located in the block of cells /11/. Should C the mark, the design of the unit cells /11/  figure 2 differs from the block design of solar cells /I/  1.
Figure 3  block diagram of the electronic unit automatically meter.
The signals coming from the optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales /6, 7/ through the block of cells /11/ get into the electronic unit automatic meter: from solar cells, which carry information about the passage of the respective strokes of the measuring range, the signals are at the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /12, 15/; from the two side cells, which carry information about the installation precision of the stroke of the main and Vernier scales, or television transmitting tubes, which carry information about the image of the corresponding stroke of the primary and Vernier scales, the signals fall within the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke the main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. After determining the exact linear values specified number of stroke output signal of the above blocks together with the signals the end of counting the number of strokes given interval lengths of the main and Vernier scales units /12, 15/ hits the blocks matches a specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales and precision linear values of this bar /13, 16/. The output signals of blocks /13, 16/ fall on the block stop movable carriage /18/to the th through the pulse amplifier /21/ network stop is movable carriage.
The memory block amendments /19/ through the power of the algebraic summation /22/ generates code signals amended, for each stroke of the main and Vernier scales or any combination of the provisions of the strokes of the main and Vernier scales relative to each other at the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales /12, 15/ and the code signals determine the exact linear values of the bar /half bar or smaller part when television or differential method accurately set the bar on blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke main and Vernier scales /14, 17/. Using memory blocks blocks /14, 17/ occurs when the television way of a precise installation of the stroke than parts of images corresponding strokes in the above blocks 14, 17/ and when you match them with images of strokes, going from a television transmitting tubes of the unit cells /11/, is given the signal to determine the exact linear values of the stroke /or its smaller parts/ main and Vernier scales on the blocks 13, 16/.
Electronic scoreboard /20/ issues on the scoreboard code signals corresponding amendments linear values strokes, going from memory block amendments /19/; values given intervals of length in decimal and binary code value; values given intervals of length corresponding to a certain price de is to be placed, etc.
It should be noted that the block algebraic summation /22/ produces the sum specified minimum interval length of the measuring line and their amendments in accordance with the distribution function of the stroke of the measuring range and the specified code number of required measuring a specified interval length and the calculation of the number of strokes corresponding to a certain multiplier, using a memory block of amendments.
Machine design.
According To The "Small Soviet Encyclopedia. T.8. Publishing House "Soviet Encyclopedia". 1960, str:
"The bed is the main body of the machine: cast, welded or riveted construction, in which the spatial coordinated /linked/ location and kinematic relationships of all of the mechanisms and parts of the machine, and perceived current efforts."
Questions of terminology.
According to the terminology adopted in the "Handbook Metalist" Apenninsky, Vol.2 Homalodisca, 1933  p.105:
The exact distance scale line: "the distance from the middle of the zero stroke scale ruler to the middle of any given stroke of the same scale range within the scale of a ruler."
In the description of the invention in accordance with the above accepted notion: "exact linear value of the stroke" main and Vernier scales, which Bo is its reduced /introduced the concept of "linear" means, what a given interval length is measured along one axis or belongs to the ruler/.
Some questions are "reading" stroke measuring ruler, drawing strokes on the scale of the measuring range, the accuracy of setting of the stroke of the measuring range, relations units of automatic meter.
It should be noted that there is no need for use in the present invention photographs with a resolution of, for example, 4000 gr./mm for the implementation of minimum rates of division in the proposed device: 0.25 μm, i.e. there is no need for the photographs, which displays a ruler on a scale which would be caused strokes intervals: 0.25 μm.
In the proposed device has the 2nd scale: main scale and Vernier scale, and α_{n} the value of the divisions of the Vernier somewhat less α_{m} rates of divisions of the main scale / therefore, the observed frequency shift measurement by Vernier to n· Δ the coincidence of the respective strokes of the main and Vernier scales in the function rooms of the bar Vernier scale/.
where α  the accuracy of the Vernier /see the Description of the Vernier; a textbook for students MEI M., 1955/.
For example:
α_{m}=1 mm  price divisions of the main scale
n=10 is the number of divisions of the Vernier
Select: α_{ n}value division Vernier such that for n_{x}divisions of the Vernier =n, the measured interval length α_{n}equal to: α_{n}·_{}n, and to measure the same interval length α_{m}it is necessary to count on the main scale n1 divisions: α_{m}/n1/; α_{n}<α_{m}if this is true equality:
α_{n}·_{}n=α_{m}/n1/.
Therefore, in this case, the Vernier can count tenths, mm:
when appropriate matches strokes Vernier and main scale. It should be noted that in the example above, the scales remain almost the same and the intervals between the strokes are not reduced in 10 times.
The number of divisions of the Vernier scale n can be: 25; 50; 100; /see Reference Metalist, Vol.2, Apenninsky, 1933  str/. In the present invention: α_{m}=0.5 mm; n=50. Reducing a measuring range up to 40 times by photographing'll get:
Precision Vernier: /Vernier scale is also reduced to 40 times by shooting/
Thus, it is possible to count on the Vernier intervals of length through 0.25 μm, which can be viewed as a multiplier in the measurement interval length using Vernier; count through 0.25 μm potential p and the corresponding matches strokes Vernier and main scale. The main and Vernier scales are almost the same with minimum intervals of approximately 1.25· 10^{2}mm, so there is no need, for example, to have photos with a resolution of 4000 gr./mm, and it is enough to have photos with a resolution of 90÷ 132 gr./mm
It should be noted that when the reading on the Vernier half of the stroke or its smaller parts /TV way to accurately set the number of lines/ required electronic memory of each stroke /or part/ main and Vernier scales, which can be carried out if there is some blurring of the lines /"blur" becomes visible at certain zoom stroke/ photos different for each stroke that is made of materials with a resolution of about 90 gr./mm /,i.e. with no repetition of the image of each bar or smaller part of the many strokes of the measuring range/.
Implementation installation of the stroke with an accuracy better than 10^{7}÷^{}10^{8}m is the proposed device, the television by way of /as described earlier in the description of/when it touches the measuring line is not plotted to scale with the aforementioned accuracy and calibrated reference meter length, the values of which are zapisywa is conducted in the form of a binary code in the electronic memory of the device and played back when required memory block amendments /19/, in addition, each position of the stroke /or part of his/ Vernier scale on each stroke of the main scale corresponds to a binary code recording in the electronic memory of the device during the measurement interval length.
The installation of the stroke of the measuring line with the above accuracy /10^{7}÷^{}10^{8}m/ television how accurate setting of the stroke is implemented or meets industrial applicability under appropriate television transmitting tubes in which an electron beam creates on the target spot diameter: 10^{1}÷^{}10^{2}mm /see "Television" edited Powstancow, Publishing house of Communications and Radio, Moscow, I960,  p.95/, and in the implementation possibilities of the socalled misinformation zoom stroke optics, providing the width of the stroke on the television tube approximately 1000 elements decay in the line of the television image of the stroke or its lower part (see the Small Soviet encyclopedia. V.5, str  microscope, State Scientific Publishing house "Great Soviet encyclopedia", 1959/.
"Blurring" of the image stroke or a diffraction pattern image of the stroke does not affect the accuracy of the stroke when the TV way to accurately set the bar with electronic memory of the image lines is ha, which compares the image signals of the stroke from the pattern memory and television transmitting tube.
Implementation of counters number of strokes /12, 15/ as follows: from the block of cells /II/ outputs f, h on the counters of the number of strokes /12, 15/ received pulse signals during the passage of the mechanical part of the automatic meter dashes main and Vernier scales. In blocks 12, 15 through the inputs of these blocks and, in the start code signals with a corresponding number of digits in the binary code representing a given code number of required reference strokes on the measuring line, which correspond to the measurement interval length. Counts the number of strokes of the blocks 12, 15, counting the required number of strokes, give the code number of strokes in the binary code, which when matching the specified ID number of strokes in the schema matching codes these blocks outputs a signal output units 12, 15, coming into blocks matches a specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales and precision linear values of this bar /blocks 13, 16/. It should be noted that the count number of pulses that occur during the passage of the mechanical part of the automatic meter dashes measuring scales are Converter number of pulses in 10th code in the same number of pulses when matched with the appropriate number of digits in the 2nd code.
Implementation of block matching set numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales and precision linear data values strokes /13, 16/ is as follows: the coincidence of signals in the circuit of the coincidence signals of the blocks 13, 16 of the above output signals of the blocks 12, 15 and output signals of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales 14, 17 diagram of the coincidence of these signals blocks 13, 16 generates output signals coincidences that give commands to the movement of the mechanical part of the automatic meter and stop this enables blocks: 18  block stop movable carriage, 21  pulse amplifier.
Implementation of the blocks determine the exact linear values specified number of stroke of the primary or Vernier scales /14, 17/ is as follows: the inputs of the blocks 14, 17 signals q, j from the block of cells /11/, which is the differential signals from the two side cells, separated from each other by partitions. When the exact setting of the stroke of the above scales the differential signal 2 side solar cells gives a zero signal, which after transformation /blocks 14, 17/ is output on these units in the form of positive potential. Blocks 19, 20, 22 serve to display the amendments and institutions amendment values set the s numbers of strokes of the main and Vernier scales in accordance with the reference meter interval length in blocks 12, 15, 14, 17. In the same blocks infest amendment values strokes of the measuring range when the television way of a precise definition of linear values specified number of strokes in accordance with the reference meter interval length. Amendments in the form of image signals of specified part numbers, bar appear in the electronic memory of the automatic meter.
All the above blocks function blocks are well known in the prior art.
1. Automatic meter interval length using Vernier consisting of a bed, a moving mechanism movable carriage, the main scale of the measuring range, characterized in that the main and Vernier scales measuring range is reduced relative to the minimum interval length of 0.5 mm by means of photographing in 10 or 40 times, installed optical blocks of the main and Vernier scales measuring ruler with magnification equal to or more than 1000, the unit cells located on the movable carriage, the mechanism of movement of the optical block relative to the movable carriage, the counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales measuring rulers, blocks, matching the strokes of the main and Vernier scales, blocks determine the exact linear values strokes the main and Vernier scales, block determine the population differential signals; the memory block of amendments, which contains amendments concerning the standard depending on the number of the stroke of the measuring line of the main and Vernier scales entered via block algebraic summation in counters of the number of strokes of the main and Vernier scales measuring range and units determine the exact linear values strokes the main and Vernier scales.
2. Automatic meter interval length using Vernier according to claim 1, characterized in that the reference interval is directly with a ruler.
3. Automatic meter interval length using Vernier according to claim 1, characterized in that the automatic measurement interval length using Vernier using two optical blocks corresponding to the main and Vernier scales, and unit cells.
FIELD: woodworking industry, particularly for measuring moving timber thickness.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises conveyer for feeding timber material to be adjusted to obtain predetermined timber thickness, thickness measuring means, processing unit to determine insufficient timber thickness, means to distinguish above timber from another ones. Thickness measuring means determines timber thickness in several points during conveyance thereof on the base of main output signals generated by displacement transducers. Displacement transducers are located in several locations along timber width. If timber has several parts of a given length with thicknesses deviated from tolerance band for predetermined value in conveyance direction one can come to conclusion that timber has insufficient thickness.
EFFECT: reduce time of thickness determination, increased quality thereof.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement of object shape.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photoreceiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the Xaxis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Zaxis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: device providing receiving of information on condition of object's surface.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting surfaces of objects at tunnel and atomicpower modes of operation in scanning probe microscope. Power probe for scanning probe microscope has quartz crystal vibrator provided with needle fixed at surface of one arm of quartz vibrator due to chemical bond between needle and surface. There are variants of the device where threadshaped crystals are used as needles and nanotubes. Threadshaped crystals can be made of carbon, metal, semiconductor and isolator. Needles can be also fixed at external surface of arm of quartz vibrator as well as its edge and side surfaces. Needles can be arranges as in parallel to axis of symmetry of quartz vibrator and in perpendicular to its axis. According to one more variant, needle can be fixed at random angle to axis of plane of one arm of quartz vibrator. In some cases surface of arm of quartz vibrator can used for fixing several needles of different lengths.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity of probe; widened operational capabilities.
12 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring linear sizes has additional counter, two subtracters, two decoders and ANDOR gate. Output of amplitude selector is connected with inputs of first and second permanent storages through additional counter. Outputs of permanent storages are connected with first inputs of first and second subtracters. The second inputs and outputs of subtracters are connected with output of unit for counting marks and with first inputs of first and second decoders. Outputs of decoders are connected with first and second inputs of ANDOR gate. The third input and output of ANDOR gate are connected correspondingly with output of unit for counting number of marks and with first input of indicator.
EFFECT: reduced influence of error of object installation; improved precision of measurement.
1 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: geometry of track is measured by using highaccuracy measuring circuit with two mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanical part of measuring system and including covered distance meter and truck tilting level sensors relative to horizon and at least one radiating mark (optical radiation source) rigidly installed on first test truck in direction of movement and providing pressing of flange of wheel to inner head of base rail, and optical electronic receivingandanalyzing system rigidly secured on second truck. Second truck is double axle, with flanges of corresponding wheelsets pressed to inner surface of head of base rail, thus forming measuring base identifying position of base rail in points of contact of corresponding wheelsets.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurement at simplification of process.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: woodworking industry, particularly for measuring moving timber thickness.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises conveyer for feeding timber material to be adjusted to obtain predetermined timber thickness, thickness measuring means, processing unit to determine insufficient timber thickness, means to distinguish above timber from another ones. Thickness measuring means determines timber thickness in several points during conveyance thereof on the base of main output signals generated by displacement transducers. Displacement transducers are located in several locations along timber width. If timber has several parts of a given length with thicknesses deviated from tolerance band for predetermined value in conveyance direction one can come to conclusion that timber has insufficient thickness.
EFFECT: reduce time of thickness determination, increased quality thereof.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement of object shape.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photoreceiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of pulling contact system cable comes to the following: each rail 6 is read off by means of distance pickup 16 placed over rail and moved continuously in longitudinal direction of track and scanning in plane 20 passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Problem points of measurement 25 on rail defining geometry of switch are recorded as measurement values in polar system of coordinates. Polar coordinates for measurement values are converted into Cartesian coordinates and information is recorded in memory at continuous measurements of distance by means of measuring wheel after which lateral section for switch 1 is calculated basing on recorded measurement values. Actual measurement values are compared in definite points of measurement 25 with preset values of at least two of enumerated parameters kept in memory, namely, width of clearance between counterrail and running rail, through clearance or state of tongue as to its wear, minimum width between edge of guide rail and side edge of running rail in curve, width of gauge and/or distance between counterrails or guide surfaces and deviation of obtained values from preset values. In device for noncontact measurement of lateral section or railtorail distance of track, each pickup 16 is arranged in area over corresponding rail 6 being essentially laser scanner 17 for reading problem points of measurement 25 defining geometry of switch which is made for reciprocation at angle of scanning (α).
EFFECT: provision of quick and accurate determination and evaluation of measurands of vital importance for switch.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: definition of the diameter of wheel pairs.
SUBSTANCE: the mode and photolaser arrangement for definition of the diameter of wheel pairs of a railway mobile train in conditions of its moving is based on the principle of measuring with the help of a photolaser arrangement of sizes which characterize the changing of the diameter of wheel tread and a degree of deterioration(wear) of the wheel pair band and also is based on the principle of computing the diameter of the wheel according to a wheel rolling circle according to the formula characterizing the changing of the diameter depending on current meaning of a chord of the wheel tread and the magnitude of a wheel tread wear. The execution of the mode of measuring of the chord and of the wheel tread wear is made by way of using of laser sources of light installed along one side of the track, horizontal and vertical photoreceiving mould "toolbars" installed on the other side of the inset in the rail and the track. Precision of measuring of geometric sizes of the wheel pair in the range of ±0.1 mm is achieved at the expense of using of laser sources of light and of photoreceivers in the shape of the mould "toolbars".
EFFECT: increases quality of precision of measuring; using of a laser commutation system and reliability of measuring elements under any weather conditions.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hologram interferometering of a flat object.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of hologram interferometering of a flat object is in making of a double exposure hologram of the surface of the object in counter rays. Then two images of the surface of the object reconditioned by the hologram are directed in an optical system in which one after another two direct FournierFrenel transform are carried out, interferograms of the images of the surface of the object are fixed. The object and the interferogram are located at such distances from the lenses that the infocus image of the surface of the object in the surface of the interferogram is made and at the expense of variations of these distances and the focal distances of the lenses, measured sizes are divided and wishful sensitivities of measurements of travel and inclination constant along the whole surface are chosen.
EFFECT: ensuring constant surface and variable sensitivity, increased range of measuring of travel and inclination.
1 dwg
FIELD: measuring instruments.
SUBSTANCE: the interferometer for controlling of the form of prominent, concave spherical and flat surfaces of largesized optical components has a source of monochromatic radiation, a collimator and an objective, one after another located a beam divider, a flat mirror and an aplanatic meniscus with a reference surface and also an observation branch located behind the beam divider in beam return and a working branch consisting out of a spherical mirror with a compensator which form a focusing system. Depending of the form of a controlled surface focusing of the working branch of the interferometer is executed at replacing the compensator and the basic block of the interferometer which has an illuminating branch. A beam divider, a flat mirror, an aplanatic meniscus and an observation branch relative to a fully stabilized spherical mirror along an optical axis on such a distance at which the beams reflected from the spherical mirror fall on the controlled surface transversely to its surface.
EFFECT: expansion of nomenclature of controlled surfaces, decreasing largesized dimensions of the interferometer.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: rolled stock production.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes unit for measuring length; additional unit and converter forming signal for cutting. Additional unit is in the form of two slit type sliding guides mounted with possibility of measuring distance between them according to width B of rolled strip. Length of guides l = (18  21)√B, width of slits (0.05  0.07)B. Unit for measuring length of rolled strip is in the form of optical sensor on base of light sensitive matrix having in bottom portion inlet opening. Said sensor is connected with converter. Measuring unit is spaced by distance b = (0.15 0.22)B from one lateral edge of rolled strip and it is mounted in such a way that distance from inlet opening of measuring unit till surface of rolled strip along height is equal to 3  5 mm.
EFFECT: lowered metal consumption, enhanced consumers' properties of rolled strip due to high accuracy of cutting it.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be tested on the working table, moving the nonflatness meter, determining the amplitude of nonflatness, and determining coefficients of nonflatness. The device comprises source of light, multielement photodetector, objective, and computer.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the Xaxis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Zaxis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: according to method, gas is supplied through entrance nozzles to measuring chamber of differential pneumatic measurement device and then through measuring nozzles to gap between surface of standard member and edge surfaces of measuring nozzles. Standard pressure inside measuring chamber is registered by means of sensing element and range of measurement is set. The standard member is replaced by member to be measured and deviation of pressure against standard pressure is registered. Results of measurement are represented in form of light scale. Results of measurement are sent from sensing element to pressure processing electronic unit. Whole range of measurements is divided to subranges correspondingly to required precision of measurement. Electrical transmission ration is set for each subrange. Minimal width of subrange is put to lower limit of indication scale in measurement processing electronic unit. Maximal width of subrange is put to upper limit of indication scale. Limits of measurement for each subrange are tuned by means of corresponding standard members. Limits of measurements, electrical transmission ratios and results of measurements are stored in memorizing unit. Method allows to change range of measurement without changing measuring equipment.
EFFECT: increased precision of measurement.
4 cl, 1 dwg