Method for drilling blasting of rocks

FIELD: mining industry, applicable at blasting of rocks on the ground surface, at blasting of ores in the underground conditions and driving of underground open pit minings.

SUBSTANCE: the method for drilling blasting of rocks includes drilling of boreholes with subsequent their loading with explosive charges, short-delay blasting and registration of seismic oscillations on one block. Then, the zone with the maximum quantity of simultaneously blasted deep-hole charges on this block is determined according to the amplitude of speed exceeding the preset level on the seismograph. After that the intervals of operation between the adjacent charges on the next block are increased with due account made for the obtained results of measurements on the previous block.

EFFECT: provided the necessary degree of rock crushing at an allowable level of seismic action on the environment.

4 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, and in particular to methods of drilling and blasting blasting of rocks, and can be used for breaking rocks on the earth's surface, when the breaking of ore in underground conditions, as well as the excavation of underground mine workings.

There is a method of drilling and blasting blasting of rocks, including the drilling of wells and their subsequent loading of the explosive charge and the short-delay blasting hole charges [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the possibility of premature detonation borehole charges, which causes deterioration of crushing rocks, the increase in seismic impact on the environment and the collapse of slopes ledges quarry.

There is a method of drilling and blasting blasting of rocks, including the drilling of wells and their subsequent loading of the explosive charge, short-delay blasting, use of contour row of charges and registration of seismic vibrations [2]. This method is adopted for the prototype.

In this way if the maximum allowable level of seismic influence on the rock mass, reduce the weight of the charges in the groups, which leads to deterioration of the quality crushing rocks. In addition, this method also has the disadvantages mentioned above in the similar.

Object of the invention is the provision of the necessary degree droblem the I rocks with a valid (current) level of seismic impact on the environment and the safety of the slopes of the ledges.

This is achieved in that in the method of drilling and blasting blasting of rocks, including the drilling of wells and their subsequent loading of the explosive charge, short-delay blasting and registration of seismic vibrations, determine the area with the maximum number of simultaneously exploded borehole charges on the same block on the maximum excess value of the amplitude of seismic velocity fluctuations over a given its value on the seismogram, then increase the interval time between neighboring charges on the next block relative to the time intervals in the zone of the previous block with the maximum amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations that exceed the specified level, with the subsequent adjustment of the spacing of the deceleration operation of the other charges block, with the increase of the deceleration intervals operation charges in subsequent blocks continue to provide a given level of seismic impacts on the rocks.

Figure 1 shows the locations of the wells on the ledge.

Figure 2 shows the scheme of explosive network.

Figure 3 and 4 shows seismograms explosions on two blocks career.

Quarry work blocks 1, each of which are drilling multiple vertical rows of wells 2 and their subsequent loading of the explosive charge 3, the installation of explosive network 4 well with the surface retarders 5, 6, the switching of the explosive charge in each row and their short-delay blasting using detonator 7. When this register occurring oscillations by a seismic Registrar 8 installed at a given distance R from the unit (see figure 1). In the process of blasting hole charges in some cases is kvaziodnomernoi them blasting, i.e. multiple charges fall on its slowdowns in the temporary tolerance interval of variation for downhole moderators. Thus, there is a stochastic picture of the phenomena with different tolerances for delay intervals in each well, and the total seismic effect can only be assessed by analysis of the seismograms of the explosion on the block. On the seismogram define zones simultaneously detonated charges in excess of the velocity amplitudes of the oscillations above the specified value, at which the energy of the blast wave provides the necessary degree of crushing rocks while maintaining slope stability of the slopes and seismic impact on the environment within acceptable limits. The level of such energy is determined by the well-known technique [3]. Next, select the area with the maximum number of simultaneously exploded borehole charges on the maximum excess value of the amplitude of seismic velocity fluctuations over a given its urovnem this zone is formed by the blast wave with the maximum energy, leading to the collapse of the slopes of the scarp, and the negative impact on the environment. Explosive wave velocity amplitudes that exceed the specified level, can also lead to the collapse of slopes. The number of simultaneously detonated explosive charge in this zone is determined by the method of the inverse of the account by the coefficient of seismicity, the distance from block 1 to Registrar 8, the maximum value of the amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations, which calculate the maximum mass simultaneously detonated charges, and the mass of a single charge. To provide a given level of seismic influence on the rock at the next block increase the interval time between adjacent charges relative to time intervals in the zone of the previous block with the maximum explosive energy corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations that exceed the specified level, with the subsequent adjustment of the deceleration intervals other charges block. Increase the firing interval of a nearby borehole charges in proportion to the number of simultaneously detonated explosive charge in the zone with maximum explosive energy and must be greater than the total maximum allowable deviation of the time of actuation of the two neighboring charges. This increase of the time interval is ustanavlivaut empirically for specific geological conditions. Upon the occurrence of simultaneous explosions of charges on subsequent blocks with seismic impact exceeding a preset level, continue similarly to increase the intervals deceleration explosions to provide a given level of seismic effects on the rock mass and the environment.

An example implementation of the method.

The career of the "Eastern" Olimpiada GOK JSC "Polyus" explosive fragmentation blocks provide downhole explosive charge arranged in ten rows of two groups in a row with two charges in the group, and two single explosive charge when the distance between rows and=6.5 m and the distance between the borehole charges b=6,5 m Rocks quartz-mica-carbonate with the strength coefficient on Don ƒ=10...12.

As CENTURIES use Grammont 79/21. Blasting is performed in the V-scheme with the use of non-electric initiation system blasting (SINV). Blasting perform simultaneous firing of charges in the group with an interval of deceleration is equal to 42 MS between bursts groups in the same row, and the deceleration interval 67 MS between bursts borehole charges in adjacent rows (see diagram blasting borehole charges figure 2). The maximum deviation intervals actuation surface retarder type SINV-P value is on your passport ±9,2 m and borehole retarder type SINV-- ± 24 MS. When the blasting explosive charge in accordance with the scheme record seismic vibrations through the Registrar of seismic signals "Delta-GEON-02". The velocity amplitudes of seismic vibrations exceeding a specified level of seismic influence on the rocks, define zones simultaneously detonated charges. In this case, the specified level of seismic influence on the rocks corresponds to the value of the amplitude of velocity fluctuations from the simultaneous explosion of two borehole charges, which is determined by the seismogram and it is equal to V=5.2 cm/s (see figure 3).

Next, determine the number of simultaneously detonated charges in the zone with the maximum amplitude of the Vmaxseismic vibrations. Largest amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations from the explosion of two charges V1=5.2 cm/s, the mass of the two charges Q1=500 kg, the distance R=170 m from exploding block to the Registrar for data mining and geological conditions determine the coefficient of seismicity by the formula

Then determine the total weight of Qmaxexplosive charge equalthat caused seismic vibrations with a maximum amplitude of the velocity, calculated also on the seismogram on three axes (see figure 3) and is equal to

and according to the public .

Knowing the mass of a single charge Q1250 kg, determine the number of simultaneously detonated charges n in the zone with the maximum amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations

At this time (with the specified deceleration) blown up only 2 charges, and other charges - 16 exploded kvaziodnorodnoj that exceeded 8 times the estimated number of charges in the group. At the next block increase the interval time between adjacent borehole charges up to 109 MS, and the interval of deceleration explosions between rows was saved and is equal to 67 MS. After the explosion of the explosive charge of the unit maximum amplitude of the velocity fluctuations at a distance of 200 m was 1.1 cm/s From seismograms of this explosion, it follows that the amplitude of velocity fluctuations do not exceed the specified level with the simultaneous explosion of two borehole charges (see figure 4). As a result of drilling and blasting works in this way provided the degree of crushing of blasted rock in accordance with the applicable rules and minimized seismic impact on the environment.

Sources of information

1. Kutuzov BN. The destruction of rocks by explosion (explosive technologies in the industry). - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University, 1994, s-159.

2. Kutuzov BN. The destruction of rocks by explosion. - M.: Publishing House. Moscow state mining University, 1992 s-410 (prototype).

3. Moines NR. Dabadee and seismic action explosion rocks. - M.: Nedra, 1976, s.

Method of drilling and blasting blasting of rocks, including the drilling of wells and their subsequent loading of the explosive charge, short-delay blasting and registration of seismic vibrations, characterized in that define the area with the maximum number of simultaneously exploded borehole charges on the same block on the maximum excess value of the amplitude of seismic velocity fluctuations over a given its value on the seismogram, then increase the interval time between neighboring charges on the next block relative to the time intervals in the zone of the previous block with the maximum amplitude of the velocity of seismic vibrations that exceed the specified level, with the subsequent adjustment of the spacing of the deceleration operation of the other charges block, with increasing intervals deceleration operation charges in subsequent blocks continue to provide a given level of seismic impacts on the rocks.



 

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