Heat pipe

FIELD: heating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.

EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of heat and can be used in devices for heat transfer and teploreguliruth.

In recent times many countries have developed so-called heat pipes (TT), which are effective heatsinks. It is known that the heat pipe is mainly not normal conductivity, which is relatively small, and hydraulic and heat transfer in two opposite phase transformations. The pump that circulates both liquid and vaporous heat carrier, is the wick, from its geometrical, thermal and hydraulic characteristics determine the heat transfer ability of the heat pipe. Here, in the first place, should include parameters such as thermal conductivity of the frame of the wick, its porosity, the distribution of the pore radii, the permeability to fluid. This ability is no less dependent on the characteristics of the fluid: saturated vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, viscosity, density, liquid and vapor thermal conductivity, surface tension, wetting them with solid walls of the capillary channels of the wick. All these parameters depend on the temperature and change with thermal load on the heat pipe.

Main (hydraulic) equation is aloway pipe without taking into account the change of momentum and the gravitational effects on the course of a couple due to its low density, can be represented as:

Δ PMAXΔPg+Δ PW+Δ Pp(1),

where Δ Pmax is the maximum capillary pressure (absolute value of the difference in capillary pressure), which can create the wick of this heat pipe on the fluid at a given temperature, Δ Pg is the difference between the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid in the pores of the wick between the ends of the heat pipe, Δ R J is the hydraulic resistance (friction loss) in the flow of the liquid in the wick, Δ RP - hydraulic resistance to the movement of steam in the steam channel.

In the stationary operating heat pipe is always the sum of the pressure losses equal to the difference in capillary pressure Δ R, which is mandatory in this case and creates a wick, that is:

Δ P=Δ Pg+Δ PW+Δ Pp. (2)

With increasing heat load on the heat pipe temperature increases, the force of surface tension, and hence the Δ Pmax decreases and losses on a couple and liquid Δ P increase and tend to its maximum value Δ Pmax. When Δ R=Δ Rmah, further increasing the load becomes impossible.

A significant increase in the length of the classical heat pipe even when operating in horizontal position meets certain work the spine, related, on the one hand, with increasing losses as a couple, and fluid, which reduces the maximum capacity, and on the other with the manufacture and installation of long wicks, especially if the heat pipe has the curves of the body.

To increase the length of the classical heat pipe and reduce the hydraulic resistance of the used heat pipes with separate channels of vapor and liquid and localized porous structure, the role of the capillary pump. The design of this pipe is described in the copyright certificate №1196665 that is selected as a prototype.

However, in this design is retained the inherent limitations of heat pipes with porous capillary pumps, namely:

- heat capacity and the length of the pipe is limited to a maximum value of capillary pressure Δ Rmah;

- the value of the capillary pressure depends on the wettability of the surface of the porous structure and the surface tension forces, which creates significant difficulties in the manufacture, preparation surfaces and the selection and preparation of coolant;

- there is no possibility of regulation of thermal power.

The proposed design avoids these shortcomings by introducing into the design of the electrokinetic pump. Design electrokinetic pump description is in J.F.Osterley, Electrokinetic Energy Conversion // Journal of Applied Mechanics. - June 1964. pp 161-164. These pumps allow you to pump fluid through the porous structure upon application of an electric field. Estimates show that under the same pore size electrokinetic pump allows you to get several times more pressure drop than the capillary.

The problem is solved in that the heat pipe contains associated steam line and condensate evaporator having a capillary-porous nozzle, and a condenser, while the nozzle made of insulating material, for example ceramics, and the inner side of the nozzle installed mesh electrode associated with the core electrode installed in the hermetic insulator on the end part of the evaporator.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a General view of the proposed device.

Heat-pipe electric heat capacity contains connected by a steam line 1 and the condenser 2 to the evaporator 3 with ceramic, non-conducting electric current, capillary-porous nozzle 4, is supplied protodrake channels 5 and the capacitor 6, made for example in the form of coaxially mounted one in the other cylinder with the formation of the annular cavity 7, and paratwada channel 5 made in the form of an annular and longitudinal grooves, the location is different on the outer surface of the nozzle 4 and communicating with the annular steam header 8. On the inner surface of the nozzle is a cylindrical mesh electrode 9 is electrically insulated from the evaporator housing 3 and is connected through a tight insulator 10 to the electrode 11.

The heat pipe operates as follows. While supplying the heat load to the evaporator 3 there is a difference of temperature and pressure between the vapor in paratwada channels 5 on the one hand, and the fluid in the Central cavity of the nozzle 4, with the other hand. Under the action of pressure difference, the fluid is displaced from the annular area 7 of the capacitor 6 and fills the free portion of the condenser 2 and the Central channel of the nozzle 4. The coolant supplied to the nozzle 4 moves in the evaporation zone is predominantly in the radial direction. Evaporation takes place from the surface of the capillary-porous elements closely adjacent to the surface of the evaporator 3. The resulting pairs of annular and longitudinal grooves enters the steam manifold 8, and the steam pipe 1 into the condenser 6, where it is condensed and cooled to a temperature of the heat sink. Under the action of pressure difference of the resulting condensate is returned to the evaporator, completing the operating cycle of the heat pipe.

In the absence of an electric voltage between the casing pipe and the electrode 11, the operation of the heat pipe does not differ from those described in the prototype. PR is the supply voltage to the electrode 11 electrokinetic pump, formed by the housing of the evaporator 3, the porous nozzle 4 and the mesh electrode 9, creates an additional pressure drop of the fluid, which increases the available capillary pressure. The increase in total pressure of the fluid can increase the length and heat capacity of the pipe. As electrokinetic pump does not depend on the wettability of the porous nozzle 4, requirements for the quality of its production and preparation significantly reduced. In addition, the possibility of changing the voltage supplied to the electrode 11, allows not only to control the volume of pressure fluid and thereby thermal power tubes, but also by changing the polarity of the voltage, to achieve complete cessation of transmission of thermal power (mode locking).

Thus, the introduction into the design of electrokinetic pump allows you to:

to increase heat capacity and the length of the heat pipe;

- to reduce the requirements to the porous nozzle and the preparation of the carrier;

- to carry out the adjustment mode of heat capacity and, thereby, to achieve the goal.

From the known to the applicant information sources not detected set of features, similar to the set of features of the claimed object.

Heat pipe containing the associated steam line and condensate evaporator having a capillary-porous is th nozzle, and the capacitor, characterized in that the nozzle made of insulating material, for example ceramics, and the inner side of the nozzle installed mesh electrode associated with the core electrode installed in the hermetic insulator on the end part of the evaporator.



 

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