Vehicle hydrostatic transmission

FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.

EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.

5 cl, 1 dwg

 

The technical solution relates to the field of engineering. It relates to hydrostatic transmissions for vehicles.

Known hydrostatic transmissions for vehicles containing a pump unit for supplying fluid under pressure to hydraulic motors, consisting of a main and charging pumps with direct joint drive shaft of the vehicle engine (copyright certificate №1702031 issued in USSR patent No. 2422482 issued in Germany). But in such hydrostatic transmissions in the initial period of its operation possible increased wear of the main pump due to the absence or lack of it working fluid at the beginning of the rotation of the shaft.

The more sophisticated the hydrostatic transmissions for vehicles, consisting of a pumping station with a drive from the motor shaft through an adjustable friction clutch, hydraulic motors which is hydraulically connected with the pump station, and separate make-up pump with a direct drive motor or drive him through the transmission gear (copyright certificate №1106693 issued in USSR patent No. 3859790 issued by the United States). When starting the engine mentioned friction clutch unlock and rotate the shaft only make-up pump, which takes the working fluid from the tank and delivers it to the guy who replicase contours, formed hose that connects the motors with the main pumps, forming a pumping station. After filling the hydraulic circuit of the working fluid and create in them pressure close the friction clutch to bring the rotation of the drive shaft of the main pump. However, a separate location for the make-up pump significantly complicates hydrostatic transmission, especially if for each hydrocortone requires a separate feed pump for feeding the working fluid from the tank.

To prevent debris from entering the tank dust and other unwanted particles, it is desirable to make airtight and create increased pressure of the air in his air cavity.

Known hydraulic system self-propelled vehicle containing a sealed reservoir for the working fluid from the filler neck and stopper, in which the inner cavity is communicated to the pipe with the intake manifold of the internal combustion engine equipped with a supercharger (copyright certificate issued in the USSR, No. 1201186). Similar hydraulic system with the same means of ensuring the excess pressure in the tank is presented in the author's certificate No. 246790, issued in Czechoslovakia. However, not all vehicles have internal combustion engines with what agriturismi air. In this case, to create a high air pressure in the tank it is advisable to use foreign sources of compressed air (see, for example, application No. 63-24163 published in Japan). Known such a hydraulic system, which is to create and maintain the inside of the tank with the working fluid pressure above atmospheric and increase due to this suction capacity of the pump includes an air pump for supplying compressed air to the tank, shut-off and check valves located in the suction channel of the air pump, check valve located in the discharge channel, and a safety valve to release excess compressed air from the reservoir (application No. 62-27282 published in Japan). This hydraulic system is applicable only for fixed installations, working in enclosed spaces.

In the known hydrostatic transmissions of vehicles containing a pumping station with motor vehicles and motors associated with the pump unit trunk hose, forming a closed circulating hydraulic circuit, drain excess fluid, injection charging pump pump station, providing sustenance trunk hose working fluid under pressure required to prevent the treatment of cavitation, occurs through cavity cooling of buildings of units and then through the heat exchanger in a conventional tank with filler neck (author's certificate No. 1696325, 1702031 issued in the USSR, accepted application No. 1494243, 2013841, 2062187, published in the UK, application no 447510, 691234 on the grant of European patents, patents No. 4323137, 4503928 issued U.S. patents No. 2251536, 3330849 issued in Germany). However, in hydrostatic transmissions with this tank it is possible ingress of abrasive dust and other foreign particles, decreasing the reliability of generating units due to the resulting increased wear them.

As a prototype adopted hydrostatic transmission transport vehicle containing a pumping station, consisting of a main and charging pumps driven from the internal combustion engine, the hydraulic motor associated with the pump through the trunk hose, forming a hydraulic circuit, and an additional pump with independent drive, in particular electricity, the cavity of the discharge of which is connected directly with said hydraulic circuit, and the cavity of the suction communicated constantly with the tank through a separate suction hydroline (issued in USSR author's certificate No. 1227522, the IPC 60 17/10, 1984). This hydrostatic transmission includes a conventional tank which is connected with the Nar is mportant air, the suction hydroline between the tank and feed pump, a separate hydroline between him and an additional pump. In this hydrostatic transmissions during refueling of the tank by the liquid on the road when dusty air or in wet weather and penetrate the dust air, lowering it to the level of the working fluid in case it leaks from the hydraulic system may get into the tank and then into the hydraulic system of the abrasive particles and moisture that can damage the precision parts of the transmission units.

Task - improving the reliability of the hydrostatic transmissions of the transport machine, intended for use in various road conditions.

The solution to this problem is provided by the fact that the hydrostatic transmission transport vehicle containing a pumping station, consisting of a main and a charging pump having a motor-driven machine, the hydraulic motors associated with pump stations trunk hose, forming a circulating hydraulic circuit, a pump with an electric drive, the cavity of the discharge of which is connected with the hydraulic circuit formed by the main hose that connects the motors with the pump station is equipped with a sealed tank with a filling device is th air cavity with compressed air from the pneumatic system of the machine, containing a shut-off valve, pressure regulator compressed air in the tank with safety valve and vacuum valve with manual operation to release the compressed air from the tank, two-position valve with manual control to toggle between hydraulic connection cavity suction pump having an electric drive, a threading device of the pressurized working fluid tank and with the tank, a check valve located in the drain hydroline at the entrance to the hydraulic reservoir shut-off valve with manual control located in the suction hydroline at the outlet of the tank.

Thanks to the equipment hydrostatic transmission auxiliary pump with an electric drive, a sealed tank with device charge it cleaned and dried compressed air withdrawn from the pneumatic system of the machine, a valve for filling of the pressurized working fluid tank of any capacity with offline pump ensures a reliable sealing of the hydrostatic transmissions during its operation and refilling the tank with fluid, which is quite convenient.

To ensure the safety of hydrostatic transmissions it is equipped with a position sensor locking element mentioned shut-off valve, steering repair is eat, located in the electric circuit of the electric motor drive offline pump, and a switch located in the electrical circuit of the starter of the engine.

In addition, in the electric circuit of the starter in series with the switch operated manually, and a switch controlled by a sensor of the position of the locking element of the shutoff valve is a switch controlled by the sensor as the minimum fluid level in the tank.

In the electric circuit of the electric motor drive offline pump in series with a switch operated manually, and a switch controlled by a sensor of the position of the locking element of the shutoff valve is a switch controlled by the sensor the maximum fluid level in the hydraulic tank. This provides for automatic termination of the auxiliary pump after filling the tank, not allowing it to overflow.

In parallel to the switch controlled by the sensor the maximum allowable liquid level in the tank, there is a switch controlled by the position sensor shut-off element mentioned two-position valve, which connects the cavity of the suction Autonomous pump alternately with the tank and with the device it is charging the working fluid. This allows the opportunity after filling the tank with fluid to re-start the Autonomous pump for pumping the working fluid through the hydraulic system hydrostatic transmissions before beginning her work.

The drawing shows a hydrostatic transmission wheeled transport vehicle containing a pumping station, consisting of a main (main) axial - plunger adjustable reversible reversible pump 1 and a charging pump 2 driven from the motor shaft 3 internal combustion managed through the friction clutch 4. Trunk hose 5, 6 forming the circulating hydraulic circuit with a pump station associated with the hydraulic motors 7, 8 of the drive wheels of the vehicle. In this hydrostatic transmissions several hydraulic circuits equal in number to the number of pairs of wheels of the vehicle. Hydrostatic transmission comprises a sealed tank 9 with the working fluid without the filler cap. Tank provided with a device for filling air cavity located above the working fluid, cleaned and dried compressed air from the pneumatic machine system that includes a compressor with receiver means of cleaning and drying air (not shown) and serving to actuate the pneumatic brake actuator and other units of the machine. The device filling the air cavity of the tank with compressed air contains a shut-off valve 10 controlled manually connecting and disconnecting the air cavity of the tank 9 with a pneumatic system of the machine. Consistently with to the an 10 pneumotropica are non-return valve 11, the strainer 12 managed manually on-off valve 13 issue of the condensate and the regulator 14, the compressed air pressure in the tank 9, is equipped with a safety valve 15 for the release of the air cavity of the tank of excess compressed air to maintain the optimal amount of pressure. In addition, the above-mentioned device, providing pressurization of the compressed air in the tank of the pneumatic system of the machine, equipped with a vacuum valve 16 with manual control, containing a spring-loaded locking element is moved by external pressure, i.e. atmospheric air in the case of education in the tank 9 vacuum. Moreover, the locking element of the vacuum valve 16 can also be moved manually force for release on pneumotropica from the air cavity of the tank 9 compressed air when maintenance or replacement. In the drain hydroline 17 at the entrance to the tank 9 is located a check valve 18, in series with which the tank 9 is placed deaerator 19, which is a glass sump. In the suction hydroline 20, which connects the cavity of the suction feed pump 2 tank 9, the output from the tank 9 is a two-position shut-off valve 21 with manual control. In series with the valve 21 in the hydroline 20 is a filter 22 with a by-pass valve 23, the TCI is Ivushka in the case of excessive clogging of the filter 22.

The cavity of the injection pump 2 feed trunk hose 5, 6 reported with these hose through the supply (discharge) hydroline 24 and check valve 25, 26. To limit the maximum pressure in the main hose 5, 6 in hydrostatic transmissions are safety valves 27, 28. To drain excess fluid supplied charging pump 2, and maintaining constant pressure feeding the working fluid cavity suction of the main pump 1 to the hydraulic system of the transmission has a retaining valve 29 located in series with tranposition Bolotnikova changeover valve 30 controlled by the pressure in the main hose 5, 6. Consistently with the retaining valve 29 located cavity cooling in the pump casing 1 and the hydraulic motors 7, 8 and the heat exchanger 31, blown by the fan 32, having an electric drive with automatic control depending on the temperature. To bypass the working fluid at a low temperature by the heat exchanger 31 has a bypass valve 33 located in the bypass hydroline.

Hydrostatic transmission has a stand-alone pump 34 with an electric drive motor 35. The cavity of the suction Autonomous pump 34 through a two-position valve 36 having manual control the pressure, alternately in different positions of the locking element 37 of the valve 36 may be connected either with suction hydroline 20 with its plot, located after the shutoff valve 21 and filter 22, or through the filter 38 to the device 39 filling of the tank 9 of the working fluid containing the opening force of the check valve. The cavity of the discharge pump 34 through the filter 40 and the check valve 41 is connected with the supply hydroline 24 and through the check valves 25, 26 from the main hose 5, 6 forming the hydraulic circuit of the transmission.

The motor 35 to drive the Autonomous pump 34 is connected to a source of electric current, an electric circuit 42, which are positioned successively switch 43 with manual control, switch 44 controlled by the sensor 45, the maximum allowable liquid level in the tank 9, the switch 46 controlled by the position sensor locking element 47 of the stop valve 21. In parallel with the switch 44 in this electric circuit is a switch 48, controlled by a position sensor of the locking element 37 of the valve 36. The switch 44 and other switches, controlled by sensors, can be made in the form of electromagnetic relays.

To prevent starting of the engine 3 in the absence of the readiness of the hydrostatic transmissions to work in an electrical circuit 49 start the and 50 of the engine 3 in addition to the switch 51 with manual push-button control are consistently located the switch 52, controlled by the position sensor locking element 47 of the shutoff valve 21, the switch 53 controlled by sensor 54 minimum allowable liquid level in the tank 9. As a result, the starter motor of the machine cannot be switched on in the absence of fluid in the tank, when closed shut-off valve located in the suction hydroline at the outlet of the tank, which ensures the safe operation of the hydrostatic transmissions and thus increases its reliability.

At an engineering company after installation of the hydrostatic transmissions of the transport vehicle make refilling of the tank 9 and the entire hydraulic system of the working fluid. To do this, set the stop element 37 on-off valve 36 in the position in which the cavity of the suction Autonomous pump 34 having an electric drive, is connected through a filter 38 with the device 39 refills hydrostatic transmissions of the working fluid from the outside of the vessel. Thus the locking element 47 of the stop valve 21 is installed in a position which is open to the suction hydroline 20. Switch 43 closes the electrical circuit of the motor 35, which causes the rotation of the shaft Autonomous pump 34. The pump 34 through the filter 38 and the device 39 picks up the working fluid from outside eat the hair and delivers it to the hydraulic power transmission through the filter 40, the check valve 41, the supply hydroline 24, the check valves 25, 26 and then through the main hydroline 5, 6 in the working chamber of the main pump 1 and the hydraulic motors 7, 8. After filling the above-mentioned hose pressure of the working fluid pumped auxiliary pump 34 increases to the amount at which has a retaining valve 29, and then the working fluid from the supply hydroline 24 through the changeover valve 30, which at that time in the middle position, and through the retaining valve 29 enters cavity cooling hydraulic motors 7, 8 and the main pump 1, whence it through the heat exchanger 31, the drain hydroline 17 and the check valve 18 is directed into the tank 9, where it passes through the deaerator 19. As the filling of the tank 9 by the liquid level rises. And because the tank 9 is sealed, then the increase in its level of working fluid is compressed in the tank of air. Compressed air acting on the working fluid in the hydraulic tank 9 as the source of the pressure on it causes the working fluid to flow by suction hydroline 20 through the valve 21 and the filter 22 into the cavity of the suction feed pump 2. Thus the pressure of air compressed in the tank 9 when entering his working fluid is limited by the relief valve 15. After the level of the working liquid is in the tank 9 while it is being filled reaches the maximum value, from the sensor 45 is supplied with the electric signal to the switch 44, ramakaeva electrical means. It is breaking the electric circuit 42 and the electric motor 35 stops automatically, stopping to cause the rotation of the shaft Autonomous pump 34 to prevent overflow of the tank 9. When this electrical signal from the sensor 54 minimum allowable liquid level in the tank is supplied to the switch 53, located in the electric circuit 49 starter 50, and the circuit of this switch. Now after filling the hydraulic system hydrostatic transmissions of the working fluid can switch 51 by pressing the appropriate button to activate the starter 50 to start the engine 3. The engine 3 after its start causes the rotation shaft of the compressor pneumatic system of the machine that fills with compressed air receivers. From the pneumatic system of the machine cleaned it and dried compressed air through the valve 10, valve 11, the strainer 12 and the controller 14 of the pressure of the compressed air enters the air chamber of the tank 9, while it increased the pressure.

When working hydrostatic transmission motor 3 rotates the drive shafts of the main pump 1 and a charging pump 2, which serves for feeding the working fluid under pressure cavity suction N. the Sosa 1 avoid cavitation. When the shaft of the main pump 1 working liquid under high pressure, for example, the trunk hydroline 5, which in this case is the pressure, is supplied to the hydraulic motors 7, 8 of the drive wheels of the vehicle. From the hydraulic working fluid under low pressure, supported charging pump 2 takes on another trunk hydroline 6, which in this case is returnable. As the pressure in the pressure hydroline considerably more pressure in the return of hydroline, the valve rocker valve 30 under the action of the pressure in the main hose 5, 6 is moved in such extreme position in which the entrance to the retaining valve 29 communicates with hydroline 6 low pressure. Then the working fluid leaving from the motors in reverse hydroline 6 passes through the rocker and booster valves 30, 29 in the cavity of the cooling units, and from them through the heat exchanger 31 in the drain hydroline 17. From the drain hydroline 17 working fluid returns to the tank 9 through the check valve 18 and tank 19. In the deaerator formed foam rises up in the air cavity of the tank, and the products of wear of the units down in a glass tank. From the tank 9, the working fluid under pressure compressed air enters through the open shut-off valve 21 and iltr 22 to the suction hydroline 20 into the cavity of the suction feed pump 2. Then from the pump 2 through the feeding hydroline 24 and the check valve 26, the working fluid is delivered under pressure to the main hydroline 6, by which it passes into the cavity of the suction of the main pump 1.

Before turning hydrostatic transmissions after Parking the machine first set of locking element 37 of the valve 36 in the position in which the cavity suction Autonomous pump 34 is connected to the tank 9 through the suction hydroline 20. When installing the locking element 37 in the specified position of the electrical signal from the sensor, its position is supplied to the switch 48 to the circuit and thereby to prepare an electrical circuit 42 to the switching of the electric motor 35 at any level of the liquid in the tank 9. Then, closing force switch 43, the motor 35 runs in stand-alone pump 34 which pumps the working fluid tank 9 in the main hydroline 5, 6, and further to the units of transmission, that is, to the pump 1 and the hydraulic motors 7, 8. After pumping the working fluid through the hydraulic drive system of the Autonomous pump 34 is disconnected by switch 43 and the engine 3 cars start in work hydrostatic transmission.

If necessary, dismantling of the tank 9, for example for cleaning or replacement, disconnect the air cavity of the valve 10 is t pneumatic system of the machine and connect it with the atmosphere, moving force closing element of the vacuum valve 16. In addition, shut-off valve 21 overlap the suction hydroline 21. Then open the drain plug in the bottom of the tank to drain out of him working fluid. After that, the tank can be removed from the machine after disconnecting the piping. After installing a new hydraulic tank shut-off valve 21 unlock the suction hydroline 20 and using stand-alone pump 34 from outside the tank through the filling device 39, selecting the proper position of the closing element 37 of the valve 36, to produce the filling of the tank with fluid, directing it through the whole hydrostatic transmission to eliminate the possibility of voids. After filling the tank with fluid up to the maximum level of the drive offline pump 34 is turned off automatically. After that, the air cavity of the reservoir connecting valve 10 with the pneumatic system of the machine, providing increased air pressure in the tank to prevent it from the atmosphere untreated air. Hydrostatic transmission is again ready for operation.

Created hydrostatic transmission transport vehicle containing a pumping station, consisting of a main and charging pumps, hydraulic motors associated with the main pump main hose forming the circus is air hydraulic circuit, sealed tank with the specified device filling its air cavity is well cleaned from dust and moisture with compressed air from the pneumatic system of the machine, stand-alone pump with electric drive and a two-position valve for connecting cavity of the first suction device for filling the tank with fluid and then with the tank for pumping the hydraulic circuit of the working fluid before you start hydrostatic transmissions in work has increased reliability due to an exception during the filling of the working fluid and in the time it hit the tank dust and other foreign particles that can damage hydraulic units, with eased herself refill hydraulic tank and the entire hydraulic system the working fluid, which simplifies maintenance of the transmission.

1. Hydrostatic transmission transport vehicle containing a pumping station, consisting of a main and a charging pump having a motor-driven machine, the hydraulic motors associated with pump stations trunk hose, forming a circulating hydraulic circuit, self-contained pump with an electric drive, the cavity of the discharge of which is connected with the hydraulic circuit formed of the trunk hose, characterized in that it is equipped with a seal technics is the first tank to the filling of cavities with compressed air from the pneumatic system of the machine, containing a shut-off valve, pressure regulator compressed air in a sealed tank with safety valve and vacuum valve with manual control for release of compressed air from a pressurized tank, a two-position valve with manual control to toggle between hydraulic connection suction cavities Autonomous pump with electric drive, with a sealed tank and the device it is charging the working fluid, a check valve located in the drain hydroline at the entrance to the sealed hydraulic reservoir shut-off valve with manual control located in the suction hydroline at the outlet of the pressurized tank.

2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that it is equipped with a position sensor locking element mentioned shut-off valve, the managing switch located in the electrical circuit of the electric motor drive the Autonomous pump, and a switch located in the electrical circuit of the starter of the engine.

3. Transmission according to claim 2, characterized in that the electric circuit of the starter motor in series with a switch operated manually, and a switch controlled by the position sensor locking element mentioned shut-off valve is a switch controlled by a sensor minimum acceptable level LM working the bones in a sealed tank.

4. Transmission according to claim 2, characterized in that the electric circuit of the motor drive offline pump in series with a switch operated manually, and a switch controlled by the position sensor locking element mentioned shut-off valve is a switch controlled by the sensor maximum permissible level of fluid in the pressurized tank.

5. Transmission according to claim 4, characterized in that parallel to the switch controlled by the sensor maximum permissible level of a liquid in a sealed tank, there is a switch controlled by the position sensor shut-off element mentioned two-position valve, which connects the cavity of the suction Autonomous pump alternating pressure tank and with the device it is charging the working fluid.



 

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3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.

1 dwg

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