Furnace for burning waste

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: furnace comprises combustion chamber whose bottom section is provided with the igniter and branch pipe for supplying fuel, intermediate section is provided with the branch pipe for supplying waste, and top section is provided with the exhaust branch pipe connected with the duct for discharging flue gases. The casing is mounted around the chamber to define the air passage between the casing and outer side of the chamber. The passage is in communication with the bottom section of the combustion chamber and branch pipe for supplying fuel. The casing is provided with the air supply branch pipe. The branch pipe for supplying fuel receives at least one pair of vortex cyclonic chambers whose openings for air supply are made in opposite tangential directions.

EFFECT: enhanced environmental safety.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the protection of the environment and can be used for thermo-chemical processing waste, in particular chlorine.

The level of technology

Known furnace for burning waste, comprising a housing divided into gasification chamber and a combustion chamber products of gasification, the nozzles supplying air to the chambers gasification and combustion chamber, a pipe for supplying liquid combustible waste to the gasification chamber, an exhaust pipe connected to the afterburner, and additional elements that provide intensive mixing of combustible waste and air [1]. However, the furnace [1] is intended for disposal only combustible waste.

The closest in technical essence to the proposed solution - prototype - is a furnace for burning waste containing a combustion chamber, the bottom of which is provided with a socket input fuel installed in the pipe of the cyclone vortex chamber, the middle part of the coupling of the input waste and the upper part of the exhaust gas outlet communicated with the path of the flue gases, a casing, provided with vozduhopotok pipe and mounted to form between him and the outer side of the chamber air duct communicated with the lower part of the combustion chamber and nozzle of the input fuel [2].

The disadvantage of the prototype - riskyproject of the combustion of fuel in the lower part of the combustion chamber, the non-uniformity of the temperature field and as a consequence of increased fuel consumption and reduced the hygienic efficiency of the process associated with a high content of products of incomplete oxidation of fuel.

The objective of the invention is the improvement of sanitary-hygienic efficiency and reduce fuel consumption by stabilizing the combustion of the fuel and equalization of the temperature field in the lower part of the chamber.

Disclosure of inventions

The subject of the invention is a furnace for burning waste containing a combustion chamber, the bottom of which is provided with a fuse and socket input fuel, the middle part of the coupling of the input waste and the upper part of the exhaust gas outlet communicated with the path of the flue gases, a casing, provided with vozduhopotok pipe and mounted to form between him and the outer side of the chamber air duct communicated with the lower part of the combustion chamber and nozzle of the input fuel in the pipe entering the fuel is placed, at least one pair of vortex cyclone chambers, vozduhoprovodyaschih holes are made in opposite tangential directions.

This improves the stability and sustainability of the combustion of fuel, to equalize the temperature on the volume of the lower part of the chamber and thereby reduce the content of toxic in the substances in the products of waste disposal.

The invention has the development consists in the fact that the connection of the input waste is supplied with spray.

This reduces chemical nadareh due to dispersion downloadable mixture of liquid waste with chemical reagents.

The invention has another development consists in the fact that the exhaust pipe is communicated with the path of the flue gases through the Venturi pipe and drip pan.

This development of the invention can further increase the hygienic efficiency of the decontamination process by cleaning flue gases from the liquid phase products of neutralization.

Following development of the invention provides the ability to install a metal grate in the lower part of the combustion chamber.

This can further increase the stability of the post-combustion of the partially gasified fuel by stabilizing the temperature in the lower part of the combustion chamber.

Another development of the invention consists in that the upper part of the chamber has a water atomizer, for example, in the exhaust stream.

This allows you to stabilize the process of thermo-chemical processing by hardening its products.

The implementation of the invention

The essence of the invention taking into account its development illustrates the drawing, which schematically offer reflects emuu the design of the device.

The main element of the furnace chamber 1 chamber.

In the lower part of the chamber 1 posted by fuse 2 and the pipe 3 input fuel with a pair of cyclone vortex chambers 4. Each cyclone chamber has vozduhootvod tangentially directed hole 5. The direction of these holes in the cells 4 of the opposite.

In the middle part of the camera 1 is installed pipe 6 input waste, which may be provided with a nozzle 7, and the upper part of the exhaust pipe 8.

Camera 1 is placed in the casing 9. The gap between the shell 9 and the outer wall of the chamber 1 forms an air channel 10 reported through the holes 11 with the lower part of the chamber 1 and through holes 12 with the pipe 3. Holes 11 and 12 are made in the tangential direction with respect to the camera 1 and the pipe 3, respectively. Channel 10 is equipped with vozduhopotok pipe 13.

The exhaust pipe 8 through the pipe 14 Venturi and the drip pan 15 is in communication with the channel 16 of the flue gases and tract 17 drain the liquid products of neutralization. In the exhaust pipe 8 have a water nozzle 18 that is associated with a line of industrial water.

The oven works as follows.

In the cyclone chamber 4, is placed in the pipe 3, the pipes 19 and 20 of the liquid fuel is atomized by the air flowing in the pipe 3 through the holes 12. From pipe 3, air enters the openings 5 4 cameras. Receiving the Naya in the cells 4 of the air-fuel mixture is initially ignited with a fuse 2 after entering the lower part of the chamber 1. In the future, under the action of the generated heat the liquid fuel in the chambers 4 partially gasified, and ignites the output of them.

Due to the opposite directions of tangential holes 5 in the cells 4 are opposite twist of the vortices. This intensifies the convective interaction between threads cyclone chambers 4, increases the turbulence of the total flow partially gasified fuel in the root zone of the burning in the furnace torch (the area in the lower part of the chamber 1 adjacent to the 4 cameras). In the above process partial gasification and ignition products is more stable and steady.

The air entering the channel 10 through the pipe 13, cools the walls of the chamber 1 and simultaneously heated. Through tangentially directed openings 11 heated air from the pipe 10 enters the lower part of the chamber 1, which provides the final afterburning of fuel, partially gasified in the cells 4.

Intensive mixing of the partially gasified fuel and air with a high degree of turbulence in the flow evens out the temperature on the volume of the lower part of the chamber 1, which contributes, on the one hand, reducing the formation of oxides of nitrogen, and on the other, the complete oxidation of the fuel.

In the middle part of the chamber 1 through the pipe 6 serves dedicated to superior quality products is obtained for the combustion of waste. In the case of combustion of liquid waste pipe 6 may be provided with a nozzle 7, for example a nozzle, through which serves a waste liquid, pre-mixed with chemical reagents.

The heat is highlighted in the lower part of the chamber 1, warms its wall along its entire height. The mixture is received in the middle part of the chamber 1 from the nozzle 7, is additionally heated by radiation of the flame, burning in the lower part of the chamber 1, and convective mixing with the high temperature products of combustion of fuel.

The heated mixture of waste and chemical enters the upper part of the chamber 1, where the reaction takes place thermo-chemical processing. Through pipe 8 products of neutralization is disposed in the pipe 14 Venturi, where in the form of aerosols enter the drip pan 15, where one of them falls the liquid phase. Gaseous products of neutralization are removed through the path 16 of the flue gases and liquid through the ducts 17.

Over the lower part of the chamber 1 may be a metal grille 21, fulfilling the role of a heated body, stabilizing the post-combustion of the partially gasified fuel.

The exhaust tube 8 is also used for input of water vapor in the upper part of the chamber 1 through a water spray, for example the nozzle 18, for quenching (commit) products of thermochemical process obezvrezhivaniju is. This helps to avoid unwanted progress of the neutralization reaction towards the formation of toxic substances (for example, hydrochloric acid in the case of incineration of chlorinated wastes).

The stability and sustainability of the process of partial gasification and subsequent post-combustion of the fuel flowing in the lower part of the chamber 1, promotes more complete burning of fuel and therefore reduce consumption. Reducing the number of products of incomplete combustion of the fuel flowing in the upper part of the chamber 1, in turn, reduces the formation of secondary toxins in the process of thermo-chemical processing and thereby improve the hygienic efficiency of the process.

Industrial applicability

A prototype of the proposed furnace was pilot-tested at Tomsk industrial waste. When the ratio of the excess fuel in the pair of cyclone chambers partial gasification, selectable in the range of 0.3-0.4 depending on the type of fuel, the emission of toxic substances during incineration of chlorine-containing liquid waste has been reduced by 30-40% compared with the traditional design of the furnace.

Sources of information

1. Auth. mon. SU # 1698577 A1, IPC F 23 G 7/04.

2. Patent RU No. 2119123 C1 IPC F 23 G 5/00.

1. A furnace for burning waste containing a combustion chamber, the lower part to the th is equipped with a fuse and socket input fuel the middle part of the coupling of the input waste and the upper part of the exhaust gas outlet communicated with the path of the flue gases, a casing, provided with vozduhopotok pipe and mounted to form between him and the outer side of the chamber air duct communicated with the lower part of the combustion chamber and nozzle of the input fuel in the pipe entering the fuel is placed, at least one pair of vortex cyclone chambers, vozduhoprovodyaschih holes are made in opposite tangential directions.

2. Furnace according to claim 1, in which the connection of the input waste is supplied with spray.

3. Furnace according to claim 1, in which the exhaust pipe is communicated with the path of the flue gases through the Venturi pipe and drip pan.

4. Furnace according to claim 1, in which over the lower part of the chamber a metal grille.

5. Furnace according to claim 1, in which the upper part of the combustion chamber has a water atomizer, for example, in the exhaust stream.



 

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